4G           [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS       MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT   DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUI...
Contents           1. Introduction ..........................................................................................
1. Introduction           1.1 Introduction to 4G              The 4G Mobile Networks are being developed with 2 main obje...
1.2 4G Network Hierarchy                                                 Satellite Network Level                          ...
1.3 Features of 4G Networks              Higher bandwidths – 4G networks provides higher bandwidths to support multimedia...
2. Introduction to LTE           2.1 Introduction              LTE has been designed to support only packet – switched se...
2.2 Overall Architecture Overview                                                                    S6a                  ...
2.2.1 Core Network              The Core N/w (Called EPC in SAE) is responsible for overall control of UE and establishme...
2.2.1.1 Non Access Stratum Procedures              The Non Access Stratum procedures are connection management procedures...
2.2.3 The Roaming Architecture                                                          HSS                               ...
3. Protocol Architecture            3.1 User Plane               Application                   IP                         ...
3.2 Control Plane                            NAS                                                                   NAS    ...
4. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: S1 Interface           4.1 Protocol Structure Over S1               The Protocol Str...
4.1.2 User Plane                                GTP - U                                 UDP                          IPv6(...
4.2 Context Management over S1              UE is associated with one particular MME for all its communications during it...
4.3 Mobility over S1              LTE/SAE supports the mobility within LTE/SAE as well as mobility to other systems.     ...
4.3.2 Inter – Radio Access Technology Mobility                  eNodeB                                           MME      ...
5. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: X2 Interface              The X2 interface is used to interconnect eNodeBs.         ...
5.2 Mobility Over X2                                               Source LTE                         UE                  ...
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Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-4G Architecture, Networks and Protocols

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Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-4G Architecture, Networks and Protocols

  1. 1. 4G [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Introduction to 4G .............................................................................................................................. 3 1.2 4G Network Hierarchy ........................................................................................................................ 4 1.3 Features of 4G Networks .................................................................................................................... 5 2. Introduction to LTE................................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 6 2.2 Overall Architecture Overview........................................................................................................... 7 2.2.1 Core Network .............................................................................................................................. 8 2.2.2 The Access Network ........................................................................................................................ 9 2.2.3 The Roaming Architecture ........................................................................................................... 10 3. Protocol Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.1 User Plane ......................................................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Control Plane..................................................................................................................................... 12 4. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: S1 Interface ................................................................................... 13 4.1 Protocol Structure Over S1 ............................................................................................................... 13 4.1.1 Control Plane ............................................................................................................................. 13 4.1.2 User Plane ................................................................................................................................. 14 4.2 Context Management over S1 .......................................................................................................... 15 4.3 Mobility over S1 ................................................................................................................................ 