3G           [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS       MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT   DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUI...
Contents           1. Introduction to UMTS ..................................................................................
4.1.6 RRC States and States Transition including GSM ........................................................................
1. Introduction to UMTS              3G is referred as Universal Mobile Telecommunication system in Europe which is one o...
1.1 UMTS Network Architecture           1.1.1 Basic Structure of UMTS Network                         User Equipment      ...
1.1.2   Architecture Overview                                                                UTRAN                        ...
1.1.3 User Equipment                          Universal                         Subscriber                MobileTerminatio...
   Uu Interface – Uu Interface is a WCDMA radio interface between mobile and Radio access n/w.                           ...
   Iu Interface – Iu interface connects the UTRAN to the CN. The Packet switched data is transmitted               throug...
   Iur Interface – Iur Interface is the Logical interface enables handling of RRM and eliminates the               burden...
   Iub Interface – Iub Interface is the Interface between RNC and Base station. The Main task of UTRAN               is t...
Node B              Node B is a physical unit for radio transmission reception in cells. Node B connects with UE Via the ...
2. UMTS Core Network           2.1 Structure of UMTS Core Network                     Core                    Network     ...
   The CS domain provides services related to voice transfer, the PS domain to those related to data               transf...
2.2 IP Multimedia Sub-System                                               IP Multimedia n/w’s                            ...
   Serving-CSCF                   o The Serving-CSCF(S-CSCF) is always assigned in the home network.                   o ...
     Home Subscriber Server                    o The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the master database for 3G/UMTS Rel5...
2.3 Home PLMN            In UMTS the highest level of hierarchy is a public land mobile network (PLMN).            A PLM...
2.5 Authentication Center (AuC)               MSC                                                                        E...
   Black List – Is a list if IMEIs that are to be denied service by the n/w for some reason.               Reasons includ...
3. UMTS N/w Transaction                                 Node B                              RNC                         MS...
3.1 Iub – Node B Setup                                                                                  ATM Virtual Path  ...
3.2 Message Flow               Node B                                                                               RNC   ...
3.3 Iub – Iu – Loaction Update                      1) Setup DCCH/RRC Connection                         2) DCCH/RRC Conne...
4. UMTS Protocols            4.1UMTS Related Signalling Protocols               Access Stratum and Non Access Stratum prot...
4.1.1 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol               Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol - Medium Access Control (MA...
   C/T field – provides identification of the logicalk channels instance when multiple logical channels               are...
4.1.2.1 RLC Transparent Mode (TM) Entity                                                     Radio Interface              ...
4.1.2.2 RLC Unacknowledged Mode Entity                                                         Radio Interface            ...
Receiving UM-RLC entity              The Receiving UM-RLC entity receives UMD PDUs through the configured logical channel...
4.1.2.3 RLC Acknowledged Mode Entity                                                                                      ...
   The MUX multiplexes AMD PDUs from the Retransmission buffer that need to be retransmitted and               the newly ...
4.1.4 Broadcast Multicast Control (BMC)                                                           BMC SAP                B...
4.1.5 Radio resource Control (RRC)              Used for setting up, reconfigured and reestablish radio bearers.         ...
4.1.6 RRC States and States Transition including GSM                                                  UTRA RRC Connected M...
   Cell_PCH                   o UE known at a cell level but can be reached via PCH.                   o Usel listens BCH...
4.2     ATM and ATM Adaptation Layers           4.2.1 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)              Asynchronous transfer...
4.2.2 ATM Protocol Architecture                                                              Management Plane             ...
4.2.2.1 ATM Adaptation Layer            ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) allows existing n/w’s to connect to ATM facilities.   ...
   Segmentation and reassembly functions of service specific convergence sublayer is divided into 3               parts. ...
o In message mode of data transfer an entire CPCS – SDU is received from the upper layer and                     only then...
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols
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Ishiriya Wireless Technologies-3G Architecture, Networks, Protocols

  1. 1. 3G [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction to UMTS ............................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 UMTS Network Architecture ............................................................................................................... 5 1.1.1 Basic Structure of UMTS Network ............................................................................................... 5 1.1.2 Architecture Overview ................................................................................................................ 6 1.1.3 User Equipment ........................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.4 UMTS Radio Access network........................................................................................................ 7 2. UMTS Core Network ............................................................................................................................... 13 2.1 Structure of UMTS Core Network ..................................................................................................... 13 2.2 IP Multimedia Sub-System ............................................................................................................... 15 2.3 Home PLMN ...................................................................................................................................... 