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Linked (Open) Data

  1. 1. Linked  (Open)  Data   VU  Web  Engineering  /  TU  Wien   May  27th  2013     -­‐  Bernhard  Haslhofer  -­‐    
  2. 2. About  me   •  Since  03/2013  Postdoc  @  University  of  Vienna   •  Previously   –  Lecturer  &  Postdoc  @  Cornell  University,  NY,  USA   –  Univ.  Ass  @  University  of  Vienna   –  …   –  WINF  TU  Wien  2003,  INF  TU  Wien  2006   2
  3. 3. About  me   •  Research  Interests   – Web  informaZon  systems   – Globally  connected,  Web-­‐based  data  networks   •  Structured  Web  Data  (Linked  Data,  schema.org,   (FB)  Open  Graph  Protocol,  etc.)   •  Knowledge  Graphs  (e.g.,  DBpedia,  Freebase)   •  AnnotaZons  /  SemanZc  Tagging   •  Quality  in  Open  Data  Networks   •  ….   3
  4. 4. My  teaching  philosophy   •  A  course  is  a  collaboraZve   experience   •  Instructor  provides   –  Structure   –  FoundaZon  for  learning   •  Students   –  Engage,  contribute,   challenge   –  Ask  quesZons!   –  Think  criZcally!   –  Disagree  if  appropriate!   4 Aren’t we beyond that?
  5. 5. My  plan  for  today…   •  Linked  (Open)  Data  ???     •  Linked  Data  –  Intro  &  Overview     •  Linked  Data  -­‐  Technologies   •  Recent  Trends  and  Developments   •  QuesZons  /  Discussion   5
  6. 6. Open  Data     “Open  data  is  data  that  can   be  freely  used,  reused  and   redistributed  by  anyone  -­‐   subject  only,  at  most,  to  the   requirement  to  a:ribute  and   sharealike.”     (Open  Data  Handbook,  2012,   Open  Knowledge  FoundaZon)   6
  7. 7. “Open”  Data  DefiniZon   •  Availability  and  Access   –  Data  must  be  available  as  a  whole  and  at  no  more  than  a  reasonable   reproducZon  cost,  preferably  by  downloading  over  the  internet   –  Data  must  also  be  available  in  a  convenient  and  modifiable  form   •  Reuse  and  RedistribuZon   –  Data  must  be  provided  under  terms  that  permit  reuse  and   redistribuZon  including  the  intermixing  with  other  datasets.   •  Universal  ParZcipaZon   –  Everyone  must  be  able  to  use,  reuse  and  redistribute  (no   discriminaZon)   –  No  ‘non-­‐commercial’  restricZons   (hip://opendefiniZon.org/okd/)     7
  8. 8. Open  Data  Movement   8 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamescridland/613445810/sizes/l/in/photo
  9. 9. QuesZons   •  Why  should  the  open  data  principles  sound   familiar  to  sokware  engineers?   •  Any  known  “open  data”  examples?   9
  10. 10. Open  Government  Data  Examples   10
  11. 11. Open  Government  Data  Examples   11
  12. 12. Open  Government  Data  Examples   12
  13. 13. Open  Government  Data  Examples   13
  14. 14. Open  Government  Data  Apps   14
  15. 15. Open  (Government)  Data  Apps   15
  16. 16. Open  Government  Data  in  Journalism   16
  17. 17. (Open)  Data  Journalism   17
  18. 18. Open  Data  in  Science   18
  19. 19. Open  Data  in  Science   19
  20. 20. Linked  Data     “A  method  of  publishing  structured  data  so   that  it  can  be  interlinked  and  become  more   useful.     It  builds  upon  standard  Web  technologies   such  as  HTTP,  RDF  and  URIs,  but  rather   than  using  them  to  serve  web  pages  for   human  readers,  it  extends  them  to  share   informaLon  in  a  way  that  can  be  read   automaLcally  by  computers.     This  enables  data  from  different  sources  to   be  connected  and  queried”     [Bizer,  Heath,  Berners-­‐Lee  2009]   20
  21. 21. Linked  Open  Data   21 Open Data + Linked Data = Linked Open Data
  22. 22. My  plan  for  today…   •  Linked  (Open)  Data  ???   •  Linked  Data  –  Intro  &  Overview     •  Linked  Data  -­‐  Technologies   •  Recent  Trends  and  Developments   •  QuesZons  /  Discussion   22
  23. 23. Linked  Data  context...   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Cb3ik6zP2I
  24. 24. Why  Linked  Data?  
