Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. 1865-1890
  2. 2.  Land was communal – no one person or tribe could own land Buf falo was central to life
  3. 3.  The buffalo were destroyed by settlers and tourists who shot them for sport
  4. 4.  Viewed Native American land as unsettled Advanced to claim land Gold intensified the rush for land
  5. 5.  1834 – all of Great Plains set aside as “Indian Lands” 1850s – Policy shift – native get smaller amounts of land
  6. 6.  Sand Creek Massacre – U.S. army attacks 150 native women and children killed
  7. 7.  Colonel Custer and infantry reach Little Big Horn Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull lead Sioux tribe Outflank and crush Custer’s troops
  8. 8.  December 1890- 7th Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, SD 7th Cavalry slaughtered 350 unarmed Natives The corpses were left to freeze
  9. 9.  Attempted to assimilate natives Would break up reservations and introduce natives into American life – farming, etc By 1932 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been taken
  10. 10.  After the Civil war the demand for beef rose sharply Urbanization and the rise of the railroad contributed to this Chicago Union Stock Yards
  11. 11.  Thousands of cattle driven from Texas to Kansas Abilene, KS – place where trail met the railroads
  12. 12.  Overgrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire led to the end of the cattle drive
  13. 13.  Homestead Act – federal land policy  Gave 160 free acres to any “head of household”  Had to live on and farm land for 5 years
  14. 14.  African Americans – moved from South to Kansas Took advantage of land deals in West
  15. 15.  In a less than a day 2 millions acres of government land being given away was claimed by settlers Some took possession of the land before the government officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State”
  16. 16.  Droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, bandits No neighbors nearby
  17. 17.  Homes were built from the land itself  Dug out of the sides of ravines or hills  If land was flat made homes out of dirt
  18. 18.  Despite these hardships, the number of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nations population to 30% by 1900
  19. 19.  1837- John Deere steel plow – slice through heavy soil 1847 – reaper – invented by Cyrus McCormick
  20. 20.  More people moved west and the railroads were born Government gave land grants to the railroads to help it grow
  21. 21.  Completed in 1890 with help from Chinese workers
  22. 22.  The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges
  23. 23.  In the late 1800s, many farmers were struggling Crop prices were falling, debt increased Mortgages were being foreclosed by banks
  24. 24.  Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 cents Railroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially high Farmers got caught in a cycle of debt
  25. 25.  1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley - Grange Fought for farmer’s rights
  26. 26.  Populism – the movement of the people – 1892 – Populist Party started THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR
  27. 27.  economic - increase money supply (bimetallism - gold and silver standard), a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan program Political - direct election of senators, single terms for presidents for an 8-hour workday and reduced immigration
  28. 28.  In the 1892 Presidential election, the Populist candidate won almost 10% of the vote In the West, the party elected 5 senators, 3 governors and 1,500 state legislators James B Weaver
  29. 29.  The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign was which metal would be the basis of the nation’s monetary system Bimetallism (those who favored using both) vs. those that favored the Gold Standards alone
  30. 30.  Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinley  Democrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings Bryan  Despite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 electionBRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
  31. 31.  With McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, 2 Legacies 1) the downtrodden can organize and be heard and 2) An agenda of reforms, many of which would be enacted in the 20th century THE PEOPLE’S PARTY WAS SHORT-LIVED BUT LEFT AN IMPORTANT LEGACY

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