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Pilot plant design for tablets and capsules


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Pilot plant design for tablets and capsules

  1. 1. CONTENTS Introduction Objectives of the Pilot Plant Reasons for pilot plant Significance of pilot plant Importance of the Pilot Plant Pilot plant design for tablets Pilot plant scale-up techniques for capsules References
  2. 2. Introduction What is Pilot plant : “Defined as a part of the pharmaceutical industry where a lab scale formula is transformed into a viable product by the development of liable practical procedure for manufacture.” R & D Production Pilot Plant Scale-up : “The art of designing of prototype using the data obtained from the pilot plant model.”
  3. 3. Objectives of Pilot Plant “Find mistakes on small scale and make profit on large scale.” To produce physically and chemically stable therapeutic dosage forms. Review of the processing equipment. Guidelines for productions and process control. Evaluation and validation. To identify the critical features of the process. To provide master manufacturing formula.
  4. 4. REASONS FOR BUILDING A PILOT PLANT • To evaluate on process of large change in scale up operation. • To find and examine all by-products or waste . • To produce a trail lot of quantities of material. • Clinical studies ,analytical development ,process development, stability testing.
  5. 5. SIGNIFICANCE OF PILOT PLANT • Examination of formulae. • Review of range of relevant processing equipments. • production rate adjustment. • Idea about physical space required. • Appropriate records and reports to support GMP. • Identification of critical features to maintain quality.
  6. 6. Importance of Pilot Plant Examination of formulae. Review of range of relevant processing equipments. The specification of the raw materials. Production rates. The physical space required. Appropriate records and reports to support GMP.
  7. 7. Pilot Plant design for Tablets The primary responsibility of the pilot plant staff is to ensure that the newly formulated tablets developed by product development personnel will prove to be efficiently, economically, and consistently reproducible on a production scale. The design and construction of the pharmaceutical pilot plant for tablet development should incorporate features necessary to facilitate maintenance and cleanliness. If possible, it should be located on the ground floor to expedite the delivery and shipment of supplies.
  8. 8. Extraneous and microbiological contamination mmuusstt bbee gguuaarrddeedd aaggaaiinnsstt bbyy iinnccoorrppoorraattiinngg tthhee ffoolllloowwiinngg ffeeaattuurreess iinn tthhee ppiilloott ppllaanntt ddeessiiggnn:: 11..FFlluuoorreesscceenntt lliigghhttiinngg ffiixxttuurreess sshhoouulldd bbee tthhee cceeiilliinngg fflluusshh ttyyppee.. 22..TThhee vvaarriioouuss ooppeerraattiinngg aarreeaass sshhoouulldd hhaavvee fflloooorr ddrraaiinnss ttoo ssiimmpplliiffyy cclleeaanniinngg.. 33..TThhee aarreeaa sshhoouulldd bbee aaiirr--ccoonnddiittiioonneedd aanndd hhuummiiddiittyy ccoonnttrroolllleedd.. 44..HHiigghh --ddeennssiittyy ccoonnccrreettee fflloooorrss sshhoouulldd bbee iinnssttaalllleedd.. 55..TThhee wwaallllss iinn tthhee pprroocceessssiinngg aanndd ppaacckkaaggiinngg aarreeaass sshhoouulldd bbee eennaammeell cceemmeenntt ffiinniisshh oonn ccoonnccrreettee.. 66..EEqquuiippmmeenntt iinn tthhee pphhaarrmmaacceeuuttiiccaall ppiilloott ppllaanntt sshhoouulldd bbee ssiimmiillaarr ttoo tthhaatt uusseedd bbyy pprroodduuccttiioonn ddiivviissiioonn-- mmaannuuffaaccttuurree ooff ttaabblleettss..
  9. 9. Material handling system In the laboratory, materials are simply scooped or poured by hand, but in intermediate- or large-scale operations, handling of this materials often become necessary. If a system is used to transfer materials for more than one product steps must be taken to prevent cross contamination. Any material handling system must deliver the accurate amount of the ingredient to the destination. The type of system selected also depends on the characteristics of the materials. More sophisticated methods of handling materials such as vacuum loading systems, metering pumps, screw feed system.
  10. 10. Vacuum loading machine
  11. 11. Dry Blending Powders to be used for encapsulation or to be granulated must be well blended to ensure good drug distribution. Inadequate blending at this stage could result in discrete portion of the batch being either high or low in potency. Steps should also be taken to ensure that all the ingredients are free of lumps and agglomerates. For these reasons, screening and/or milling of the ingredients usually makes the process more reliable and reproducible.
