<ul><li>Wi-Fi Protected Access </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by  : </li></ul><ul><li>Swadhin Kumar Bohidar   Roll#CS20011701...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Brought by the Wi-Fi Alliance, working in conjunction with the IEEE. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-base...
WPA at a Glance   <ul><li>WPA is a subset of the 802.11i draft standard and will maintain forward compatibility </li></ul>...
WEP at a Glance   <ul><li>Wired Equivalency Privacy, was intended to provide wireless users with the same level of privacy...
WPA: How It Works   <ul><li>WPA’s strength comes from  </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated sequence of operations that encompa...
<ul><li>Authentication : EAP over 802.1X is used for authentication  </li></ul><ul><li>Key management : Keys are generated...
Security mechanisms in WPA   <ul><li>One of WEP’s chief weaknesses was that it used a small static key to initiate encrypt...
Security mechanisms in WPA  (continued…) <ul><li>Together with 802.1X/EAP authentication, TKIP employs a key hierarchy tha...
<ul><li>TKIP encryption, 802.1X/EAP authentication and PSK technology in WPA are features that have been brought forward f...
Is It Perfect? <ul><li>WPA, however, is not without its vulnerabilities.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is susceptible to denial of...
Conclusion <ul><li>As a subset of WPA2, WPA presents users with a solution that is both forward- and backward-compatible w...
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Wi fi protected-access

  1. 1. <ul><li>Wi-Fi Protected Access </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by : </li></ul><ul><li>Swadhin Kumar Bohidar Roll#CS200117017 </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Guidance of </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Rabindra Kumar Shial </li></ul>
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Brought by the Wi-Fi Alliance, working in conjunction with the IEEE. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-based, interoperable security specification </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly increases the level of data protection and access control for existing and future wireless LAN systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. WPA at a Glance <ul><li>WPA is a subset of the 802.11i draft standard and will maintain forward compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>It addresses all known vulnerabilities in WEP to ensure data authenticity on wireless LANs </li></ul><ul><li>It provides an effective deterrent against almost all known attacks. </li></ul>
  4. 4. WEP at a Glance <ul><li>Wired Equivalency Privacy, was intended to provide wireless users with the same level of privacy inherent in wired networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The WEP flaws : </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Initialization Vector (IV) Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Known plaintext attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of Service attacks </li></ul>
  5. 5. WPA: How It Works <ul><li>WPA’s strength comes from </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated sequence of operations that encompass 802.1X/EAP authentication and </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated key management and encryption techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Its major operations include: </li></ul><ul><li>Network security capability determination : This occurs at the 802.11 level and is communicated through WPA information elements in Beacon, Probe Response, and (Re) Association Requests. </li></ul>continued…
  6. 6. <ul><li>Authentication : EAP over 802.1X is used for authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Key management : Keys are generated after successful authentication and through a subsequent 4-way handshake between the station and Access Point . </li></ul><ul><li>Data Privacy (Encryption): TKIP is used to wrap WEP in sophisticated cryptographic and security techniques to overcome most of its weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Data integrity : TKIP includes a message integrity code (MIC) at the end of each plaintext message to ensure messages are not being spoofed. </li></ul>WPA: How It Works (continued…)
  7. 7. Security mechanisms in WPA <ul><li>One of WEP’s chief weaknesses was that it used a small static key to initiate encryption. </li></ul><ul><li>WPA uses a greatly enhanced encryption scheme, Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). </li></ul><ul><li>TKIP increases the size of the key from 40 to 128 bits and replaces WEP’s single static key with keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the authentication server. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Security mechanisms in WPA (continued…) <ul><li>Together with 802.1X/EAP authentication, TKIP employs a key hierarchy that greatly enhances protection. </li></ul><ul><li>It also adds a Message Integrity Check (MIC, sometimes called “Michael”) to protect against packet forgeries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data packets, altering them and resending them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TKIP encryption, 802.1X/EAP authentication and PSK technology in WPA are features that have been brought forward from WPA2. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, WPA2 provides a new, encryption scheme, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). </li></ul><ul><li>AES uses a mathematical ciphering algorithm that employs variable key sizes of 128-, 192- or 256-bits. </li></ul><ul><li>WPA2 offers a highly secure “mixed mode” that supports both WPA and WPA2 client workstations. </li></ul>The Future: WPA2
  10. 10. Is It Perfect? <ul><li>WPA, however, is not without its vulnerabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is susceptible to denial of service (DoS) attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>If the access point receives two data packets that fail the Message Integrity Code (MIC) check within 60 seconds of each other then the network is under an active attack . </li></ul><ul><li>This may just prove that no single security tactic is completely invulnerable. But WPA is a definite step forward in WLAN security. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>As a subset of WPA2, WPA presents users with a solution that is both forward- and backward-compatible with present and future wireless standards. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers enterprise-grade protection and, most importantly, it is available today. </li></ul><ul><li>WPA allows users, whether they are at home or at work, to enjoy all the mobility and flexibility that Wi-Fi wireless computing has to offer, knowing that their data is safely protected beyond the reach of intruders. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THANK YOU

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