16 4.3.1 Intra LTE mobility ...................................................................................................................... 16 4.3.2 Inter – Radio Access Technology Mobility ............................................................................... 17 5. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: X2 Interface ................................................................................... 18 5.1 Protocol Structure Over X2 ............................................................................................................... 18 5.2 Mobility Over X2 ............................................................................................................................... 19 [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  3. 3. 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction to 4G  The 4G Mobile Networks are being developed with 2 main objectives. One of the Objectives is to overcome the shortcomings and limitations of 3G.  The 4G Mobile Networks are being envisioned to offer higher bandwidths upto value of 100Mbps.  Unlike the predecessor networks of 4G(i.e 2G and 3G) which consisted of well –defined cellular network components, 4G are expected to consist of a collection of wireless networks.  These include the Personal Area Network using, for example Bluetooth, the local area networks using WLAN, the satellite – based mobile networks, and enhanced 3G cellular networks. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  4. 4. 1.2 4G Network Hierarchy Satellite Network Level Vertical Handovers Cellular Network Level Local Network Level Personal Network Level Horizontal Handovers  At the Lowest Layer are the personal networks, which constitute of smart devices communicating with each other over wireless links.  At the next level are the local networks. These could consist of local area networks using the wireless LAN technology.  The Cellular Network level comes next, which will consist of existing 2G and 3Gcellular networks, as well as enhanced 3G cellular networks.  At the top – Most level will be satellite – based mobile networks, which have a much greater coverage area than the cellular networks, or any of the networks at the lowest levels.  Horizontal Handovers will take place within one network.  Vertical Handovers will be performed between different network levels. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  5. 5. 1.3 Features of 4G Networks  Higher bandwidths – 4G networks provides higher bandwidths to support multimedia services.  Packet – Switched Network – 4G Networks are based on Packet – Switched networks.  Stringent Network Security – Network Security in 4G Networks is expected to be improvised.  Global Mobility and Network Scalability – This is Requirements of 4G networks. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  6. 6. 2. Introduction to LTE 2.1 Introduction  LTE has been designed to support only packet – switched services.  It aims to provide seamless internet protocol (IP) connectivity between User Equipment and Packet data n/w (PDN).  LTE encompasses the evolution of universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) Radio Access through the evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) , it is accompanied by an evolution of the non radio aspects under the term “System Architecture Evolution” (SAE) which include the evolved packet core (EPC) n/w.  Together the LTE and SAE Comprises the evolved packet system (EPS).  EPS uses the concept of EPS bearers to route IP traffic from a gateway in the PDN to UE.  A bearer is an IP Packet flow with a defined (QoS) between Gateway and UE. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  7. 7. 2.2 Overall Architecture Overview S6a HSS MME PCRF S1 - MME S11 Gx Rx UE eNode B S - GW P -GW LTE - Uu SI - U S5/S8 SGi Operators IP services( for eg.IMS, PSS) Network Architecture  Network Architecture Includes the network elements and the standardized interfaces.  At a high level, the n/w is comprised of CN (EPC) and the access n/w E- UTRAN.  CN consists of many logical nodes access n/w is made up of one node the evolved node B (e-Node B) Which connects to UEs. Functional Split between E-UTRAN and EPC eNode B Inter-cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Control MME Radio Admission Control NAS Security eNB measurement configuration and Idle State Mobility handling provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) EPS Bearer Control RRC PDCP S - GW P - GW RLC UE IP Address Allocation Mobile Anchoring MAC Packet Filtering S1 PHY Internet E - UTRAN EPC Functional Spit between E-UTRAN and UE [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  8. 8. 2.2.1 Core Network  The Core N/w (Called EPC in SAE) is responsible for overall control of UE and establishment of bearers.  The main nodes of EPC are o PDN Gateway ( P – GW) o Serving Gateway (S –GW) o Mobility Management Entity (MME)  EPC includes logical nodes and functions such as Home Subscriber server (HSS) and the Policy control and charging Rules function (PCRF).  