  25. 25. Why  Linked  Data?  
  26. 26. Why  Linked  Data?  
  27. 27. Web  Architecture  
  28. 28. Web  Architecture   •  A  set  of  simple  standards   – Uniform  global  addressing  (URI)   – Uniform  document  encoding  (HTML)   – Uniform  transportaZon  (HTTP)   •  Hyperlinks  connecZng  documents   •  Works  preiy  well  for  accessing  and  exchanging   documents    
  29. 29. But  someZmes  we  need  to  access  the   underlying  structured  data.  
  30. 30. Web  Services  and  Web  APIs   Source: http://www.blogperfume.com/new-27-circular-social-media-icons-in-3-sizes/
  31. 31. Web  Services  and  Web  APIs   •  Each  Web  API  has  a  proprietary  interface   •  Datasources  must  be  known  in  advance   •  InformaZon  enZZes  (papers,  authors,   subjects,  etc.)  are  oken  not  linked  
  32. 32. 32 Social Networking Sites as Walled Gardens by David Simonds
  33. 33. Linked  Data  Vision   •  Publish  and  link  structured  data  on  the  Web   •  Create  a  single  globally  connected  data  space   based  on  the  Web  Architecture  
  34. 34. Web  of  Linked  Data   •  A  set  of  simple  standards   – Uniform  global  addressing  (URI)   – Uniform  data  model  (RDF)   – Uniform  transportaZon  (HTTP)   •  RDF  links  connecZng  enZZes   •  Forms  a  global  data  space  and  facilitates  accessing   and  exchanging  data    
  35. 35. What  is  Linked  Data?   •  A  method  to  build  a  Web  of  Data   •  Architectural  style,  set  of  standards  
  36. 36. Linking  Open  Data  Project   •  A  W3C  community  project  with  the  goal  to  extend  the  Web  with   a  data  commons  by  publishing  various  open  data  sets  as  RDF  on   the  Web  and  by  serng  links  between  data  items  from  different   sources  
  37. 37. ~$ curl -I -H "Accept: text/turtle" http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Shining_(film) ~$ curl -H "Accept: text/turtle" http://dbpedia.org/data/The_Shining_(film).ttl ~$ sudo apt-get install raptor (Linux) ~$ brew install raptor (Mac OSX) ~$ rapper http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Shining_(film)
  38. 38. My  plan  for  today…   •  Linked  (Open)  Data  ???   •  Linked  Data  –  Intro  &  Overview     •  Linked  Data  -­‐  Technologies   •  Recent  Trends  and  Developments   •  QuesZons  /  Discussion   50
  39. 39. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   •  Key  Architectural  Web  Components   – IdenZficaZon:  URI   – InteracZon:  HTTP   – Standardized  Document  Formats:  HTML,  XML,   JSON,  etc.   51
  40. 40. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   •  URIs  idenZfy  interesZng  things   – documents  on  the  Web   – relevant  aspects  of  a  data  set   – phone  numbers,  Skype  usernames,  e-­‐mail   addresses   •  HTTP  URIs  name  and  address  resources  in   Web-­‐based  systems   52
  41. 41. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   •  A  resource  can  have   several  representaZons   •  RepresentaZons  can  be   in  any  format   –  HTML   –  XML   –  JSON   –  …   URI Resource Representation Plain Text text/plain http://example.com/someURI Representation HTML text/html Representation JSON text/json 53
  42. 42. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   •  We  deal  with  resource  representaZons   –  not  the  resources  themselves  (pass  by  value)   –  representaZons  can  be  in  any  format  (defined  by  media-­‐type)   •  Each  resource  implements  a  standard  uniform  interface  (HTTP)   –  a  small  set  of  verbs  applied  to  a  large  set  of  nouns   –  verbs  are  universal  and  not  invented  on  a  per-­‐applicaZon  basis   Client Server Logical Resources Physical Resources JSON Resource Representations Uniform Interface 54