  12. 12. The equipment used for blending are: V- blender Double cone blender Ribbon blender Slant cone blender Bin blender Orbiting screw blenders vertical and horizontal high intensity mixers. SCALE UP CONSIDERATIONS  Time of blending . Blender loading. Size of blender.
  13. 13. V – cone blender Double cone blender
  14. 14. Ribbon blender
  15. 15. Granulation The most common reasons given to justify granulating are: 1.To impart good flow properties to the material, 2.To increase the apparent density of the powders, 3.To change the particle size distribution, 4.Uniform dispersion of active ingredient. Traditionally, wet granulation has been carried out using, Sigma blade mixer, Heavy-duty planetary mixer.
  16. 16. Binders: Used in tablet formulations to make powders more compressible and to produce tablets that are more resistant to breakage during handling. In some instances the binding agent imparts viscosity to the granulating solution so that transfer of fluid becomes difficult. This problem can be overcome by adding some or all binding agents in the dry powder prior to granulation.
  17. 17. Some granulation, when prepared in production sized equipment, take on a dough-like consistency and may have to be subdivided to a more granular and porous mass to facilitate drying. This can be accomplished by passing the wet mass through an oscillating type granulator with a suitably large screen or a hammer mill with either a suitably large screen or no screen at all.
  18. 18. Drying The most common conventional method of drying a granulation continues to be the circulating hot air oven, which is heated by either steam or electricity. The important factor to consider as part of scale-up of an oven drying operation are airflow, air temperature, and the depth of the granulation on the trays. If the granulation bed is too deep or too dense, the drying process will be inefficient, and if soluble dyes are involved, migration of the dye to the surface of the granules. Drying times at specified temperatures and airflow rates must be established for each product, and for each particular oven load.
  19. 19. Fluidized bed dryers are an attractive alternative to the circulating hot air ovens. The important factor considered as part of scale up fluidized bed dryer are optimum loads, rate of airflow, inlet air temperature and humidity.
  20. 20. Reduction of Particle size Compression factors that may be affected by the particle size distribution are flowability, compressibility, uniformity of tablet weight, content uniformity, tablet hardness, and tablet color uniformity. First step in this process is to determine the particle size distribution of granulation using a series of “stacked” sieves of decreasing mesh openings. Particle size reduction of the dried granulation of production size batches can be carried out by passing all the material through an oscillating granulator, a hammer mill, a mechanical sieving device, or in some cases, a screening device.
  21. 21. Oscillating type granulator Hammer mill
  22. 22. Blending Type of blending equipment often differs from that using in laboratory. In any blending operation, both segregation and mixing occur simultaneously are a function of particle size, shape, hardness, and density, and of the dynamics of the mixing action. Particle abrasion is more likely to occur when high-shear mixers with spiral screws or blades are used. When a low dose active ingredient is to be blended it may be sandwiched between two portions of directly compressible excipients to avoid loss to the surface of the blender.
  23. 23. Equipments used for mixing Sigma blade mixer. Planetary mixer. Twin shell blender. High shear mixer
  24. 24. Slugging (Dry Granulation) A dry powder blend that cannot be directly compressed because of poor flow or compression properties. This is done on a tablet press designed for slugging, which operates at pressures of about 15 tons, compared with a normal tablet press, which operates at pressure of 4 tons or less. Slugs range in diameter from 1 inch, for the more easily slugged material, to ¾ inch in diameter for materials that are more difficult to compress and require more pressure per unit area to yield satisfactory compacts. If an excessive amount of fine powder is generated during the milling operation the material must be screened & fines recycled through the slugging operation.
  25. 25. Dry Compaction Granulation by dry compaction can also be achieved by passing powders between two rollers that compact the material at pressure of up to 10 tons per linear inch. Materials of very low density require roller compaction to achieve a bulk density sufficient to allow encapsulation or compression. One of the best examples of this process is the densification of aluminum hydroxide. Pilot plant personnel should determine whether the final drug blend or the active ingredient could be more efficiently processed in this manner than by conventional processing in order to produce a granulation with the required tabletting or encapsulation properties.
  26. 26. Compression The ultimate test of a tablet formulation and granulation process is whether the granulation can be compressed on a high-speed tablet press. During compression, the tablet press performs the following functions: 1.Filling of empty die cavity with granulation. 2.Precompression of granulation (optional). 3.Compression of granules. 4.Ejection of the tablet from the die cavity and take-off of compressed tablet.
