2014 bgri gichangi

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2014 bgri gichangi

  1. 1. Seed  Systems  and  Varietal  Adop2on   Behaviour  of  Wheat  Farmers  in  Kenya  Gichangi1*,  P.  Njau1,  S.  Bhavani2,  R.     Wanyera1,  L.  Karani1  ,  G.  Kamau,  and  M.  Gethi1                                                *  Contact  Person  –  wanjugu67@gmail.com     1Kenya  Agricultural  Research  Ins2tute                                            2CIMMYT  
  2. 2. Kenya’s wheat production statistics Ø Second most important crop after maize Ø Production 350,000 MT Ø Area 157,000 HA Ø Consumption 950,000 MT Ø Imports 600,000 MT
  3. 3. Produc2on  Structure   Small  scale    &  Large  Scale   Ø Small  scale  (2.5ha    -­‐  10ha)   §  80%  of  the  wheat  farmers   §  Tradi4onal  and  inefficient   §  Average  Yield  2.5t/  ha   §  Contribute  -­‐20%  of  na4onal  produc4on   Ø Large  scale:  (>  10ha)   §  20%  of  the  wheat  farmers   §  Advanced  Technology  and  efficient   §  Average  Yield  4-­‐6t/ha   §  Contribute  -­‐80%  of  the  na4onal  produc4on   Figure  1:  Wheat  growing  Regions  of   Kenya   Courtesy: Nasirembe
  4. 4.   AUer  all  this  what   next  ????????   Processing       Storage   Seed   Mul2plica2on   Quality  Control        Cer2fica2on    Kenya  Wheat  Seed  System   Ø Dissemina2on   and  Adop2on  
  5. 5. Problem  &  Objec2ve     •  Over  the  last  decade,  millions  of  Dollars  have   been   invested   in   the   development   of   new   wheat   varie4es,   yet   there   is   a   profound   adop4on   gap   par4cularly   among   smallholder   farmers.   •  Iden4fy  factors  Influencing  adop4on  of  the   improved  wheat  varie4es  in  Kenya  
  6. 6. Varietal Release Time Lag Varietal Adoption Farmers’ adoption behaviour Acreage planted with four varieties within 4 years
  7. 7. Factors  Influencing  Adop2on   •  Demographic  characteris4cs  of  the  farmers   •  Price  of  inputs  and  Accessibility     •  Own  output  price   •  Out  put  prices  for  other  compe4ng  commodi4es   •  Lack  of  contractual  agreements   •  Lack  of  Informa4on     •  Poor  dissemina4on  and  adop4on  pathways  
  8. 8. Variables Coefficient Standard Error T-statistics Mean Value Constant -7.3986*** 2.133 -3.4750 Age -0.0130 .01694 - .767 47.8332 Sex 0.3044 0.5432 0.564 0.4873 Marital Status -0.7251 0.5152 -1.414 0.6272 Farming Experience 0.1003*** 0.0353 2.847 20.5130 Education 0.2023*** 0.8653 2.873 0.1472 No. Extension Visit -0.941* 0.5723 -1.691 0.7472 Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved wheat varieties by farmers
  9. 9. Wheat  grain/Seed  market   structure   Line of equality Lorenz curve
  10. 10. 10       Frequency   Percent   Cumula2ve  Percent   None   79.2   72.0   72.0       oral  gentleman   agreement   30.8   28.0   100.0       Total   110.0   100.0       Specifica2on  of  the  Produc2on  Contract       Frequency   Percent   Cumula2ve  Percent   None   98.0   89.1   89.1       specifies   product   quan4ty   12.0   10.9   100.0       Total   110   100.0       Contractual  Agreements  
  11. 11. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Figure  8:  Farmer  sources  of  informa2on  on  new  seed     varie2es  
  12. 12.   Poor    road     infrastructure  &   post  handling   Constraints  Faced  by  small  scale  farmers   in  wheat  farming    
  13. 13. Ø New   varie2es   were   more  likely  to  be  used  by   large  scale  farmers   Ø Farmers  were  the  major   source   of   seed   for   over   half  of  wheat  producers  in   Kenya   Ø KSU  &  Kenya  seed  were   also   a   major   sources   of   seed       Sources  of  seed  for  farmers   67%   6%   3%   24%   Other  farmers   KARI  (KSU)   KSCo)   others  
  14. 14. Dissemina2on  &  Adop2on     The emerging declining trends of wheat yield necessitated dissemination and early adoption of new varieties Ø Dissemina4on   •  Sensitization workshops •  Shows •  Field days •  Demonstrations Ø Early  adop4on  Study   •  Surveys •  Focus group discussions
  15. 15. Conclusion   Ø Educated  farmers  have  a  higher  probability  of   adop4ng    new  wheat  varie4es   Ø The  introduc4on  of  new  wheat  varie4es  should   target  farmers  with  ample  wheat  farming   experience   Ø No  contractual  arrangements   Ø Wheat  grain  and  seed  trade  tend  to  monopoly     Ø Risk  Averse  farmers  will  not  adopt  a  variety  un4l   they  see  results  from  other  farmers  
  16. 16. …Conclusion   Ø New   varie4es   are   more   likely   to   be   used   by   large   scale  farmers   Ø Farmers   were   the   source   of   seed   for   over   half   of   wheat  producers  in  Kenya   Ø Kenya  seed  was  also  a  major  source  of  seed     Ø Farmers   cited   the   high   cost   of   seed   and   limited   availability  as    a  factor  hindering  varietal  change  
  17. 17.   Recommendations Ø Create awareness and enhance access to quality seeds Ø Enhance collective action Ø  Farmer groups should be trained on seed multiplication Ø A comprehensive survey and sensitization workshops to be done
  18. 18. Acknowledgements Director KARI Center Director – KARI-Njoro DRRW Project MoA, NGOs, and other stakeholders BGRI Technical Workshop Organizers
  19. 19. THANK YOU Improved seed= Improved yields=improve income and food security

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