18 2.4 Home Location Register .................................................................................................................... 18 2.5 Authentication Center (AuC)............................................................................................................. 19 2.6 Equipment Identity Register(EIR)...................................................................................................... 19 2.7 Mobile Switching Center ................................................................................................................... 20 2.8 Visitor Location Register(VLR) ........................................................................................................... 20 2.9 Gateway Mobile Switching center (GMSC) ....................................................................................... 20 3. UMTS N/w Transaction ........................................................................................................................... 21 3.1 Iub – Node B Setup ........................................................................................................................... 22 3.2 Message Flow.................................................................................................................................... 23 3.3 Iub – Iu – Loaction Update ................................................................................................................ 24 4. UMTS Protocols....................................................................................................................................... 25 4.1UMTS Related Signalling Protocols .................................................................................................... 25 4.1.1 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol ....................................................................................... 26 4.1.2 Radio Link Controller protocol ....................................................................................................... 27 4.1.2.1 RLC Transparent Mode (TM) Entity ........................................................................................ 28 4.1.2.2 RLC Unacknowledged Mode Entity ......................................................................................... 29 4.1.2.3 RLC Acknowledged Mode Entity ............................................................................................. 31 4.1.3 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP).................................................................................... 32 4.1.4 Broadcast Multicast Control (BMC) ............................................................................................... 33 4.1.5 Radio resource Control (RRC) ........................................................................................................ 34 [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  3. 3. 4.1.6 RRC States and States Transition including GSM ........................................................................... 35 4.2 ATM and ATM Adaptation Layers ............................................................................................... 37 4.2.1 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ........................................................................................ 37 4.2.2 ATM Protocol Architecture ........................................................................................................ 38 4.2.2.1 ATM Adaptation Layer ............................................................................................................ 39 5. Application layer Protocol....................................................................................................................... 42 5.1 Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) ............................................................................ 42 5.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 42 5.1.2 Functions of RANAP ................................................................................................................... 43 6. UMTS Protocol Structure ........................................................................................................................ 45 6.1Transport Network Layer ................................................................................................................... 46 6.2 Radio Network layer ......................................................................................................................... 47 6.3 System Network layer ....................................................................................................................... 48 7. OSI Protocol Stack ................................................................................................................................... 49 8. Introduction to GSM .............................................................................................................................. 51 8.1 When Cell is Turned on ..................................................................................................................... 51 8.2 When Cell move from one cell site to another ................................................................................. 53 9. References .............................................................................................................................................. 54 [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  4. 4. 1. Introduction to UMTS  3G is referred as Universal Mobile Telecommunication system in Europe which is one of the mobile phone technology.  UMTS is a Standardized by 3GPP and is European answer to the ITU IMT 2000 requirements.  For 3G cellular Radio System UMTS is an evolution of GSM technology UMTS, the 3G successor to GSM which utilizes the W – CDMA air interface and GSM infrastructure so it is called 3GSM. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  5. 5. 1.1 UMTS Network Architecture 1.1.1 Basic Structure of UMTS Network User Equipment Access Network Core Network To (UE) (AN) (CN) Other Networks (e.g.PSTN) Uu Interaface Iu Interaface Basic Structure of UMTS Network User Equipment  The User Equipment is used to access services provided by network.  To connect to a network a UE interfaces with access network using WCDMA air interface which is referred to as Uu interface. Access Network  Access Network performs functions specific to the radio access technique.  Access Network has 2 entities – The Base transceiver station(BTS) that terminates the radio connection with the UE and a Base Station Controller(BSC) that controls the resources of BTS. BSC interfaces with CN over Iu interface. Core Network  Core Network performs the core functions of the network which includes mobility management, call control, switching and routing.  It also manages the subscription information of a subscriber and provides services based on the information. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  6. 6. 1.1.2 Architecture Overview UTRAN CN CS Domain Iub MSC GMSC Node B RNC (Radio Network Contoller) Iub PSTN Node B HSS(Home Subscriber Iur Server) PS Domain Iub RNC Node B (Radio IMS SGSN GGSN Network Controller) Iub Node B UE Radio Iu Uu MSC : Mobile Switching Center SGSN : Serving GPRS support Node GMSC : Gateway MSC GGSN :Serving GPRS Support Node PSTN :Public Switched telephone Network IMS: IP Multimedia CN Subsystem UMTS Architecture • UMTS system consists of number of logical network elements connected through open interfaces or access points. • These elements are grouped into radio access network and the core network. • UTRAN handles all radio related functionality, radio resource and mobility management. • Core Network (CN) is responsible for switching and routing calls and data connections to external n/w’s . [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  7. 7. 1.1.3 User Equipment Universal Subscriber MobileTermination Identity (MT) Module (USIM) Terminal Universal Equipment(TE) Integrated Circuit Card(UICC) Mobile Equipment(ME) User Equipment(UE) Structure of User Equipment  The User Equipment (UE) is a device used by user to access services provided by a network.  UE is divided into 2 parts – Mobile Equipment(ME) and Universal Integrated Circuit Card(UICC).  UICC is a smart card that contains an application called USIM. USIM contains the logic required to identify the user. USIM is user dependent part of UE.  USIM interoperates with UMTS Terminal to provide mobile user access to the UMTS services.  USIM Contains the permanent identity of user called IMSI(international Mobile Subscriber Identity), The shared secret key(used for authentication), the user phone book and a host of other information.  ME is user independent part of UE. It contains a slot to hold UICC which is required to access UMTS network.  ME is further divided into 2 parts – Mobile Termination(MT) and Terminal Equipment(TE).  MT is a part of ME that performs a functions like radio transmission termination, authentication and mobility management.  TE component of ME manages the Hardware and end user applications. TE interact with ME via Terminal adaptation (TA) function. 1.1.4 UMTS Radio Access network  UTRAN is subdivided into individual Radio N/w System(RNSs),where each one is controlled by radio network controller(RNC).  Within RNS, the RNC is connected to a set of Node B Elements, each of which can serve one or several cells.  UTRAN is located between two new open interface Uu and Iu.  The Uu interface is a WCDMA radio interface through which UE accesses the fixed part of the system. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  8. 8.  Uu Interface – Uu Interface is a WCDMA radio interface between mobile and Radio access n/w. User Plane Control Plane CS Domain PS Domain BC Domain L3 RRC PDCP BMC L2 RLC MAC Physical Layer L1 FDD Mode TDD Mode Uu Interface  The protocol stack has 2 planes – the user plane carries data streams of interest to the user, while control plane carries the n/w’s signaling msgs.  The User plane is divided futher, to distinguish data streams to and from circuit switched, packet switched and broadcast control domains.  The protocol are as follows  Radio Resource Control (RRC) – This is the main signaling protocol in the Uu interface. It defines signaling messages that are exchanged between mobile and radio access n/w.  Broadcast Multicast Control (BMC) – This is an extra interface to the cell broadcast service. It distributes cell Broadcast messages from the n/w and collects them at the mobile.  Packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) –This is an extra interface for packet data. It carries out functions such as header compression of IP packets.  Radio Link control (RLC) – This manages the radio link between mobile and n/w, for example by optionally retransmitting data packets that have not e received correctly.  Medium access control (MAC) – This carries out low level manipulation and control of the physical layer, for example it prioritises the transmission of different data streams from mobile or Node B to ensure that each one has an appropriate data rate.  Physical layer – This carries out the low – level transmission and reception. It has 2 modes of operation, FDD and TDD. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  9. 9.  Iu Interface – Iu interface connects the UTRAN to the CN. The Packet switched data is transmitted through Iu-Ps interface and circuit switched data is transmitted over Iu-cs interface. Control Plane Transport n/w Control Plane User Plane CS Domain BC Domain Radio n/w Layer RANAP Frame Protocols SABP Signalling Transport Transport n/w signalling Data Transport Transport n/w layer Physical layer Iu Interface  Its protocol stack is divided into 2 layers  All UMTS related issues are in the radio n/w layer, while the transport n/w layer contains standard technology used for the underlying transport.  Stack is divided into 3 planes  User Plane handles data streams that eventually reach UE, control plane handles Iu signaling messages and transport n/w control plane manages the underlying transport.  RANAP – Defines the signaling messages exchanged over Iu Interface.  SABP – Defines the data streams used by the cell broadcast service, and the frame protocols define the CS and PS data streams. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  10. 10.  Iur Interface – Iur Interface is the Logical interface enables handling of RRM and eliminates the burden from CN. Control Plane Transport n/w Control Plane User Plane Radio n/w Layer Frame Protocols RNSAP - Common Channels - Dedicated Channels Transport n/w signalling - Common Channels Data Transport Signalling Transport - Dedicated channels - Common Channels - Dedicated Channels Transport n/w layer Physical layer Iur Interface  Its Protocol Stack is divided into 2 layers  All UMTS related issues are in the radio n/w layer, while the transport n/w layer contains standard technology used for underlying transport.  Stack is divided into 3 planes  User plane handles data streams that eventually reach UE, control plane handles Iur signaling messages and transport n/w control plane messages the underlying transport .  RNSAP – Defines the signaling messages exchanged over Iur Interface and frame protocols define data streams. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  11. 11.  Iub Interface – Iub Interface is the Interface between RNC and Base station. The Main task of UTRAN is to create and maintain Radio access bearers for communication between UE and CN. Control Plane Transport n/w Control Plane User Plane Radio n/w Layer Frame Protocols NBAP - Common Channels - Dedicated Channels Transport n/w signalling - Common Channels Data Transport Signalling Transport - Dedicated channels - Common Channels - Dedicated Channels Transport n/w layer Physical layer Iub Interface  Its protocol stack is divided into 2 layers  All UMTS related issues are in the radio n/w layer, while transport n/w layer contains standard technology used for the underlying transport.  