  27. 27. When evaluating the compression characteristics of a particular formulation, prolonged trial runs at press speeds equal to that to be used in normal production should be tried. Only then are potential problems such as sticking to the punch surface, tablet hardness, capping, and weight variation detected. High-speed tablet compression depends on the ability of the press to interact with granulation. Following are the parameters to be considered while choosing speed of press. 1.Granulation feed rate. 2.Delivery system should not change the particle size distribution. 3.System should not cause segregation of coarse and fine particles, nor it should induce static charges.
  28. 28. The die feed system must be able to fill the die cavities adequately in the short period of time that the die is passing under the feed frame. The smaller the tablet , the more difficult it is to get a uniform fill a high press speeds. For high-speed machines, induced die feed systems is necessary. These are available with a variety of feed paddles and with variable speed capabilities. So that optimum feed for every granulation can be obtained.
  29. 29. After the die cavities are filled ,the excess is removed by the feed frame to the center of the die table. Compression of the granulation usually occurs as a single event as the heads of the punches pass over the lower and under the upper pressure rollers. This cause the punches to the penetrate the die to a preset depth, compacting the granulation to the thickness of the gap set between the punches. The rapidity and dwell time in between this press event occurs is determined by the speed at which the press is rotating and by the size of compression rollers. Larger the compressions roller, the more gradually compression force is applied and released.
  30. 30. Pilot Plant scale-up techniques for Capsule Capsules are solid dosage forms in which the drug substance is enclosed in either a hard or soft soluble container or shell of a suitable form of gelatin. Steps in capsule production 1.Mixing of ingredient 2.Granulation and lubrication 3.Making of capsules 4.Filling of capsules 5.Uniformity testing 6.Packing and labeling
  31. 31. The manufacturing process for capsulated products often same to that tablets. Both tablets & capsules are produced from ingredients that may be either dry blended or wet granulated to produce a dry powder or granule mix with uniformly dispersed active ingredients. To produce capsules on high speed equipment ,the powder blend must have the uniform particle size distribution, bulk density & compressibility required to promote good flow properties & result in the formation of compact of the right size and sufficient cohesiveness to be filled in to capsule shells.
  32. 32. Manufacture of Hard Gelatin Capsules 1. Shell composition : Gelatin :  Prepared by the hydrolysis of collagen.  Gelatin in its chemical and physical properties, depending upon the source of the collagen and extraction.  There are two basic types of gelatin: Type – A and Type – B.  The two types can be differentiated by their isoelectric points (7.0 – 9.0 for type A and 4.8 – 5.0 for type B) and by their viscosity and film forming characteristics.
  33. 33. Combination of pork skin and bone gelatin are often used to optimize shell characteristics. The physicochemical properties of gelatin of most interest to shell manufactures are the bloom strength and viscosity. Colorants : Various soluble synthetic dyes (“coal tar dyes”) and insoluble pigments are used. Not only play a role in identifying the product, but also may play a role in improving patient compliance. E.g., white, analgesia; lavender, hallucinogenic effects; orange or yellow, stimulants and antidepressants.
  34. 34. Opaquing agents : Titanium dioxide may be included to render the shell opaque. Opaque capsules may be employed to provide protection against light or to conceal the contents. Preservatives : When preservatives are employed, parabens are often selected.
  35. 35. 2) Shell manufacture :
  36. 36. II.. DDiippppiinngg ::  PPaaiirrss ooff tthhee ssttaaiinnlleessss sstteeeell ppiinnss aarree ddiippppeedd iinnttoo tthhee ddiippppiinngg ssoolluuttiioonn ttoo ssiimmuullttaanneeoouussllyy ffoorrmm tthhee ccaappss aanndd bbooddiieess..  TThhee ppiinnss aarree aatt aammbbiieenntt tteemmppeerraattuurree; wwhheerreeaass tthhee ddiippppiinngg ssoolluuttiioonn iiss mmaaiinnttaaiinneedd aatt aa tteemmppeerraattuurree ooff aabboouutt 550000CC iinn aa hheeaatteedd,, jjaacckkeetteedd ddiippppiinngg ppaann..  TThhee lleennggtthh ooff ttiimmee ttoo ccaasstt tthhee ffiillmm hhaass bbeeeenn rreeppoorrtteedd ttoo bbee aabboouutt 1122 sseecc.. IIII.. RRoottaattiioonn ::  AAfftteerr ddiippppiinngg,, ppiinnss aarree eelleevvaatteedd aanndd rroottaatteedd 22--11//22 ttiimmeess uunnttiill tthheeyy aarree ffaacciinngg uuppwwaarrdd..  TThhiiss rroottaattiioonn hheellppss ttoo ddiissttrriibbuuttee tthhee ggeellaattiinn oovveerr tthhee ppiinnss uunniiffoorrmmllyy aanndd ttoo aavvooiidd tthhee ffoorrmmaattiioonn ooff aa bbeeaadd aatt tthhee ccaappssuullee eennddss..