  43. 43. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   HTML,   XHTML,   ...   XML,   JSON,   ...   Transport and store data Display information 55
  44. 44. Web  /  REST  Basics  -­‐  Recap   •  Example  Web  Service  operaZons:   – Publish  image  on  Flickr   – Order  a  book  at  Amazon   – Post  a  message  on  your  friend’s  Facebook  wall   – Update  user  photo  on  foursquare   Web Application A Application B API 56
  45. 45. RDF   •  A  data  model  for  represenZng  data  on  the  Web   •  Several  statements  (triples)  form  a  graph   http://dbpedia.org/resource/ The_Shining_(film) The Shining (film) rdfs:label 闪灵 (电影) rdfs:label http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ Film rdf:type http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Jack_Nicholson dbpprop:starring http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ Person rdf:type 1937-04-22 Jack Nicholson dbpedia-owl:birthDate foaf:name
  46. 46. RDF/XML,  N3,  Turtle,  etc.   •  Data  formats  for  RDF  resource   representaZons   •  Used  to  transfer  RDF  data  between  apps  
  47. 47. RDFS   •  A  language  for  describing  the  syntax  and   semanZcs  of  schemas/vocabularies  in  a   machine-­‐understandable  way   http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ Film http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ Work rdfs:subClassOf
  48. 48. OWL   •  A  more  expressive  (formal)  language  for  defining  the   syntax  and  semanZcs  of  schemas/vocabularies   •  Solves  RDFS  shortcomings  but  introduces  quite  some   complexity   http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ starring http://www.w3.org/2002/07/ owl#ObjectProperty http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ Person http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ Work starring rdf:type rdfs:range rdfs:domain rdfs:label
  49. 49. SKOS   •  A  language  for  describing  controlled  vocabularies   (taxonomies,  thesauri,  classificaZon  schemes)   http://dbpedia.org/resource/ The_Shining_(film) http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Category:1980s_horror_films http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Category:1980s_films http://www.w3.org/2004/02/ skos/core#Concept dcterms:subject rdf:type skos:broader rdf:type
  50. 50. SPARQL   •  A  query  language  and  protocol  for   accessing  RDF  data  on  the  Web   SELECT DISTINCT ?x! WHERE {! !?x dcterms:subject ! !<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:1980s_horror_films> .! }!
  51. 51. Database  Systems  Analogy...   Purpose   Rela,onal  Database  Management   Systems  (RDBMS)   Linked  Data  Technologies   Query   Schema  DefiniZon   Language   Data   RepresentaZon   IdenZfiers   63 ?
  52. 52. Database  Systems  Analogy...   Purpose   Rela,onal  Database  Management   Systems  (RDBMS)   Linked  Data  Technologies   Query   SQL   SPARQL   Schema  DefiniZon   Language   SQL  DDL   RDFS  /  OWL   Data   RepresentaZon   RelaZonal  Model  /  Tables   RDF  /  Graph   IdenZfiers   Primary  Keys  (numeric  sequences)   URI   64
  53. 53. Publishing  Linked  Data   •  DisZnguish  between  non-­‐informaZon  and   informaZon  resource   •  Sample  non-­‐informaZon  resource   –  hip://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Shining_(film)   •  Sample  informaZon  resource   –  hip://dbpedia.org/page/The_Shining_(film)  -­‐  HTML   –  hip://dbpedia.org/data/The_Shining_(film)  -­‐  RDF  
  54. 54. Publishing  Linked  Data   GET http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Shining_(film) Accept: application/rdf+xml 303 See Other Location: http://dbpedia.org/data/The_Shining_(film) GET http://dbpedia.org/data/The_Shining_(film) Accept: application/rdf+xml 200 OK ... <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <rdf:RDF ...
