Vision for Higher Education in India - Bhakti Sharma
India’s Global Ranking• India does not figure in world top-100 universities. [TOI report, 17.Sept.2011]• The three rankings — Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Academic Ranking of World Universities.
Though the international ranking methodology is erroneous, Indian universities need to be open to international benchmarking. What they lack is a proper management ofinformation system. Also, there needs tobe greater awareness among universities to at least give out accurate information so that it reflects their true academic status.
Purpose of this Vision Project• To focus on the working of the Higher Education system in India.• To unify the work of private and public campuses.• To inspire excellence in the Indian educational work.• To propose a model for an ideal Higher Educational system in India.
For a Knowledge Based SocietyEducation, is perceived to aspire to the followingparameters . Quantity: Education for the masses Quality: To meet the aspirations & perceptions interms of content, delivery, outcome and relevanceFlexibility: To meet the challenges of obsolescenceand change
Issues Access & EquityNo Talented and deserving person be denied access to Education.An elaborate and well designed support scheme for the needy to makeeducation accessible to all would go a long way in meeting The principal of equity In providing skilled manpower needs of our country in an optimum manner Which would give thrust towards the socio-economic development of our country in the shortest possible frame
Quality Assurance For Quality assurance creation of multiple IndependentAccreditation Agencies Autonomy with self – regulation is important for qualityassuranceRelevance The type of education imparted should make the student employable Flexibility in programmes & courses Multiple entry and exit system, provision for lateral entry
Education in IndiaIndian education system largest in Common wealth countries and 2nd largest in the world next to USA. Tremendous Growth since Independence But still The gross enrolment ratio Classes (I-V) (6-11 years) 98.31 % Classes (VI-VIII) (11-14 years) 62.49 % Classes (I-VIII) (6-14 years) 84.91 % Classes (IX-XII) (14-18 years) 38.88 % The drop out rate Classes (I-V) (6-11 years) 31.36 % Classes (I-VIII) (1-14 years) 52.22 % Classes (I-X) (1-16 years) 62.68 % These high drop out rates from both primary and secondary school, combined with low enrolment rates at the higher levels deprive tens of millions of children of their full rights as citizens. Source: Abstract of Selected Educational statistics 2003-04, MHRD, Govt. of India
– Out of approximately 211 million children in the age group 6-14 years on nearly 84.91 % are enrolled in schools.– Net primary school enrolment/attendance only 77% (UNICEF-India-Statistics (2004)– Less than 7 per cent of the children ever pass the 10th standard public examination. (Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020, Planning Commission, 2002)– Only 53 per cent of all habitations have a primary school– On an average, an upper primary school is 3 km away in 22 percent of habitations– More than 50 percent of the girls in the country do not enroll in schools Cont’d…
– When working outside the family, children put in an average of 21 hours of labour per week, at the cost of education – 60 million children are thought to be child labourers – More than 35 million children in the 6-14 age group are out of school – Only 45.8 percent girls complete education in rural areas as compared to 66.3 percent boys. In urban areas, 66.3 percent girls complete education as opposed to 80.3 percent boys – Of the seven lakh rural schools, only one in six have toilets – 35% of our population are still illiterate(The statistical data has been compiled from figures provided by CRY, NGO Global March Against Child Labour,and UNICEF)
Access to Higher Education Only 6-7% of eligible population aged 18-23 years enters the highereducation stream in India, whereas in USA : 89 % Australia: 80 % France: 50 % UK: 43 % China : 10.5% Hong Kong: 18 % Singapore: 21 % In developing countries like Indonasia: 11% Thiland: 19% Brazil : 12%Very large number of our youth in the relevant age group do not have anyaccess to education, let alone quality higher education. Contd…
Educated UnemployedUnemployed in Rural Areas: 57% Unemployed in Urban Areas: 65%Source: ( Employment & Unemployment situation in India, Jan-June2004, NSS, Govt. of India, 2005)- 300 millions unemployed of the total employable age- Only 45 millions have actually registered with employmentexchange- Of all new employment generated Govt. – 1% Orgnised Sector – 2% Unorganised Sector – 97% Source: www.wakeupcall.org (i Watch)- The unemployment rate of Indias graduates are still 17.2%than the overall unemployment rate of 10.1%. (2.5 milliongraduate every year) (Times of India, 22nd June 2005)
UNDP Indicators for DevelopmentA survey of about 200 countries (UNDP) in2005 showed that development of anycountry depends : 20 percent on its Natural resources, 16 percent on its Infrastructure, and 64 percent on its human resourcesand social factors
• Social development of any country presupposes that education should provide trained, qualified manpower in all the sector.• Education thus is the basic ingredient for having healthy and skilled manpower for industrial development• Hence our vision of India-2020 has to be on the belief that human resources are the most important determinant of overall development.• Are we equipped for meeting these requirements and challenges?