Stack is divided into 3 planes  User plane handles data streams that eventually reach UE, control plane handles Iub signaling messages and transport n/w control plane messages the underlying transport.  Node B Application Part (NBAP) – Defines the signaling messages exchanged over Iub interface and Frame protocols defines data streams. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  12. 12. Node B  Node B is a physical unit for radio transmission reception in cells. Node B connects with UE Via the WCDMA Uu radio interface and with RNC via the Iub asynchronous transfer mode(ATM) Based interface. RNC is where Radio resources are managed Radio Network Controller  Radio Network Controller is the switching and controlling element of the UTRAN located between Iub and Iu interface. It also has a third interface called Iur for inter RNS connections the RNC interfaces the CN for both packet-switched and circuit-switched services domain and also terminates the RRC protocol that defines the messages and procedures between mobile and UTRAN. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  13. 13. 2. UMTS Core Network 2.1 Structure of UMTS Core Network Core Network PS Domain To Packet SGSN GGSN Network To Access Network AuC HLR EIR HLR/AuC MSC/VLR GMSC To PSTN Network CS Domain SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN : Gateway GPRS Support Node HLR : Home Location Register AuC : Authentication Center EIR : Equipment Identity Register VLR: Visitor Location Register MSC : Mobile Switching Center GMSC : Gateway Mobile Switching Center Structure of Core Network  Core Network Consists of entities that provide support for various network features and services and performs functions like mobility management, call control, switching, session management, routing, authentication and equipment identification.  The UMTS Core Network is divided into 2 domains : the Circuit switched (CS) domain and Packet Switched(PS) domain. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  14. 14.  The CS domain provides services related to voice transfer, the PS domain to those related to data transfer. Circuit Switched CN  CS Domain refers to set of all CN entities offering a “CS type connection” the entities specific. To CS domain are  MSC – Mobile Switching Center Switch serves ME at its current location for circuit switch services.  MGW – Media Gateway performs actual switching for user data.  GMSC – Gateway MSC serves UMTS where it is connected to ext CS network. Packet Switched CN  PS domain transports the user information using autonomous concatenation of bits called Packet CN PS domain in UMTS has 2 basic n/w elements.  SGSN – Serving GPRS support node serves ME for packet data.  GGSN – Gateway serving GPRS support node connects to packet switch n/w to internet. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  15. 15. 2.2 IP Multimedia Sub-System IP Multimedia n/w’s Legacy mobile PSTN Signalling N/w’s PSTN Mm Mb PSTN Mb BGCF CSCF C, D Gc,Gr Mk Mk Mw BGCF Mj Mi Mn Mg Cx IMS- MGCF CSCF MGW HSS Mp Mw Gm Mr MRFP MRFP P-CSCF UE Mb Mb Mb Go IM Subsystem  The IP Multimedia CN sub-system (IMS) includes the collection of signaling and bearer related network elements.  The IMS introduces three main logical network elements to the existing infrastructure: the Call Session Control Function (CSCF), the Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) and the Media Gateway (MGW). The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is also introduced providing user profile information.  Call Session Control Function o The Call Session Control Function (CSCF) is a SIP server that provides/controls multimedia services for packet-switched IP terminals, both mobile and fixed. o It can act as Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF), Serving CSCF(S-CSCF), Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF), Breakout Gateway CF (BGCF) or Multimedia Resource Function (MRF).  Proxy-CSCF o The Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) is the first contact point for the UE within the IM CN subsystem thus always located in the network where the UE resides. o Its address is discovered after or as a part of a successful PDP context activation. o The P-CSCF forwards SIP messages from UE to the specific I-CSCF or to the SIP server (S- CSCF) acting as a SIP proxy. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  16. 16.  Serving-CSCF o The Serving-CSCF(S-CSCF) is always assigned in the home network. o It acts as a registrar making information available through the location server (HSS) and subsequently performs the session control services. o As P-CSCF, the S-CSCF can also act as a SIP proxy server.  Interrogating-CSCF o The Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is mainly the contact point within an operator’s network for all IMS connections destined to a subscriber of that network operator, or a roaming subscriber currently located within that network operator’s service area. o As the contact point, it accesses the HSS to resolve the SIP server addresses involved in the session (ICSCF, BGCF or S-CSCF). o It obtains the S-CSCF linked with the user in the registration procedure and the S-CSCF of the terminating counterpart in the session establishment.  Breakout Gateway Control Function o The Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) selects the network in which PSTN/CS Domain breakout is to occur forwarding the session signaling to another BGCF if it is a different one. o Once in the network in which the inter-working with PSTN/CS domain is to occur, it selects a MGCF which is responsible for such inter-working. o Therefore this logical entity acts as a signaling entity for call/session control.  Multimedia Resource Function o The Multimedia Resource Function (MRF) is split into Multimedia Resource Function Controller (MRFC) and Multimedia Resource Function Processor (MRFP). o MRFP controls the bearer on the Mb reference point and provides media stream resources to be controlled by the MRFC.  Media Gateway o The Media Gateway (MGW) terminates bearer channels from a circuit switched network and media streams from a packet network.  Media Gateway Control Function o The Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) entity controls the MGW and performs translation at the call control signaling level between ISUP signaling, used in PSTN, and SIP signaling, used in the UMTS multimedia domain. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  17. 17.  