  55. 55. Publishing  Large  RDF  Datasets   •  Run  a  servlet  that  implements  the  303   publishing  approach   – for  non  informaZon  resources   •  parse  Accept  Header  field   •  Redirect  (303  See  Also)  to  corresponding  informaZon   resource   •  Generate  RDF  SerializaZon  dynamically  from   underlying  data  storage  
  56. 56. My  plan  for  today…   •  Linked  (Open)  Data  ???   •  Linked  Data  –  Intro  &  Overview   •  Linked  Data  -­‐  Technologies   •  Recent  Trends  and  Developments   •  QuesZons  /  Discussion   68
  57. 57. Rich  Snippets  /  Microdata   69
  58. 58. Microdata  (HTML5)   •  A  very  young  HTML  5  proposiZon  that  extends   Microformats  and  addresses  its  shortcomings   •  Items  are  created  within  an  itemscope   •  Every  item  is  assigned  an  arbitrary  number  of   properZes  (itemprop)  and  relaZonships  (itemref)   •  Uses  global  idenZfiers  for  typing  and  naming  items  
  59. 59. Microdata  Example   <div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Person">! ! !<span itemprop="name">Bernhard Haslhofer</span>,! !<span itemprop="nickname">behas</span>. ! !<div !itemprop="address”! ! !itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/PostalAddress">! ! !<span itemprop="streetAddress">301 College Avenue</span>! ! !<span itemprop=”addressLocality">Ithaca</span>! ! !<span itemprop=”addressCountry">United States</span>! !</div>! </div>!
  60. 60. Schema.org  
  61. 61. schema.org  /  Microdata  example   <h1>Pirates of the Carribean: On Stranger Tides (2011)</h1>! Jack Sparrow and Barbossa embark on a quest to find the elusive fountain! of youth, only to discover that Blackbeard and his daughter are after it too.! ! Director: Rob Marshall! Writers: Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, and 7 more credits! Stars: Johnny Depp, Penelope Cruz, Ian McShane! 8/10 stars from 200 users. Reviews: 50.!
  62. 62. schema.org  /  Microdata  example  
  63. 63. schema.org   •  Defines   – a  number  of  types  (e.g,  person),  organized  in  an   inheritance  hierarchy   – a  number  of  properZes  (e.g.,  name)   •  Extension  mechanisms  to  extend  the  schemas   •  OWL  representaZon:   hip://schema.org/docs/schemaorg.owl   •  hip://schema.rdfs.org/index.html   76
  64. 64. Open  Graph  Protocol  
  65. 65. 79
  66. 66. Google  Knowledge  Graph   •  Enables  search  for  things  (people,  places)  that   Google  knows  about   •  Rooted  in  public  sources  such  as  Freebase,   Wikipedia,  CIA  World  Factbook,  etc.   – augmented  to  500M  objects,  3.5B  facts  and   relaZonship   •  Next  generaZon  search  (semanZc  index)   82
  67. 67. 83
  68. 68. 84
  69. 69. 85
  70. 70. 86
  71. 71. 87
  72. 72. Readings   •  Tom  Heath  and  ChrisZan  Bizer  (2011)  Linked  Data:   Evolving  the  Web  into  a  Global  Data  Space  (1st  ediZon).   Synthesis  Lectures  on  the  SemanZc  Web:  Theory  and   Technology,  1:1,  1-­‐136.  Morgan  &  Claypool.   •  Jason  Ronallo:  HTML5  Microdata  and  Schema.org   hip://journal.code4lib.org/arZcles/6400  

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