2014 bgri dieseth presentation

298 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
298
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2014 bgri dieseth presentation

  1. 1. Wheat Rusts as a Potential Problem in Norwegian Wheat Cultivation Jon Arne Dieseth Graminor AS
  2. 2. Important wheat diseases in Norway n  Leaf blotch diseases n  Stagonospora nodorun most important n  Severity depends on amount and pattern of rainfall n  Fusarium head blight n  Fusarium graminearum most important n  Severe effects on yield and quality in seasons with rainfall at the time of heading and flowering n  Powdery mildew n  Most severe in relatively dry seasons
  3. 3. Wheat rusts in Norway n  Stripe rust n  Occasionally local outbreak n  Last epidemic in 1987 n  Leaf rust n  Often seen in southern areas late in the season n  Stem rust n  Rare n  Last epidemic in 1951
  4. 4. Wheat rusts in Norway n  Winter wheat varieties with relatively good resistance leave little inoculum in the field after the winter n  It appears like the rust inoculums do not survive the cold Norwegian winter on the winter wheat crop. n  Alternative host (wild barberry) is very rare.
  5. 5. Observed climatic changes in Southeast Norway (Oslo) Monthly mean temperature in the two coldest months y = 0,050x-103 R² = 0,0668 y = 0,053x-109 R² = 0,066 -12.0 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 January February
  6. 6. Observed climatic changes in Southeast Norway (Oslo) Monthly mean temperature in the two hottest months y = 0,036x - 53 R² = 0,1586 y = 0,030x - 43 R² = 0,0801 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 July August
  7. 7. Expected increase in mean temperature by year 2100 Norwegian Environment Agency DN-utredning 2006-2
  8. 8. Monthly mean temperature in Oslo compared to some other European capitals January -­‐4,3 4,9 10,2 4,9 9,0 February -­‐4,0 4,5 10,0 5,4 9,5 March -­‐0,2 2,7 8,2 5,0 8,6 April 4,5 1,6 5,4 4,4 6,3 May 10,8 0,3 2,5 3,5 4,0 June 15,2 -­‐0,4 1,0 1,9 2,3 July 16,4 0,5 2,2 2,8 3,6 August 15,2 1,5 3,4 3,7 4,8 September 10,8 2,3 5,1 3,7 5,8 October 6,3 2,8 6,1 3,4 6,2 November 0,7 4,2 8,0 4,0 7,2 December -­‐3,1 5,2 10,0 5,1 8,8 Month Monthly   mean         temp.  (°C)       in  Oslo Differences  in  monthly  mean  temperature   compared  to  Oslo Copen-­‐ hagen London Berlin Paris (Met. data from yr.no)
  9. 9. Clima&c  changes   Effects  on   the  wheat  rust   Higher  mean  winter  tempereature   More  inoculum   Few  very  cold  days   More  inoculum   Shorter  period  with  snow  cover   ?   Mild  and  wet  autumn  and  spring   ?   Warmer  summer  months   Faster  development   More  summer  rain  in  periods   ?   Expected effects of climatic changes on the rust situation in Norway
  10. 10. n  “Better” conditions for winter survival of inoculums n  Diseased fields closer to Norway n  Faster and more severe disease development in the growth season n  Higher risk for rust epidemic n  Stripe rust Effects of climatic changes on the rust situation in Norway
  11. 11. Strategies to avoid future wheat rust epidemics in Norway n  Winter wheat varieties with good rust resistance n  Reduce the amount of spring inoculums n  Fungicide application in the autumn to eradicate rust inoculums n  Rust resistant spring wheat varieties n  Difficult to breed for resistance to diseases that are not present n  Marker assisted selection
  12. 12. Marker assisted selection for horizontal resistance to powdery mildew (and rust) in Norway QTL % Powdery mildew % Leaf rust % Stripe rust None 79 91 77 Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 39 10 39 Lr46/Yr29/Pm39 39 26 49 3A-QTL 58 83 51 Lr34+Lr46 36 4 29 Lr34+Lr46+3A 14 2 24 Avocet 83 100 97 Saar 5 1 8 Lillemo 2008
  13. 13. Summary n  Rust diseases on wheat do, for the time being, not create serious damage in Norwegian wheat fields. n  Wheat rusts, especially stripe rust, is a potential treat. n  Forecasted climatic changes might enhance winter survival and summer development of wheat rusts. n  Problems with rust diseases are likely to increase. n  Resistant winter wheat varieties will be important to reduce spring inoculums. n  Breeding for horizontal resistance to powdery mildew, introducing genes with effect also on rust development, will be important for rust control
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention !

×