Workshop PBL Unand


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Workshop PBL Unand

  1. 1. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING MENGAPA BERUBAH ? Rahmatina B. Herman MEDICAL EDUCATION UNIT ( MEU ) Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Workshop Pengembangan Kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia Tenaga Akademik Berbasis Kompetensi Padang, 22 – 25 Desember 2005
  2. 2. Sejarah PBL <ul><li>Bukanlah hal yang baru </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1889, T.C. Chamberlin: ‘The methode of multiple working hypotheses’ ~ ‘problem-solving’ </li></ul><ul><li>2. 1916, Dewey: Perkenalkan mahasiswa dengan situasi kehidupan </li></ul><ul><li> nyata (real-life) dan fasilitasi agar mendapatkan </li></ul><ul><li> informasi untuk memecahkan masalah </li></ul><ul><li>3. 1930, Miller dan 1940, Katona: Ketidak efektifan metode pemberian </li></ul><ul><li> solusi (ready-made solution) pada </li></ul><ul><li> mahasiswa </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sejarah PBL <ul><li>Di dunia kedokteran: </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1961 , Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio: hybrid PBL </li></ul><ul><li>2. 1966 , Mc Master University Medical School, Canada: ‘double track’ </li></ul><ul><li> Mahasiswa PBL lebih baik: - motivasi </li></ul><ul><li>- solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>- self-study </li></ul><ul><li>3. 1973 , University of Newcastle, Australia </li></ul><ul><li> 1975, University of Limburg, Maastricht </li></ul><ul><li> PBL berkembang ke seluruh dunia (pendidikan kedokteran) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Apa itu PBL ? <ul><li>S uatu strategi pembelajaran : </li></ul><ul><li>menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusi nya </li></ul>
  5. 5. Apa itu PBL ? <ul><li>PBL is a learning method on principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition and integration of new knowledge (Barrows, 1982) . </li></ul><ul><li>In PBL students work on the problem which is explicitly used to get students themselves to identify and search for the knowledge that they need to obtain in order to approach the problem (Ross, 1991) . </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is considered as an educational strategy aiming at various educational goals and employing various formats. The common denominator in the various approaches is the emphasis on active learning using a problem as the stimulus and starting point for the learning process ( Bouhuijs, 1993 ). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Apa itu PBL ? <ul><li>Instructional method in PBL is characterized by the use of patient problems as a context for students to learn problem-solving skills and acquire knowledge about the basic and clinical sciences (Albanese & Mitchell, 1993) . </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is a pedagogical strategy for posing significant, contextualized, real world situations, and providing resources, guidance, and instruction to learners as they develop content knowledge and problem-solving skills (Mayo & Schwartz, 1993) . </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty objectives are translated into problems, usually consisting of a set of phenomena in need of some kind of explanation. Students analyze these problems, attempting to understand the underlying principles or processes through small-group discussion . During discussion, questions which remain unanswered are identified. These questions or learning issues serve as a guide for independent and self-directed learning (Dolman, 1994) . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Apa itu PBL ? <ul><li>PBL is an active learning stimulated by, and focused round a clinical, community or scientific problem (Davis and Harden, 1999) . </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is an education format that is centered on the discussion and learning that emanates from a clinically-based problem. It is a method that encourages independent learning and gives students practice in tackling puzzling situations and defining their own gaps in understanding in the context of relevant clinical problems, hopefully making it more likely that they will be able to recall the material later in the clinical setting (Pross, 2000) . </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is a method of learning in which students first encounter a problem , followed by a student-centered inquiry process (Neufeld & Barrows, 1974; Schmidt, 1993; Boud & Feletti, 1997; Barrows, 2000) . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Karakteristik PBL <ul><li>Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif; </li></ul><ul><li>Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui diskusi kelompok kecil dan semua anggota kelompok memberikan kontribusinya secara aktif; </li></ul><ul><li>Diskusi dipicu oleh masalah yang bersifat integrasi interdisiplin yang didasarkan pada pengalaman/kehidupan nyata; </li></ul><ul><li>Diskusi secara aktif merangsang mahasiswa untuk menggunakan prior knowledge nya </li></ul><ul><li>Mahasiswa terlatih untuk belajar mandiri dan diharapkan dapat menjadi dasar bagi pembelajaran seumur hidup; </li></ul><ul><li>Pembelajaran berjalan secara efisien, karena informasi yang dikumpulkan melalui belajar mandiri sesuai dengan apa yang dibutuhkannya ( need to know basis ); </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback dapat diberikan sewaktu tutorial, sehingga dapat memacu mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan usaha pembelajarannya; </li></ul><ul><li>Latihan keterampilan diberikan secara paralel. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Karakteristik PBL <ul><ul><li>PBL emphasizes active student-centered learning in which students are challenged to examine, inquire, reflect, make meaning, and understand the sciences basic to medicine as they develop approaches toward the solution of defined problems in a context relevant to their future professional careers ( Neufeld & Barrows,1974 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PBL occurs in small groups where each student must participate actively in the learning process of each member of the group. There is no place to hide passively. They begin to recognize the unique contributions that each individual can make to the performance of team ( Tosteson,1994 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some contents which are not relevant and are not appropriate for inclusion in the curriculum ; these can be discarded. Some contents which are not appropriate for students while they are undergraduates but may be appropriate and welcomed as part of postgraduate education ; these recognize the continuum of medical education – from undergraduate through postgraduate to continuing medical education ( Harden,1994 ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Karakteristik PBL <ul><li>The problem-based approach reaches the context of learning as it will be experienced in practice . Problems when properly constructed reveal the interdependence and simultaneous relevance of many issues , each one of which may be the basis of a specialty, department or discipline ( Tosteson, 1994 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The response to the problem of content overload is to make the education process more efficient so that the student can accept an increased content load. Strategies such as problem-based or task-based learning may lead to more efficient education. New technologies, such as computer-assisted learning, may also contribute to increased efficiency in education ( Harden, 1994 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Students can be encouraged to work harder – through incentives or by other forms of inducements such as examinations. ( Harden, 1994 ). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Karakteristik PBL <ul><li>The exploration of prior knowledge , the formulation of inquiries derived from and defined by the learners’ need to know , and the active construction of meaning through dialogue and reflection promote long-term retention of newly acquired information ( Schmidt, 1983; Regehr & Norman, 1996 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation in learning is more satisfying than passive transfer of information from the teacher to the student & active learning leads to enhance retention and recall ( Bransford., 2000 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion of problems in small groups (elaboration) may promote a connectedness of ideas and concepts , and fosters cooperation rather than competition among students ( Schmidt, 1983 & Moust, 2000 ). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tujuan PBL <ul><li>Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran mahasiswa yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah pembelajaran ( taxonomy of learning domains ). </li></ul><ul><li>- Di bidang kognitif ( knowledges ): berupa ilmu dasar dan ilmu terapan </li></ul><ul><li>secara terintegrasi; </li></ul><ul><li>- Di bidang psikomotor (skills): berupa scientific reasoning , critical </li></ul><ul><li>appraisal , information literacy , self- directed learning , life-long </li></ul><ul><li>learning ; </li></ul><ul><li>- Di bidang affektif ( attitudes ): berupa value of framework , hubungan </li></ul><ul><li>antar-manusia, yang berkaitan masalah psikososial ( psychosocial </li></ul><ul><li>issues ) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Teori Konstruktivis </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tujuan PBL <ul><ul><li>Problem-based learning (PBL) is grounded in the belief that learning is most effective when students are actively involved and learn in the context in which the knowledge is to be used. Problems act as stimulus and focus for student activity. Problem-based learning is not simply the addition of problem solving activities to otherwise discipline-centered curricula, but a way of shaping the learning programme of professional practice ( Boud and Feletti, 1997 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if knowledge acquisition and clinical skills are not improved by PBL, the enhanced work environment for students and faculty that has been consistently found with PBL is a worthwhile goal ( Albanese, 2000 ). </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>S tudent-centered </li></ul><ul><li>P roblem-based </li></ul><ul><li>I ntegrated teaching </li></ul><ul><li>C ommunity-oriented/-based </li></ul><ul><li>E lective / E arly clinical exposure </li></ul><ul><li>S ystematic / S elf-directed learning </li></ul>Strategi Pembelajaran PBL
  15. 15. Alasan Berubah General Reasons Cognitive Psychology Educational Background
  16. 16. Alasan Berubah Curriculum: learning objectives (competencies), L&T approach, assessment & learning environment should be evaluated & revised Science & technology Information & Communication Changes in community perception & knowledge to health issues Globalization High competitiveness High quality graduates: scientist- professional, lifelong learner, sensitive, creative, independent, innovative, critical thinking, ethics General Reasons
