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- 1. Records of demonstration experiments ········
- 2. S.No. Contents Page No. I. Introduction 1 II. Principle 2 III. Basic Gates 3 IV. OR Gate 4 V. AND Gate 5 VI. NOT Gate 6 VII. NOR Gate 7 VIII. NAND Gate 8 IX. EX-OR Gate 9 X EX-NOR Gate 10 XI Step-Down Transformer 13 XII Step-Up Transformer 14 XIII Construction 15 XIV Theory 16 XV Energy Losses 17 XVI Bibliography 18Samyak Sau
- 3. A gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows somelogical relationship between the input and output voltages.It is a digital circuit which either allows a signal to passthrough as stop, it is called a gate.The logic gates are building blocks at digitalelectronics. They are used in digital electronics to changeon voltage level (input voltage) into another (outputvoltage) according to some logical statement relating them.A logic gate may have one or more inputs, but it has onlyone output. The relationship between the possible values ofinput and output voltage is expressed in the form of a tablecalled truth table or table of combinations.Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all theinput and output possibilities for the logic gate.George Boole in 1980 invented a different kind of algebrabased on binary nature at the logic, this algebra of logiccalled BOOLEAN ALGEBRA. A logical statement can haveonly two values, such as HIGH/LOW, ON/OFF,CLOSED/OPEN, YES/NO, RIGHT/WRONG, TRUE/FALSE,CONDUCTING/NON-CONDUCTING etc. The two values oflogic statements one denoted by the binary number 1 and 0.The binary number 1 is used to denote the high value. Thelogical statements that logic gates follow are called Booleanexpressions. ········
- 4. Any Boolean algebra operation can be associatedwith inputs and outputs represent the statements ofBoolean algebra. Although these circuits may becomplex, they may all be constructed from three basicdevices. We have three different types of logic gates.These are the AND gate, the OR gate and the NOTgate. LOGIC STATES 1 0 HIGH LOW +v Ov ON OFF CLOSE OPEN RIGHT WRONG TRUE FALSE YES NOSamyak Sau
- 5. (a) THE OR GATE is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result. The OR gate has two or more inputs and one output. The logic gate of OR gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below: In Boolean algebra, addition symbol (+) is referred as the OR. The Boolean expression: A+B=Y, indicates Y equals A OR B.(b) THE AND GATE is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result. The AND gate has two or more inputs and one output. The logic gate of AND gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below: In Boolean algebra, multiplication sign (either x or.) is referred as the AND. The Boolean expression: A.B=Y, indicates Y equals A AND B.(c) THE NOT GATE is a device that inverts the inputs. The NOT is a one input and one output. The logic gate of NOT gate with A and Y output is shown below: _ In Boolean algebra, bar symbol ( ) is referred as the NOT. The Boolean expression: Ã =Y, indicates Y equals NOT A. ········
- 6. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE OR GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).Theory and Construction: An OR gate can be realize by the electronic circuit, making use of two diodes D1 andD2 as shown in the figure.Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded and corresponds to the 0 level, andthe positive terminal of the battery (i.e. voltage 5V in the present case) corresponds tolevel 1. The output Y is voltage at C w.r.t. earth.The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit is:a) If switch A & B are open lamp do not glow (A=0, B=0), hence Y=0.b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1Samyak Sau
- 7. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE AND GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), a resistance R.Theory and Construction: An AND gate can be realize by the electronic circuit, making use of two diodes D1and D2 as shown in the figure. The resistance R is connected to the positive terminal of a5V battery permanently.Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded and corresponds to the 0 level, andthe positive terminal of the battery (i.e. voltage 5V in the present case) corresponds tolevel 1. The output Y is voltage at C w.r.t. earth.The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit:a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0) then lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.c) If switch A open & B closed (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 ········
- 8. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NOT GATE CIRCUIT.Components: An ideal n-p-n transistor.Theory and Construction: A NOT gate cannot be realized by using diodes. However an electronic circuit of NOTgate can be realized by making use of a n-p-n transistor as shown in the figure.The base B of the transistor is connected to the input A through a resistance R b and theemitter E is earthed. The collector is connected to 5V battery. The output Y is voltage at Cw.r.t. earth.The following conclusion can be easily drawn from the working of the electrical circuit:a) If switch A is open (i.e. A=0), the lump will glow, hence Y=1.b) If Switch A is closed (i.e. A=1), the lump will not glow, hence Y=0.Truth Table: Input A Output Y 0 1 1 0Samyak Sau
- 9. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NOR GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), an ideal n-p-n transistor.Theory and Construction: If we connect the output Y’ of OR gate to the input of a NOT gate the gate obtainedis called NOR.The output Y is voltage at C w.r.t. earth.In Boolean expression, the NOR gate is expressed as Y=A+B, and is being read as ‘A OR Bnegated’. The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electricalcircuit is:a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.c) If Switch A open & B close (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 ········