Home Subscriber Server o The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the master database for 3G/UMTS Rel5/6 IP users. o It contains the subscription-related information to support the network entities handling the IP session. o This entity also integrates the Home Location Register (HLR) functionality for both packet and circuit domain, which is there on considered as a HSS Subset. HSS(HLR/UMS) Subscription Location Information Information Gr Cx Gc (MAP-Based) (IP based Interface) (MAP- Mh Based) SGSN GGSN R-SGW CSCF [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  18. 18. 2.3 Home PLMN  In UMTS the highest level of hierarchy is a public land mobile network (PLMN).  A PLMN is defined as a telecommunications network providing mobile cellular services.  A PLMN is uniquely identified by its PLMN identifier. PLMN identifier MCC MNC (3 digits) (2/3 digits) MCC: Mobile Country Code MNC: Mobile Network Code PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network Structure of PLMN identifier  The PLMN identifier comprises of Mobile Country Code(MCC) and Mobile Network Code(MNC).  The MCC is of 3 digits identifies the country to which the PLMN belongs.  The MNC of 2 or 3 digits identifies a particular PLMN within a country. 2.4 Home Location Register  Home location Register is a large database that permanently stores the data about subscribers.  The HLR maintains subscriber- specific information such as MSISDN, IMSI, current location of the Mobile station, roaming restrictions and subscriber supplement features.  There is a logically only one HLR in any given n/w, but generally speaking each n/w has multiple physical HLRs spread out across its n/w. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  19. 19. 2.5 Authentication Center (AuC) MSC EIR VLR HLR AuC Authentication Center(AuC)  Authentication Center holds Authentication Information .  This information is used for authentication and security related functions.  It is often depicted as a part of HLR.  Thus the term AuC/HLR is used to represent the entity that performs the functions of HLR and AuC.  The Interface between HLR and AuC is called H interface. 2.6 Equipment Identity Register(EIR) MSC F Interface EIR VLR HLR MSC VLR D Interface B Interface Equipment Identity Register(EIR)  Equipment Identity Register(EIR) is a database that keeps tracks of handsets on the n/w using International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).  The IMEI is used for identifying a user equipment.  There is only one EIR per n/w. It is composed of 3 lists. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  20. 20.  Black List – Is a list if IMEIs that are to be denied service by the n/w for some reason. Reasons include IMEI if handset is malfunctioning or doesn’t have the technical capabilities to operate on n/w.  Grey List – Is a list of IMEIs that are to be monitored for suspicious activity. This could include handsets that are behaving oddly or not performing as the n/w expects it to.  White List – Is an Unpopulated list. That means if an IMEI is not on the black list or on the grey list then it is considered good and is “on the white list”. 2.7 Mobile Switching Center  Mobile Switching Center is a heart of a network.  It handles call routing, call setup, and basic switching functions.  MSC is a node that interfaces between the Access network and the Core network.  It performs all functions necessary to handle the circuit switched services. 2.8 Visitor Location Register(VLR)  Visitor Location Register is a database that contains a subset of information located on HLR.  It contains a similar information as HLR, but only for subscribers currently in its location area.  There is VLR for every location area.  The VLR reduces the overall number of queries to HLR and thus reduces n/w traffic.  VLRs are often identified by location Area Code(LAC) for area they service. 2.9 Gateway Mobile Switching center (GMSC)  The Gateway MSC functions as a gateway between two n/w’s.  If a mobile subscriber wants to place a call to a regular land line, then call would have to go through a Gs GMSC order to switch to (PSTN).  It also provides the means for an incoming call to be delivered to the MSC where the MS is registered.  Eg – If a subscriber in a circular n/w wants to call a subscriber on T – mobile n/w, the call would have to go through GMSC. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  21. 21. 3. UMTS N/w Transaction Node B RNC MSC SGSN RRC Connection Setup Iub Bearer Establishment Transaction Reasoning Authentication Security Control Iu-CS/ PS Bearer Establishment Radio Bearer Establishment End – to – End Connection Iu -CS/PS Bearer Release Iub Bearer Release Clearing of RRC Connection The procedures running between UE, Node B and RNC will exchange Access – Stratum messages Whereas procedures going through to the CN, MSC,SGSN will exchange NON Access Stratum messages [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  22. 22. 3.1 Iub – Node B Setup ATM Virtual Path Node B RNC (VPI =x) RACH a b a b Common FACH Transport Channels c d c d PCH PCH: ATM STM - 1 Line Before Node CID =8 B setup FACH: CID =9 After Node B setup RACH : CID =10 ATM Virtual Chann els VCI =a->NBAP VCI =b->ALCAP VCI =c,d->Reserved for AAL2 Node B setup against a RNC Step 1 – The Node B requests to be audited by the RNC. During the audit, Node B informs the RNC of How many cells belongs to Node B and which local cell identifiers they have. Step 2 – For each cell, the RNC performs a cell setup. During cell setup, the physical(radio interface) Channels are parameterized. These channels are mandatory in case of a UE initial access. In other words If there channels are not available it is impossible for UE after it is switched on to get access to the n/w Via the radio interface. Step 3 – The common transport channel paging channel PCH, forward Access Channel and Random access channel are setup and optionally parameterized in each cell of new Node B. On the Iub interface There common transport channels are carried by AAL2 connections on ATM lines. ATM/AAL2 header Values (VPI/VCI/CID) are important because without knowing them it is impossible to monitoring Signaling and data transport on PCH,RACH and FACH. If there channels are monitored some of the most Important message for call setup and mobility management procedures, such as paging messages and RRC connection setup will be missed call traces. Once the AAL2 connection for a communication Transport is installed during Node B setup it will not be released until Node B is taken Out of service. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  23. 23. 3.2 Message Flow Node B RNC NBAP UL initiating Message Id- audit required NBAP DL initiating Message Id- audit start of audit NBAP UL Successful Outcome id – audit, end of audit sequence”(Local cell -ids) Opt. FP up – and Downlink Node sync(PCH between Node B and RNC) NBAP DL initiating message id -cell setup (Cell-id, primary scrambling code, common physical channel IDs NBAP UL successful Outcome id – cell setup NBAP DL initiating Msg id – system information update(SiBs) NBAP DL initiating Msg id – common transport channel setup Cell-Id,ctrch -id+PCH TFS) NBAP UL successful outcome id – common Transport channel setup(cTrcH-ID, bind ID =h) ALCAP DL ERQ(Path-ID, Ch-ID, SUGR=h) ALCAP UL ECF [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  24. 