  17. 17. <ul><li>Constructivism theory </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting paradigm from teaching to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Research on learning formats </li></ul>Alasan Berubah Educational Background
  18. 18. <ul><li>Constructivism of learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a personal interpretation of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual growths comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity </li></ul>Alasan Berubah Educational Background
  19. 19. Alasan Berubah >16 th ? Age ? Psikologis Tidak terikat orang lain Mandiri Bertanggungjawab Dapat mengambil keputusan sendiri ? Biologis Tanda kelamin sekunder Definition Adult Educational Background
  20. 20. Adult learning Characteristics (Malcolm Knowles) 1. Adults are autonomous and self-directed 2. Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge 4. Adults are relevancy-oriented 3. Adults are practical
  21. 21. Andragogy Characteristics (Malcolm Knowles) 5. Adults are goal-oriented 6. Adults need to be shown respect
  22. 22. Adult learning theory Tasks should be relevant for the learner, motivation Learner is involved in setting educational goals Practice of all the skills Laidley & Braddock, 2000 Learning is within capacity of the learner Regular feedback is provided The learner can reflect on experiences
  23. 23. Reasons for Changes <ul><li>Shifting paradigm from teaching to learning </li></ul>Educational Background Alasan Berubah Teaching vs learning  Teacher centered  Knowledge transfer  Reinforces passiveness  Teachers provide answers  Teachers direct students  Student centered  Knowledge a cquisition  Reinforces activeness  Teachers ask questions  Teachers guide students
  24. 24. The Learning Pyramid Teach others Lecture Discussion group Demonstration Audiovisual Reading Practice by doing 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% Average Retention Rate National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA Alasan Berubah Educational Background Research on learning formats
  25. 25. <ul><li>Expertise research </li></ul>Novice Alasan Berubah Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Problem solving: - General skill </li></ul><ul><li> - Content specific </li></ul>
  26. 26. Tell me and I will forget Show me and I will remember Involve me and I will understand Step back and I will act
  27. 27. <ul><li>Implementasi PBL </li></ul><ul><li>di </li></ul><ul><li>Fakultas Kedokteran </li></ul><ul><li>Universitas Andalas </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>1994 BBM (Modul Demam, Ikterus) </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Kunjungan ke USM </li></ul><ul><li>1996 TA Prof. A. Rahman dari USM (3 bln) </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Kunjungan ke NUS & USM </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>2003 TA, Workshop, pelatihan tutor </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Kunjungan ke UGM, Unpad, UI </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Prof. Mathew Gwee ke FK – Unand </li></ul><ul><li>2004/2005 Implementasi Modifikasi Full PBL </li></ul>Sejarah PBL di FK – Unand
  30. 30. KEPUTUSAN SENAT FK-UNAND <ul><li>Menjalankan sistem pembelajaran “ Problem Based Learning “ secara full </li></ul><ul><li>Mulai TA. 2004 /2005 </li></ul>
  32. 32. SKEMA BLOK I N T E R N S H I P C L E R K S H I P 19 20 21 CLERKSHIP 13 14 15 16 17 18 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 th Year 5 th Year 4 th Year 3 rd Year 2 nd Year 1 st Year Research Seminar
  33. 33. KURIKULUM INTI <ul><li>1981 : KIPDI I </li></ul><ul><li>1993 : KIPDI II </li></ul><ul><li>2004 : KIPDI III (NCBC) </li></ul><ul><li>- 7 Area Kompetensi </li></ul><ul><li>- Dokter Layanan Primer </li></ul><ul><li>- Dokter Keluarga </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tahap Pendidikan Kedokteran (KIPDI III) <ul><li>Tahap 1. Semester I: </li></ul><ul><li>Pendidikan Dasar Umum </li></ul><ul><li>Tahap 2. Semester II-VII: </li></ul><ul><li>Pendidikan Kedokteran Terintegrasi </li></ul><ul><li>Tahap 3. Semester VIII-X: </li></ul><ul><li>Pengalaman Klinik (Cler k ship) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>1. Tutorial (small group discussion ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kuliah pakar (mini lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Belajar mandiri (self-learning) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Praktikum ilmu kedokteran dasar </li></ul><ul><li>5. S kills lab </li></ul><ul><li>6. Diskusi pleno </li></ul><ul><li>7 . Clerkship </li></ul><ul><li>8. Internship </li></ul>Strategi Pembelajaran: PBL (SPICES)
  36. 36. student module student student student student Tutorial tutor
  37. 37. Small Group Discussion
  38. 38. Encourage Teamwork
  39. 39. Self (Directed) Learning
  40. 41. EVALUASI <ul><li>Evaluasi terhadap mahasiswa </li></ul><ul><li>- tutorial: formulir terstruktur </li></ul><ul><li>- skills lab: OSCE (di akhir blok) </li></ul><ul><li>- written assessment: MCQ (di akhir blok) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluasi terhadap tutor (di akhir semester) </li></ul><ul><li>- oleh mahasiswa dengan formulir terstruktur </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluasi terhadap program (di akhir blok) </li></ul><ul><li>- oleh Komisi Monitoring dan Evaluasi MEU FK-UNAND </li></ul><ul><li>- input dari pengelola Blok, penulis skenario, tutor, </li></ul><ul><li> instruktur praktikum, mahasiswa. </li></ul>
  41. 42. TERIMA KASIH