- 10. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NAND GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), a resistance R, an ideal n-p-n transistor.Theory and Construction: If we connect the output Y’ of AND gate to the input of a NOT gate the gate obtainedis called NAND.The output Y is voltage at C w.r.t. earth.In Boolean expression, the NAND gate is expressed as Y=A.B, and is being read as ‘A AND Bnegated’. The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electricalcircuit:a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0Samyak Sau
- 11. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE EX OR GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two AND gate, an OR gate, two NOT gate.Theory and Construction: The operation EXOR checks for the exclusivity in the value of the two signals A andB. It means if A and B are not identical (i.e. if A=0 and B=1 or vice versa), the output Y=1,and if both are identical, then the output Y=0. This operation is also called exclusive ORgate, designated EXOR.In Boolean expression, the EX OR gate is expressed as Y=A.B + A.B =The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit:a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0) then lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0) Lamp glow, hence Y=1.d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1) Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 ········
- 12. Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE EX NOR GATE CIRCUIT.Components: Two AND gate, an OR gate, three NOT gate.Theory and Construction: The operation EXNOR checks for the exclusivity in the value of the two signals A andB. It means if A and B are not identical (i.e. if A=0 and B=1 or vice versa), the output Y=0,and if both are identical, then the output Y=1. This operation is also called exclusive NORgate, designated EXNOR.In Boolean expression, the EX NOR gate is expressed as Y=A.B + A.B =The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit:a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.c) If Switch A open & B close (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.Truth Table: Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1Samyak Sau
- 13. The transformer is a device used for convertinga low alternating voltage to a high alternatingvoltage or a high alternating voltage into a lowalternating voltage. ········
- 14. It is based on the principle of mutual induction thatis if a varying current is set-up in a circuit inducede.m.f. is produced in the neighbouring circuit. Thevarying current in a circuit produce varyingmagnetic flux which induces e.m.f. in theneighbouring circuit.Samyak Sau
- 15. In this step-down transformer is used:This transformer converts high voltage at alternating current into lowvoltage alternating current. In step-down transformer the number ofturns in primary coil remains large as compare to secondary coil. ········
- 16. In this step-up transformer is used:This transformer converts low voltage at alternating current into highvoltage alternating current. In step-up transformer the number ofturns in secondary coil remains large as compare to primary coil.Samyak Sau
- 17. The transformer consists of two coils. They are insulatedwith each other by insulated material and wound on acommon core. For operation at low frequency, we may havea soft iron. The soft iron core is insulating by joining thiniron strips coated with varnish to insulate them to reduceenergy losses by eddy currents.The input circuit is called primary. And the output circuit iscalled secondary. ········
- 18. Suppose, the number of turns in the primary coil is NP andthat in the secondary coil is NS. The resistance of the coil isassumed to be zero. Let dq /dt be the rate of change of fluxin each turn of the primary coil. If Ep be the e.m.f. in theprimary circuit then. EP = –NP (1)We suppose that there is no loss of flux between theprimary and secondary coils. Then, the induced e.m.f. in thesecondary coil will be: ES = –NS (2) From equations (i) and (ii), we find: Ns/Np = K is called transformer ratio or turn ratio.For step up transformer K > 1For step down transformer K < 1That is for step-up transformer NS > NP, therefore ES>EP.For the step down transformer NS < NP therefore ES < EP.Efficiency: The efficiency of the transformer is given by:If Ip and Is be the currents in the primary and secondarycircuits. For ideal transformer = 1 = 100%. Therefore ES|IS = EP|IPTherefore, for step up, transformer current in thesecondary is less than in the primary (IS < IP). And in a stepdown transformer we have IS > IP.Samyak Sau
- 19. In practice, the output energy of a transformer is always lessthan the input energy, because energy losses occur due to anumber of reasons as explained below. 1. Loss of Magnetic Flux: The coupling between the coils is seldom perfect. So, whole of the magnetic flux produced by the primary coil is not linked up with the secondary coil. 2. 3. Iron Loss: In actual iron cores in spite of lamination, Eddy currents are produced. The magnitude of eddy current may, however be small. And a part of energy is lost as the heat produced in the iron core. 4.3. Copper Loss: In practice, the coils of the transformerpossess resistance. So a part of the energy is lost due to theheat produced in the resistance of the coil. 5. Hysteresis Loss: The alternating current in the coil tapes the iron core through complete cycle of magnetization. So Energy is lost due to hysteresis. 6.5. Magneto restriction: The alternating current in theTransformer may be set its parts in to vibrations and soundmay be produced. It is called humming. Thus, a part ofenergy may be lost due to humming. ········
- 20. Encarta Encyclopaedia. Britannica Encyclopaedia. www.wikipedia.com. www.answers.com. www.google.co.in.Samyak Sau
- 21. ········

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