The Logical CN Nodes  PCRF o The policy control and charging rules function is responsible for policy control decision- making as well as for controlling functionalities in policy control enforcement function (PCEF) which resides in P – GW.  HSS o The Home Subscriber Server contains users’ SAE subscription data such as the EPS- subscribed QoS profile and any access restrictions for roaming. o It also holds information about the PDNs to which the user can connect. o This could be in the form of an access point name (APN) or a PDN address. o The HSS holds dynamic information such as the identity of the MME to which the user is currently attached or registered.  P – GW o The PDN Gateway is responsible for IP address allocation for the UE. o It is responsible for the filtering of downlink user IP packets into the different QoS-based bearers.  S – GW o All user IP packets are transferred through the Serving Gateway, which serves as the local mobility anchor for the data bearers when the UE moves between eNodeBs.  MME o The Mobility Management Entity (MME) is the control node that processes the signaling between the UE and the CN. o The protocols running between the UE and the CN are known as the Non Access Stratum (NAS) protocols. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  9. 9. 2.2.1.1 Non Access Stratum Procedures  The Non Access Stratum procedures are connection management procedures and similar to UMTS.  The main Change from UMTS is that EPS allows concatenation of some procedure to allow faster establishment of the connection and the bearers.  The MME creates a UE context when UE is turned on and attaches to the network.  It assigns a unique identity termed the SAE Temporary mobile subscriber identity (S –TMSI) to the UE that identifies the UE context in the MME.  This UE context holds user subscription downloaded from the HSS.  The UE context also holds the dynamic information such as list of bearers that are established and the terminal capabilities. 2.2.2 The Access Network MME/S -GW MME/S -GW S1 S1 S1 S1 E -UTRAN X2 X2 eNode B #1 X2 eNode B #3 eNode B #2 E – UTRAN Architecture  The Access Network of LTE and E- UTRAN consists of a network of eNodeBs.  The eNodeB is interconnected with each other by means of interface known as “X2” and to the EPC by means of S1 interface to the MME by means of S1-MME interface and to the S-GW by means of S1 – U interface.  The protocols that run between eNodeBs and UE are known as AS Protocols.  E – UTRAN is responsible for all radio related functions. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  10. 10. 2.2.3 The Roaming Architecture HSS PCRF Gx Rx SGi Operators IP services(for P - GW example, IMS, PSS) HPMN VPLMN MME S11 S1 - MME S8 LTE - Uu S1 - U UE E - UTRAN S - GW Roaming Architecture  The network run by one operator in one country is known as “ Public land Mobile Network” .  Roaming is where users are allowed to connect to PLMNs.  A Roaming user is connected to the E – UTRAN , MME and S – GW of the visited LTE Network.  LTE/SAE allows the P – GW of either visited or the home network to be used.  Using the home network’s P – GW allows user to access the home operators service even in the visited network.  A P – GW in a visited network allows a “local breakout” to the internet in the visited network. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  11. 11. 3. Protocol Architecture 3.1 User Plane Application IP IP Relay Relay PDCP PDCP GTP - U GTP - U GTP - U GTP - U RLC RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP MAC MAC L2 L2 L2 L2 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1` L1 UE LTE - Uu eNode B S1 - U S - GW S5/S8 P - GW SG E -UTRAN User Plane Protocol Stack  IP Packet for UE is encapsulated in an EPC Specific protocol and tunneled between the P-GW and the eNodeB for transmission to the UE.  Different Tunneling protocol are used across the different interfaces.  The E – UTRAN user plane protocol stack of the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) , Radio Link Controller (RLC) and Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayers are terminated in the eNodeB on the network side. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  12. 12. 3.2 Control Plane NAS NAS Relay RRC RRC S1 - AP S1 -AP PDCP PDCP SCTP SCTP RLC RLC IP IP MAC MAC L2 L2 L1 L1 L1 L1 UE LTE - Uu eNode B S1 - MME MME E -UTRAN Control Plane Protocol Stack  The protocol stack for the control plane between the UE and MME is shown above.  The AS protocol are L1, MAC, RLC, PDCP and RRC.  The lower layers perform the same functions as for user plane with the exception that there is no header compression function for control plane.  The Radio Resource Control (RRC) Protocol is known as “layer 3”in the AS protocol stack.  It is the main controlling function in AS, responsible for establishing the radio bearers and configuring all the lower layers using RRC Signalling between eNodeB and the UE. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  13. 13. 4. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: S1 Interface 4.1 Protocol Structure Over S1  The Protocol Structure Over S1 is based on a full IP transport stack as used in GSM or UMTS networks. 