  37. 37. III.Drying :  The racks of gelatin coated pins then pass into a series of four drying oven.  Drying is mainly done by dehumidification.  A temperature elevation of only a less degrees is permissible to prevent film melting.  Under drying will leave the films too sticky for subsequent operation. IV. Stripping :  A series of bronze jaws strip the cap and body portions of the capsules from the pins.
  38. 38. V. Trimming :  The stripped cap and body portions are delivered to collects in which they are firmly held.  As the collects rotate, knives are brought against the shells to trim them to the required length. VI. Joining :  The cap and body portions are aligned concentrically in channels and the two portions are slowly pushed together.
  39. 39. 3) Sorting :  The moisture content of the capsules as they are from the machine will be in the range of 15 – 18% w/w.  During sorting, the capsules passing on a lighted moving conveyor are examined visually by inspectors.  Defects are generally classified according to their nature and potential to cause problems in use. 4) Printing :  In general, capsules are printed before filling.  Generally, printing is done on offset rotary presses having throughput capabilities as high as three-quarter million capsules per hour.
  40. 40. SSiizzee VVoolluummee FFiillll wweeiigghhtt((gg)) aatt 00..88 gg//ccmm33 ppoowwddeerr ddeennssiittyy 000000 11..3377 11..009966 0000 00..9955 00..776600 00 00..6688 00..554444 11 00..5500 00..440000 22 00..3377 00..229966 33 00..3300 00..224400 44 00..2211 00..116688 55)) SSiizzeess aanndd sshhaappeess ::  FFoorr hhuummaann uussee,, eemmppttyy ggeellaattiinn ccaappssuulleess aarree mmaannuuffaaccttuurreedd iinn eeiigghhtt ssiizzeess,, rraannggiinngg ffrroomm 000000 ttoo 55..  CCaappssuullee ccaappaacciittiieess iinn ttaabbllee::
  41. 41. Three larger size are available for veterinary use: 10, 11, and 12 having capacities of about 30, 15, and 7.5 g, respectively. The largest size normally acceptable to patient is a No: 0. The standard shape of capsules is traditional, symmetrical bullet shape. Some manufactures have employed distinctive shapes. e.g. Lilly’s pulvule tapers to a bluntly pointed end. Smith Kline Beacham’s spansule capsules taper at both the cap and body ends.
  42. 42. 6) Sealing :  Capsules are sealed and somewhat reshaped in the Etaseal process.  This thermal welding process forms an indented ring around the waist of the capsule where the cap overlaps the body. 7) Storage :  Finished capsules normally contain an equilibrium moisture content of 13-16%.  To maintain a relative humidity of 40-60% when handling and storing capsules.
  43. 43. Filling of hard gelatin capsules Equipment used in capsule filling operations involves one often of two types of filling systems. Zanasi or Martelli encapsulator: Forms slugs in a dosatar which is a hollow tube with a plunger to eject capsule plug. Hofliger-Karg machine: Formation of compacts in a die plate using tamping pins to form a compact.
  45. 45. In this both system, the scale-up process involve bulk density, powder flow, compressibility, and lubricant distribution. Overly lubricated granules are responsible for delaying capsule disintegration and dissolution.
  47. 47. Manufacture of Soft Gelatin Capsules I. Composition of the shell:  Similar to hard gelatin shells, the basic component of soft gelatin shell is gelatin; however, the shell has been plasticized.  The ratio of dry plasticizer to dry gelatin determines the “hardness” of the shell and can vary from 0.3-1.0 for very hard shell to 1.0-1.8 for very soft shell.  Up to 5% sugar may be included to give a “chewable” quality to the shell.  The residual shell moisture content of finished capsules will be in the range of 6-10%.