24. 3.3 Iub – Iu – Loaction Update 1) Setup DCCH/RRC Connection 2) DCCH/RRC Connection 3) SCCP/RANAP connection SCCP CR(RANAP IM LUREC LUREQ) LUACC or LUREJ RNC LUACC or LUREJ MSC 4) SCCP/RANAP Release 5) DCCH/RCC Release Step 1 – Set up the dedicated control channel (DCCH) for the RRC connection on the Iub interface. Step 2 – MM/CC/SM(Mobility Management/ Call Control/Session Management) msgs are transparently forwarded to the RNC on behalf of RRC direct transfer msgs in this case the location Update request (LUREQ) msg. Step 3 – The reception of the LUREQ message triggers the setup of a SCCP/RANAP connection on the Iu-CS interface towards MSC/VLR. The LUREQ is embedded in a SCCP connection Request The answer can be either location update accept (LUACC) or location update reject(LUREJ). Step 4 – After tending the answer msg, the SCCP/RANAP connection on Iu-CS is released. Step 5 – Triggered by the release messages from the Iu – CS the RRC connection and its DCCH are also released. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  25. 25. 4. UMTS Protocols 4.1UMTS Related Signalling Protocols Access Stratum and Non Access Stratum protocols Control Plane CC SM SS SMS User Plane Protocols (eg.IP) Non – Access Stratum MM/GMM RRC Access Stratum Control PDCP BMC RLC MAC Physical Layer Structure of Access Stratum and Non access Stratum  Access Stratum are the protocols used on the radio interface between UE and UTRAN.  These protocols are used for the transfer of user and control data between UE and UTRAN.  The Access stratum protocols of UE are implemented in Radio termination (RT) component of Mobile Termination (MT).  These protocols include the following  Physical Layer – The Physical Layer is the lower-most layer of the UMTS radio interface stack. It is the layer that is responsible for actual transmission of higher layer data over the Physical. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  26. 26. 4.1.1 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol  Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol - Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer is the lowest sub – layer of layer 2 of the protocol stack. The MAC communicates with the physical layer using the transport channels. The Main functionality of MAC layer is to map higher layer data on to appropriate transport channels of the physical layer. BCCH PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH Logical MAC- Channels Control MAC - d MAC-b MAC – c/sh Transport Channels BCH PCH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DCH DCH MAC Layer Logical Architecture  MAC –b – This controls access to the Broadcast channel (BCH).  MAC –c/sh – It controls access to the common and shared channels.  MAC – d – The MAC –d control access to the Dedicated Channel (DCH). MAC PDU Format MAC Header MAC SDU TCTF UE -Id UE-Id C/T MAC - SDU Type MAC PDU  MAC Header Consists of  Target Channel Type Field (TCTF) – a flag that provides identification of logical channel class on FACH and RACH transport channels. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  27. 27.  C/T field – provides identification of the logicalk channels instance when multiple logical channels are carried on the same transport channels.  UE – id field – provides an identifier of UE on common transport channels.  UTRAN Radio N/w Temporary identity(U-RNTI) may be used in MAC header of DCCH when mapped onto common transport channels in downlink directions the U-RNTI is never used in uplink directions.  Cell Radio N/w Temporary Identity(C-RNTI) is used on DTCH and DCCCH in uplink, and may be used in DCCH in downlink and is used on DTCH in downlink when mapped onto common transport channels.  UE-Id to be used by MAC is configured through MAC control SAP.  UE-Id type field –is needed to ensure correct decoding of UE-Id field in MAC headers. 4.1.2 Radio Link Controller protocol Tr - SAP AM - SAP UM - SAP RLC Control Transmitting Receiving Acknowledged Transmitting Receiving Transparent Transparent Mode Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Entity Entitiy Entity Entity Entity BCCH/PCCH/CCCH/DCCH/DTCH DTCH/DCCH CCCH/CTCH/DTCH/DCCH RLC Logical Architecture  Provides Segmentation/reassembly(payload units,PU) and retransmission service for both users and control data.  Transparent Mode (Tr) : no overhead is added to higher layer data.  Unacknowledged Mode (UM) : no retransmission protocol is used and data delivery is not guaranteed.  Acknowledged Mode (AM) – Automatic Repeat request (ARQ) m echanism is used for error correction. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  28. 28. 4.1.2.1 RLC Transparent Mode (TM) Entity Radio Interface (Uu) UE/UTRAN UTRAN/UE TM-SAP TM-SAP Transmission Reassembly buffer Recei Transmitti ving ng TM- TM-RLC RLC Entity Entity Segmentation Reception Buffer CCCH/DCCH/DTCH/SHCCH – UE CCCH/DCCH/DTCH/SHCCH – UTRAN BCCH/PCCH/DCCH/DTCH - UTRAN BCCH/PCCH/DCCH/DTCH - UE RLC Transparent Mode Entity Receiving TM-RLC Entity  The Receiving TM-RLC entity receives TMD PDUs through the configured logical channels from the lower layer.  If segmentation is configured by upper layer all TMD PDUs received within 1 TTI are reassembled to form the RLC SDU.  If segmentation is not configured by upper layers, each TMD PDUs is treated as a RLC SDU.  The receiving TM RLC entity delivers RLC SDUs to upper layers through the TM-SAP. Transmitting TM –RLC Entity  Transmitting TM-RLC entity receives RLC SDUs from upper layers through the TM – SAP.  All received RLC SDUs must be of a length that is multiple of one of the valid TMD PDUs lengths.  If segmentation has been configured by upper layers and a RLC SDU is larger than the TMD PDU size used by the lower layer for that TTI, the transmitting TM RLC entity segments RLC SDus to fit the TMD PDUs size without adding RLC headers.All the TMD PDUs carrying one RLC SDU are sent in the same TTI, and no segment from another RLC SDU are sent in this TTI.  If segmentation has not been configured by upper layers then more than one RLC SDU can be sent in one TTI by placing one RLC SDU in one TMD PDU . All TMD PDUs in one TTI must be of equal length.  When the processing of a RLC SDU is complete the resulting one or more TMD PDUs are is submitted to the lower layer through either a BCCH, DCCH, PCCH, CCCH, SHCCH or a DTCH logical channels. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  29. 29. 4.1.2.2 RLC Unacknowledged Mode Entity Radio Interface (Uu) UE/UTRAN UTRAN/UE UM-SAP UM-SAP Transmission Reassembly buffer Recei Transmitti ving ng UM- UM-RLC RLC Entity Entity Segmentation & Removal RLC Header Concatenation Add RLC Header Reception Buffer Ciphering Deciphering CCH/DTCH – UE DCCH/DTCH – UTRAN CCH/SHCCH/DCCH/DTCH/CTCH - UTRAN CCCH/SHCCH/DCCH/DTCH/CTCH - UE RLC Unacknowledged Mode Entity [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  30. 