4.1.1 Control Plane Radio Network Layer S1 - AP SCTP IP Transport Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer S1 Control Plane Protocol Stack  The protocol structure is based on Stream Control Transmission Protocol/IP (SCTP/IP) Stack.  The SCTP is known for its advanced features inherited from TCP that ensures the required delivery of signaling messages.  An area of simplification in LTE is the direct mapping of S1 Application Protocol (S1 – AP) on top of SCTP.  This results in simplified protocol stack with no intermediate connection management protocol , since connection are handled in application layer.  Multiplexing takes place between S1 – AP and SCTP. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  14. 14. 4.1.2 User Plane GTP - U UDP IPv6(IETF RFC 2460) And/or IPv4(IETF RFC 791) Data Link Layer Physical Layer S1 – U User Plane Protocol Stack  The Protocol structure of S1 User plane is based on the GTP/UDP5/IP stack which is known to UTMS networks.  One of the advantage of using GPRS tunneling protocol user plane (GTP – U) is its inherent facility to identify tunnels.  A transport bearers is identified by the GTP tunnels endpoints and the IP address.  The S-GW sends the downlink packets of a given bearer to the eNodeB IP address. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  15. 15. 4.2 Context Management over S1  UE is associated with one particular MME for all its communications during its stay in pool area.  This creates context in MME for the UE.  This Particular MME is selected by the NAS Node Selection Function (NNSF) in the first eNodeB from which the UE entered the pool area. eNodeB MME Initial Context Setup Request Initial Context Setup Request Initial Context Setup procedure  The UE becomes active under the coverage of a particular eNodeB in the pool area, the MME provides the UE context information to this eNodeB using initial context Setup request message.  This enables eNodeB turn to create a context and manage the UE for the duration of its activity in active mode.  The creation of the eNodeB context by the initial Context setup procedure also includes the creation of one or several bearers including the default bearer.  UE context release command message sent from the MME, the UE context in the eNodeB is erased and only the UE context in the MME remains. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  16. 16. 4.3 Mobility over S1  LTE/SAE supports the mobility within LTE/SAE as well as mobility to other systems.  The Mobility procedures also involve the network interface. 4.3.1 Intra LTE mobility  There are 2 types of Handover procedures in LTE for UEs in active mode: the S1 and X2 handover procedure.  For Intra LTE mobility X2 handover procedure is normally used for inter-eNodeB handover.  When there is no X2 interface between the two eNodeBs, or if the source eNodeB has been configured to initiate handover towards a particular target eNodeB through the S1 interface, then an S1 interface then S1 handover will be triggered. UE Source eNodeB Target eNodeB Source MME Target MME 1. Decision to trigger a relocation via S1 2. Handover Required 3. Forward Relocation Required 4. Handover Required 5. Resource Setup 6. Handover Request ACK 7. Forward Relocation Response 8. Handover Command 9. Handover Command 10. eNodeB Status Transfer 10.b Only for direct forwarding of data 11. MME Status Transfer 12. Handover Confirm 13. Handover Notify 14a. Forward Relocation Complete 14a. Forward Relocation Complete ACK 15. Tracking Area Update Request 16. Release Resources S1 based handover procedure [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  17. 17. 4.3.2 Inter – Radio Access Technology Mobility eNodeB MME Uplink S1 CDMA 2000 Tunneling Uplink S1 CDMA 2000 Tunneling procedure  Mobility toward CDMA 2000 dedicated uplink and Downlink procedures have been introduced in LTE.  The CDMA 2000 signalling between the UE and the CDMA 2000 system over S1 interface. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  18. 18. 5. The E – UTRAN Network interfaces: X2 Interface  The X2 interface is used to interconnect eNodeBs. 5.1 Protocol Structure Over X2 Radio X2 - AP Network GTP - U Layer UDP IPv6 (IETF RFC 2460) SCTP And or IPv4(IETF RFC 791) IP Transport Network Data Link Layer Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer X2 Signalling Bearer Protocol Stack Transport Network Layer for data streams over X2  The Control and User plane Stack over the X2 interface is shown in fig are same as those for the S1 Interface, with the exception that X2 – AP is substituted for S1 – AP. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  19. 19. 5.2 Mobility Over X2 Source LTE UE Target LTE eNodeB MME/S-GW eNodeB 1. Provisions of Area Restrictions 2. Measurement Control 3. Handover Decision 4. Handover Request 5. Resource Setup 6. Handover Request ACK 7. Handover Command 8. Status Transfer Data Forwarding 9. Handover Complete Over X2 Interface to avoid data loss 10. Path Switch Request 11. Path Switch Request ACK 12. Release Resource X2 based handover procedure [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES

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