• The military dictator Siad Barre ruled the Somali
Democratic Republic from 1969.
• He built his country on Communist principles with
the support of the Soviet Union.
• In 1977 he invaded Ethiopia with the intention of
expanding his territory.
• Unfortunately the Soviet Union started supporting
Ethiopia at the same time.
• Due to this he was forced to take western support
and became suspicious of the ruling class.
• He started persecuting and arresting Government
and Military officials after he faced an attempt to
overthrow his rule in 1978.
• This increased the opposition to his rule. In 1986 he
suffered a serious car accident which further
weakened his government.
• From 1978 to the overthrow of his regime in 1991,
he tried to crush any and every real or imagined
opposition to his regime by going after each clan
which he thought was not loyal to him. This later
became the basic cause of the horrific Somali civil
Aftermath of the Conflict
There was no national government in Somalia for
nearly two decades.
There is a severe lack of capacity in every part of the
country to adequately address problems.
Since 1991, an estimated 3,50,000 to 10,00,000
Somalis had died because of the conflict.
The period 1991-1992 was marked by the most
intense conflict, when the different clan factions
fought for control of land and resources in southern
• The period 1992-1995 was centered on UN and US
interventions. This phase was illuminated by localized
conflicts, specifically around Mogadishu.
• The period 2000-2006 began in with the establishment of
the Transitional National Government (TNG) in Arta,
Djibouti, under the control of the Intergovernmental
Authority on Development (IGAD).
• The period 2006-2011 was marked by the December 2006
intervention by Ethiopian troops, which by January 2007
had effectively dispersed the Islamic courts. In its place,
the militant wing al-Shabaab continued to fight against
the TFG and foreign forces, and by 2008 it had regained
control of much of southern Somalia.
After 2011 Somalia was mostly governed by
autonomous local administrations, the biggest of
which were Puntland, Somaliland.