30. Receiving UM-RLC entity  The Receiving UM-RLC entity receives UMD PDUs through the configured logical channels from lower layer.  The Receiving UM RLC entity deciphers(if ciphering is configured and started) the received UMD PDUs. It removes RLC headers from received UMD PDUs and reassembles RLC SDUs.  RLC SDUs are delivered by the receiving UM RLC entity to the upper layers through the UM-SAP. Transmitting UM-RLC entity  Transmitting UM-RLC entity RLC SDUs from upper layers through the UM-SAP.  The transmitting UM-RLC entity segments the RLC SDU into UMD PDUs of appropriate size if the RLC SDU is larger than the length of available space in the UMD PDU. The UMD PDU may contain segmented and/or concatenated RLC SDUs. UMD PDU may also contain padding to ensure that it is of a valid length. Length Indicators are used to define boundaries between RLC SDUs within UMD PDUs length indicators are also used to define whether padding is included in the UMD PDU.  If Ciphering is configured and started an UMD PDU is ciphered before it is submitted to the lower layer.  The transmitted UM-RLC entity submits UMD PDUs to the lower layer through either a CCCH,SHCCH,DCCH,CTCH or a DTCH logical channel. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  31. 31. 4.1.2.3 RLC Acknowledged Mode Entity RRC/BMC/ PDCP/.. AM entity Segmentation and concatenation RLC Control Unit Add RLC Header Reassembly Piggy Backed status Retx. Buffer and management Remove RLC Header and extract piggybacked info Acks RLC MUX Acks Reception buffer and management Transmission Buffer De-Ciphering Set fields in PDU header (eg set poll bits) and piggybacked STATUS PDU Ciphering Demux/Routing MAC RLC Acknowledged Mode Entity  The Receiving side of the AM-RLC entity receives AMD and control PDUs through the configured logical channels from the lower layer.  AMD PDUs are routed to the deciphering unit and then delivered to the reception buffer.  The AMD PDUs are placed in the reception buffer until a complete RLC SDU has been received. The receiver acknowledges successful reception or requests retransmission of the missing AMD PDUs by sending one or more STATUS PDUs to the AM RLC peer entity through its transmitting side.  The associated AMD PDUs are reassembled by the reassembly unit and delivered to the upper layers through the AM-SAP.  RESET and RESET ACK PDUs are delivered to the RLC control unit for processing. If a response to the peer AM RLC entity is needed an appropriate control PDU is delivered by the RLC control unit to the transmitting side of the AM RLC entity. The transmitting side of the AM-RLC entity receives RLC SDUs from upper layers through the AM- SAP.  RLC SDUs are segmented and/or concatenated into AMD PDUs of a fixed length. o The segmentation is performed if the received RLC SDU is larger than the length of available space in the AMD PDU. o The PDU size is set during AM-RLC establishment. o The packets could be segmented, concatenated, padded. o Boundaries between the packets are indicated by a length indicator.  After segmentation and/or concatenation are performed the AMD PDUs are placed in the retransmission buffer at the MUX.  AMD PDUs buffered in the retransmission buffer are deleted or retransmitted. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  32. 32.  The MUX multiplexes AMD PDUs from the Retransmission buffer that need to be retransmitted and the newly generated AMD PDUs delivered from the segmentation/concatenation function.  The PDUs are delivered to the function that completes the AMD PDU header and potentially replaces padding with piggybacked status information . A Piggy backed STATUS PDUs can be of variable size in order to match the amount of free space in the AMD PDU.  The ciphering (if configured) is then applied to the AMD PDUs. o The AMD PDU header is not ciphered. o Control PDUs(i.e STATUS PDU, RESET PDU and RESET ACK PDU) are not ciphered. 4.1.3 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)  The Packet Data Convergence protocol (PDCP) layer is used to carry user plane information for the PS domain.  PDCP carries data protocols like IP and PPP. Radio Bearers (User Plane Information) PDCP SAPs Control PDCP (RRC) UM AM TM RLC PDCP Layer Architecture  PCDP Architecture provides means to transfer user plane information using one of the modes of RLC layer (TM, UM or AM).  The RRC layer controls the behaviour of the PDCP layer. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  33. 33. 4.1.4 Broadcast Multicast Control (BMC) BMC SAP BMC - Control BMC Entity RLC SAPs UM - SAP BMC Layer Architecture  The Broadcast Multicast Control (BMC) layer is used to carry user plane information in the downlink direction.  Storage of cell broadcast messages.  Traffic volume monitoring and radio resource request for CBS.  Scheduling of BMC messages.  Transmission of BMC messages to UE.  Delivery of cell broadcast messages to upper layer. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  34. 34. 4.1.5 Radio resource Control (RRC)  Used for setting up, reconfigured and reestablish radio bearers. Message Routing BMC- Control SAP PDCP- Control SAP PNFE BCFE DCFE RLC- Control SAP MAC- Control SAP I1- Control SAP RLC SAPs AM-SAP AM-SAP AM-SAP UM-SAP Tr-SAP RLC Logical Structure  Dedicated Control Functional Entity (DCFE) – Handler functions and signaling specific to UE one DCFE entity for each UE.  Paging and Notification control functional Entity (PNFE) – Paging of idle mode UE. At least one PNFE in the RNC for each cell.  Broadcasting Control functional Entity (BCFE) – Handles the Broadcasting of system information. There is at least one BCFE for each cell in the RNC. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  35. 35. 4.1.6 RRC States and States Transition including GSM UTRA RRC Connected Mode URA_PCH CELL_PCH Out of Out of In GSM In UTRA Inter – GSM Connected Mode Servic servic Servic Handover service RAT Handover e e e CELL_FACH Out of In GPRS Packet Transfer CELL_DCH Servic servic Mode e e Call Release RR Establish RR Resele Connection Connection ction Release of Initiation of temporary temporary block flow block flow Release RRC Establish RRC Release RRC Establish RRC Connection Connection Connection Connection GPRS Packet Idle Mode Camping on a UTRAN cell Camping on a GSM/GPRS Cell Idle Mode RRC States and States Transitions Including GSM  Idle Mode – o After UE in Switched on it will camp in a suitable cell. After Camping. o User is able to send and receive system and cell broadcasting information. o In the idle mode until it transmits request to establish RRC connection.  Cell_DCH o Entered from Idle Mode or by establishing a DCH from the cell_FACH state. o DPCH and physical downlink shared channel(PDSCH) is allowed to UE. o UE is in this mode until explicit signalling for Cell_FACH.  