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  1. 1. Light -B. Prasad Chartered Engineer
  2. 2. Requirement  Required for ease of life  For safety  For beauty  For journey  For business  For production  For medial
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Lighting is an essential service in all the industries, Public place, offices, home etc  Lighting varies between 2 to 10% of the total power depending on the type of industry.  Innovation and continuous improvement in the field of lighting, has given rise to tremendous change  Energy saving may not be ignored with variety of light
  4. 4. Terms  Lumen is a unit of light flow or luminous flux. The lumen rating of a lamp is a measure of the total light output of the lamp.  Lux is the metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter.   Circuit Watts is the total power drawn by lamps and ballasts in a lighting circuit under assessment.   Unit: lux per watt per square metre (lux/W/m²)
  5. 5. Terms contd ....  Incandescent lamps produce light by means of a filament heating  GLS (General Lighting Service) lamp include the filament, the bulb, the fill gas and the cap.  Reflectorlamps are basically incandescent, provided with a high quality internal mirror, which follows exactly the parabolic shape..  Luminaire is a device that distributes, filters or transforms the light emitted from one or more lamps. It is a housing.  •Ballast-A current limiting device, to counter negative resistance characteristics of any discharge lamps.
  6. 6. Gas discharge lamps: The light from a gas discharge lamp is produced by the excitation of gas contained in either a tubular or elliptical outer bulb.  The most commonly used discharge lamps are as follows:  • Fluorescent tube lamps (FTL)  • Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)  • Mercury Vapour Lamps  • Sodium Vapour Lamps  • Metal Halide Lamps
  7. 7. Lux level Activity Illumination (lux, lumen/m2 ) Public areas with dark surroundings 20 - 50 Simple orientation for short visits 50 - 100 Working areas where visual tasks are only occasionally performed 100 - 150 Warehouses, Homes, Theaters, Archives 150 Easy Office Work, Classes 250 Normal Office Work, PC Work, Study Library, Groceries, Show Rooms, Laboratories 500 Supermarkets, Mechanical Workshops, Office Landscapes 750 Normal Drawing Work, Detailed Mechanical Workshops, Operation Theatres 1,000 Detailed Drawing Work, Very Detailed Mechanical Works 1500 - 2000 Performance of visual tasks of low contrast and very small size for prolonged periods of time 2000 - 5000 Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks 5000 - 10000 Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low contrast and small size 10000 - 20000
  8. 8. Light orientation  Diffuse light: This produces very uniform, soft lighting, which illuminates the entire space and makes objects visible, but produces reduced shadows or reflections.  Directed light :The essential properties of directed light are the production of shadows on objects and structured surfaces, and
  9. 9. Lamp output
  10. 10. Lamp output..contd
  11. 11. Application area  Indoor lighting  Out door lighting  Lighting in hazardous area  Lighting in mine  Domestic lighting  Industrial lighting  Lighting for monument  Street lighting  Training hall  Shopping mall  High way lighting  Hotels, reception, room, bar room, conference room  Housing colony  Auditorium  Cinema hall  Fair  Club  Street lighting  Park lighting  Light house  Religious place
  12. 12. TYPES OF LIGHT  Incandescent lamp (GLS)  Fluorescent lamp  High intensity discharge lamp  Mercury vapour lamp  High pressure sodium lamp  Low pressure sodium lamp  Carbon arc lamp  Induction lamp
  13. 13. Lamp code Letter position Mercury, lamp Indicates 1st letter Medium , example ,M=mercury 2nd letter Pressure A=Medium pressure B=high pressure C= low pressure D=extra high pressure E= extra high pressure 3rd and 4th Construction, coating, reflector F=fluorescent coating I = halide additive to arc L=double end R=reflector , T=tungsten filament Last letter Mounting , U=universal, V=vertical , H=horizontal Letter position Sodium lamp Indicates 1st letter Medium , example ,s=sodium 2nd , 3rd letter LI=long, low pressure, cap at each end OX=single ended, low pressure, u shaped ON=high pressure , oxide arc tube Last letter T=high pressure, clear glass, tubular ,single end TD=high pressure , tubular, double end
  14. 14. LAMP CODE
  15. 15. Meaning of T5,T8,T12  T5 lamps are fluorescent lamps that are 5/8" of an inch in diameter  The "T" in lamp nomenclature represents the shape of the lamp-tubular.
  16. 16. Installation of "exclusive"transformerfor lighting  In most of the industries, lighting load varies between 2 to 10%. Most of the problems faced by the lighting equipment and the "gears" is due to the "voltage" fluctuations. Hence, the lighting equipment has to be isolated from the power feeders. This provides a better voltage regulation for the lighting. This will reduce the voltage related problems, which in turn increases the efficiency of the lighting system.
  17. 17. ACT FAST AND INITIATE FIRST  बड़ा    सोचो         तेजी से सोचो व     सबसे पहले सोचो  िवचारो     पर िकसी का       एकािधकार नही होता.   ----  धीरभाई अमबानी
  18. 18. THANK YOU