  48. 48. IIII.. FFoorrmmuullaattiioonn ::  FFoorrmmuullaattiioonn ffoorr ssoofftt ggeellaattiinn ccaappssuulleess iinnvvoollvveess lliiqquuiidd,, rraatthheerr tthhaann ppoowwddeerr tteecchhnnoollooggyy..  MMaatteerriiaallss aarree ggeenneerraallllyy ffoorrmmuullaatteedd ttoo pprroodduuccee tthhee ssmmaalllleesstt ppoossssiibbllee ccaappssuullee ccoonnssiisstteenntt wwiitthh mmaaxxiimmuumm ssttaabbiilliittyy,, tthheerraappeeuuttiicc eeffffeeccttiivveenneessss aanndd mmaannuuffaaccttuurree eeffffiicciieennccyy..  TThhee lliiqquuiiddss aarree lliimmiitteedd ttoo tthhoossee tthhaatt ddoo nnoott hhaavvee aann aaddvveerrssee eeffffeecctt oonn ggeellaattiinn wwaallllss..  TThhee ppHH ooff tthhee lliippiidd ccaann bbee bbeettwweeeenn 22..55 aanndd 77..55..  EEmmuullssiioonn ccaann nnoott bbee ffiilllleedd bbeeccaauussee wwaatteerr wwiillll bbee rreelleeaasseedd tthhaatt wwiillll aaffffeecctt tthhee sshheellll..
  49. 49. The types of vehicles used in soft gelatin capsules fall in to two main groups: 1. Water immiscible, volatile or more likely more volatile liquids such as vegetable oils, mineral oils, medium-chain triglycerides and acetylated glycerides. 2. Water miscible, nonvolatile liquids such as low molecular weight PEG have come in to use more recently because of their ability to mix with water readily and accelerate dissolution of dissolved or suspended drugs. All liquids used for filling must flow by gravity at a temperature of 350c or less. The sealing temperature of gelatin films is 37-400C.
  50. 50. III.Manufacture process : A. Plate process : The process involved • Placing the upper half of a plasticized gelatin sheet over a die plate containing numerous die pockets, • Application of vacuum to draw the sheet in to the die pockets, • Filling the pockets with liquor or paste, • Folding the lower half of gelatin sheet back over the filled pockets, and • Inserting the “ sandwich” under a die press where the capsules are formed and cut out.
  51. 51. B. Rotary die press:  In this process, the die cavities are machined in to the outer surface of the two rollers.  The die pockets on the left hand roller form the left side of the capsule and the die pockets on the right hand roller form the right side of the capsule.  Two plasticized gelatin ribbons are continuously and simultaneously fed with the liquid or paste fill between the rollers of the rotary die mechanism.  As the die rolls rotate, the convergence of the matching die pockets seals and cuts out the filled capsules.
  52. 52. C. Accogel process:  In general, this is another rotary process involving • A measuring roll, • A die roll, and • A sealing roll.  As the measuring roll and die rolls rotate, the measured doses are transferred to the gelatin-linked pockets of the die roll.  The continued rotation of the filled die converges with the rotating sealing roll where a second gelatin sheet is applied to form the other half of the capsule.  Pressure developed between the die roll and sealing roll seals and cuts out the capsules.
  53. 53. 4. Bubble method:  The Globex Mark II capsulator produces truly seamless, one-piece soft gelatin capsules by a “bubble method”.
  54. 54.  A concentric tube dispenser simultaneously discharges the molten gelatin from the outer annulus and the liquid content from the tube.  By means of a pulsating pump mechanism, the liquids are discharged from the concentric tube orifice into a chilled-oil column as droplets that consists of a liquid medicament core within a molten gelatin envelop.  The droplets assume a spherical shape under surface tension forces and the gelatin congeals on cooling.  The finished capsules must be degreased and dried.
  55. 55. IV. Soft/Liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules:  Important reason: the standard for liquid filled capsules was inability to prevent leakage from hard gelatin capsules.  As banding and of self-locking hard gelatin capsules, together with the development of high-resting state viscosity fills, has now made liquid/semisolid-filled hard gelatin capsules.  As with soft gelatin capsules, any materials filled into hard capsules must not dissolve, alter or otherwise adversely affect the integrity of the shell.  Generally, the fill material must be pumpable.
  56. 56. Three formulation strategies based on having a high resting viscosity after filling have been described. 1. Thixotropic formulations, 2. Thermal-setting formulations, 3. Mixed thermal-Thixotropic systems. The more lipophilic contents, the slower the release rate. Thus, by selecting excipients with varying HLB balance, varying release rate may be achieved.