Cell_FACH o No dedicated channel allocated. Data transmitted through RACH and FACH. o UE listens BCH. o Cell reselection is performed (RNC is informed). [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  36. 36.  Cell_PCH o UE known at a cell level but can be reached via PCH. o Usel listens BCH, some terminals also BMC. o In case of Cell reselection automatically moved to Cell_FACH state.  URA_PCH o UE executes the cell update procedure only if the UTRAN Registration Area is changed. o DCCH cannot be used in this state, all the activities initiated by the network through the PCCH or RACH. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  37. 37. 4.2 ATM and ATM Adaptation Layers 4.2.1 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)  Asynchronous transfer Mode (ATM) is defined as a transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells.  Transfer Mode – o Transfer Mode is used to transmit, switch and multiplex information. Transfer mode is means of packaging, sending and receiving information on the n/w. o Circuit switching and packet switching describe the two extremities of transfer mode. o In circuit switching it is sent in bit streams, while in packet switching the information is sent as large frames.  Asynchronous Name – o ATM is Asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells containing information is not periodic. o The terms Synchronous and Asynchronous refer to the way the data is transmitted. o In the synchronous mode, the transmitter and receiver clocks are synchronized and frames are sent/received periodically. o In asynchronous mode, timing information is derived from the data itself and the transmitter is not compelled to send data periodically.  Cell –based transfer – o The Information in ATM is ‘organized into cells’, which means that lowest unit of information in ATM is a cell. o A cell is fixed size frame of 53 bytes, with 5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of payload. o The header carries the information which is required to switch cells, while payload contains the actual information to be exchanged. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  38. 38. 4.2.2 ATM Protocol Architecture Management Plane Control plane User plane Plane Management Layer Management Higher layers Higher Layers (ALCAP and SAAL) (e.g. TCP/IP) ATM Adaptation Layer ATM Layer Physical Layer ATM Protocol Architecture  It is a 3 – dimensional model  User Plane – o The User Plane is concerned with the transfer of user information. o At transmitting side the plane is responsible for packing user information into cells and transmitting cells using underlying physical medium. o At receiving side, it performs reverse operation and derives the higher layer information.  Control Plane – o The control plane is responsible for establishing and releasing connection between a given source and destination. o When a new connection is established, the control plane establishes a mapping at the intermediate switches between incoming VPI/VCI and outgoing VPI/VCI. o When a same connection is released, the control plane removes the mapping stored within the intermediate nodes.  Management Plane – o It is responsible for mapping the individual layers in the protocol stack and providing coordination between the layers. o It is divided into layer management and plane management. o Layer Management – Layer management is responsible for managing each of the layers, including their administration, management and configuration. o Plane Management – Plane Management is responsible for coordination among different planes. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  39. 39. 4.2.2.1 ATM Adaptation Layer  ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) allows existing n/w’s to connect to ATM facilities.  ATM Adaptation Layer resides over the ATM Layer.  It is responsible for handling different types of data and mapping the requirements of the applications to the services provided by the lower layer.  The AAL2 and AAL5 is used in UTRAN. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL2)  AAL2 resides over ATM layer. Upper Layers Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) (May be Null) AAL 2 Common Part Sublayer Lower Layers Structure of AAL2  AAL 2 Layer architecture is divided into 2 parts Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS).  CPS provides the basic functionality of AAL2 which includes the packaging the variable payload into cells and providing error correction.  SSCS sublayer directly interacts with the user. This Layer is used to enhance the services provided by CPS. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  40. 40.  Segmentation and reassembly functions of service specific convergence sublayer is divided into 3 parts.  Service Specific Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayerv(SSSAR) –This is the Basic function of SAR SSCS. It includes data transfer of SSSAR – SDUs of up to 65568 octets.  Service Specific Transmission Error Detection Sublayer (SSTED) - The Role of SSTED is to detect corrupted SSTED – SDUs.  Service Specific Assured Data Transfer Sublayer (SSADT) – To provide support for re- transmission, the SSADT function may be used over and above the SSSAR and SSTED function. ATM Adaptation layer 5 (AAL5) Upper Layers Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) (May be Null) Convergence Sublayer AAL5 Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) Common Part Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) ATM Structure of AAL5  The AAL5 Layer is divided into 2 Sublayers convergence Sublayer (CS) and the Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR).  The CS itself is divided into 2 parts Common part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) and Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS).  Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) – o The segmentation and reassembly sublayer in AAL5 is very simple. o This layer does not add any header or trailer to the SAR – SDU. o It just breaks down the SAR – SDU into 48 bytes SAR –PDUs, which in turn form payload of the cells.  Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) – o The CPCS of AAL5 provides 2 modes of data transfer, namely message mode and the streaming mode. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES
  41. 41. o In message mode of data transfer an entire CPCS – SDU is received from the upper layer and only then transferred to the SAR Sublayer. o In streaming mode allows the CPCS to start transferring data before it has received the complete CPCS – SDU from upper layer. [Type text]M2M COMMUNICATIONS MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND DATA ACQUISTIONWIRELESS APPLICATIONS WIRELESS TEST AND MEASUREMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHIPSETS AND MOBILE DEVICES

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