Availability of Resources The State Government has already been spending 20-30percent of its revenue budget on education. Central government will have to assist the state government in achieving the goal of Primary and Secondary education. Current spending on education in India is even less then 4 %of GDP. Even with 6% of spending which the Centreconcedes there will not be a modest improvement in the statusof Higher Education Further such resources would be largely used for ensuringequity i.e. - Its priority in elementary and secondaryeducation, and - For providing Access and Equity to poorer section of the society Therefore there is a need to evolve policy through whichPrivate/non- governmental resources is mobilized. HenceEncourage Private Participation in all sectors of educationespecially Higher & Technical education.
• Effective utilization of technology in education• Issues of educational quality, equity, and access among small, rural schools and communities in achieving the strategic goals of – improving learner outcomes and improving the education profession, – Involving of local teachers, – improving the adequacy and continuity of public resources, – mobilizing community support for children and schools, and – emphasizing the transition from school to livelihood, i.e. Vocational education and training
Society-Industry-Academia Relationship: Creating Future Human Capital
• Need for higher level of involvement of the industry since ( formulation of relevance and employable curricula)• Industry Associations to encourage and promote industry to mark their projects, after testing quality aspects, to the academia which can deliver quality at low cost. – Develop a data-base of facilities available in the university/ Institutions of higher learning, industry and R&D institutions. – Involvement of industry in the curriculum development and also implementation of the curriculum. – Faculty exchange and participation in industry and vice- versa in university and specialized institutions.
– Participation of executives who have Ph.D., involve them in research and development both in industry as well as universities.– The industry should utilize the human resource and infrastructure available in the universities for problem solving, testing, certification etc.– Conducting advanced programmes in technical, management and other need-based areas, tackling contemporary issues of mutually beneficial nature.– Setting up a business development cell on partnership.– Promote entrepreneurship in education system.
Establishment of Autonomous EducationalHubs (Center of Excellence) in Various States
• Domestic and Foreign universities/institutions to set up its own educational setup, both independently and /or in collaboration.• With due care to their respective academic strengths, all State universities and other autonomous professional institutions shall take the lead in setting up their campuses.• Competitive environment and overall improvement to take place in the quality of Higher Education.• An innovative step without any fund from Govt. hence left to the Pvt. Sector to ensure that no possible resource gaps hinders its future growth.
A suitable institutional set-up that offers checks andallows guided institutional extensions and growthTotal Operational, Academic and Financial AutonomyCommon students support service, will reduceinvestment of individual institution in creating extrainfrastructure (i.e. common Hostel, playground, centralLibrary, Computer lab, common facilities)Institutions not bound by condition of getting affiliatedto a state university (not bound by territorial jurisdictionnorm, free to seek affiliation anywhere in the country)
• Review of National Education Policy, 1986 which is not in tune and has diluted relevance in conjunction with the current economic and knowledge development scenario in the country also in perspective of global developments such as WTO agreement.• Review of Role and responsibilities of statutory agencies and their inability to establish relevance with the industry and to address the quality issues pertaining to higher education.• Need for higher level of two way communication between the academia and the government in investing in holistic development of relevant Education.• Creation of a conducive and favorable climate/environment, which facilitates and encourages private investment and speedy establishment of Institutions and programmes.
• By establishing private universities, the state will be in a position to provide good quality education with least or no financial assistance from the government• In the government funded universities, the state can promote more self financed courses, and encourage industry-based consultancy and research so that the government funded universities become self sufficient over a period of time• Integration of Higher Education Institutions, by integrating institutions imparting different discipline i.e. Technical, Medical, Arts, Humanities etc into one rather than separately• Student Welfare - Establish Education Development Bank to give soft loans instead of charging low fee from universities and institutions on pre-defined criteria such as, on an understanding that once the students start paying Income Tax or they leave the country, these loans will become payable
Proposed Model HES in India Common Entrance PracticalReservations Tests Applicability
• Uniformity in overall reservation policy implementation across states within the overall percentage decided, the categories and the percentage within may be decided by the states• The institute should have the right to directly admit the students in the general category as well as separately in the reserved category.• The criteria of admission should be fully transparent and strictly based on merit. (some degree of merit within the reserved category also)• (10% leverage in the merit for the reserved category). There merit may be 10% low then the lowest merit of the student admitted from the general category. But it should be mandatory for those students to qualify the minimum passing marks.
• The policy of reservation should be one time and no further reservation to that category any more.• Allow institutions to increase the intake to accommodate more disadvantaged students and also to fill vacant seats in the reservation category.• If sufficient students are not available in the reserved category within the cut off date for admission , the institution should be allowed to fill those seats from other category based on merit and accordingly intimate the concerned authority/regulatory body.
“Active and transparent involvement andrepresentation of all stake-holders nationwide,and integrated on a global basis” Thank you.