Goals are general guidelines that explain what youwant to achieve in your community. They areusually long-term and represent global visionssuch as “protect public health and safety.”Objectives define strategies or implementationsteps to attain the identified goals. Unlike goals,objectives are specific, measurable, and have adefined completion date. They are more specificand outline the “who, what, when, where, andhow” of reaching the goals.“Why do we need to identify goals and objectives?”Plans and actions based on clear goals and objectives are more likely to succeed in meeting the community’sneeds.Sullivan, Christine A.. (1992). How to Get the Job Done. Journal of Systems Management, 43(2), 17. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 592164).Often, when new products or policies are introduced, no one is sure what needs to be done. The systems analyst is the perfect candidate to act as coordinator for new projects. The first step in making sure the job gets done is to make a checklist and an outline and to fill in the blanks. The next step is to let everyone else know what must be done. They should be assigned tasks and allowed to develop their own plans to ensure that goals are met on time. A work flow chart should be prepared to ensure that nothing is left undone. Simple, straightforward procedures can ensure that everyone's role has been addressed and that the appropriate controls are in place. Procedures provide a history of the project and a full picture of how the project is going to be handled. After the project has been put into effect, the systems analyst must check to see that everything was done correctly and determine what adjustments were made, or need to be made, to ensure that the main purpose of the project is achieved.
Georg, S., & Tryggestad, K.. (2009). On the emergence of roles in construction: the qualculative role of project management. Construction Management and Economics, 27(10), 969. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1907731541). Abstract (Summary)Within construction, roles are generally thought of in terms of a division of labour, tasks and responsibilities, established through contractual and/or cultural relations. Moreover, roles are also presumed to be relatively stable. Drawing upon actor network theory, roles are re-conceptualized and it is argued that roles are emergent and that they depend upon the tools and devices with which the project managers are equipped. A case study of the construction of a skyscraper, the 'Turning Torso', in Malmo, Sweden highlights the hybrid role of project management. In some instances project management may act as a mediator having qualitative effects on the project while in other instances project management may only be an intermediary, merely speeding up the process by conveying the concerns of others. The concept of qualculative project management is introduced to account for this emerging hybrid role. The analysis shows the ways in which the budget and other devices participates in enacting a qualculative role for project management, while simultaneously being involved in negotiating boundaries between professional roles in construction as well as the qualitative and quantitative properties of the building
Vance J. VanDoren. (2009, April). How Communications Help Integration Projects Succeed. Control Engineering, 56(4), 42-44. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1678364241).As much as 80% of project problems are due to a lack of proper communications between the client and the integrator, according to the results of a recent survey. System integrators share their experiences about how revealing everything to all stakeholders is a recipe for automation project success
Liang, T.. (2009). Fuzzy multi-objective project management decisions using two-phase fuzzy goal programming approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 57(4), 1407. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1897588391). In practical project management (PM) decision problems, environmental coefficients and related parameters are frequently fuzzy in nature, and a decision maker (DM) must simultaneously consider various conflicting objectives in a framework of imprecise aspiration levels. This work focuses on developing a two-phase fuzzy mathematical programming (TPFGP) approach for solving the multi-objective PM decision problems in a fuzzy environment. The original fuzzy multi-objective programming model designed here attempts to simultaneously minimize total project costs, total completion time and total crashing costs with reference to direct costs, indirect costs, contractual penalty costs, duration of activities and the constraint of available budget. An industrial case is used to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to real-world PM decisions. Consequently, the proposed approach yields an efficient solution and overall degree of decision maker (DM) satisfaction with the determined goal values. Several significant management implications relating to the practical application of the proposed approach are also presented. Overall, the main contribution of this work lies in presenting a two-phase fuzzy programming methodology for solving real-world PM decision problems with multiple objectives
If communication is the most important team characteristic, participation is the second most important. Without participation, you don’t have a team; you have a group of bodies.Anonymous, . LEADERSHIP THROUGH COLLABORATION AND HARMONY: HOW TO LEAD WITHOUT FORMAL AUTHORITY. (2009). Perspectives for Managers,(180), 1-4. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1929714881). The ATLAS detector is the largest, most complex scientific device ever built. It took the collaboration of 169 research institutions and national agencies from 37 countries and 2,500 scientists almost 20 years to imagine, design, fund, build, install and go operational with the ATLAS detector. The ATLAS management teams leadership style was more about stewardship -- encouraging participation and ideas rather than dictating and directing project evolution. Funds were allocated to ideas so that they could build momentum and grow. Regular meetings -- open to all -- facilitated the openness and knowledge sharing. CERN's role was to provide the legal structure and oversight processes to channel and realize the best ideas. Key to the ATLAS collaboration was the capacity of all involved to work for one another and go beyond personal recognition
Diversity goes far beyond gender and race. It also includes how people think, what experience they bring, and their styles. A diversity of thinking, ideas, methods, experiences, and opinions helps to create a high-performing teamTing-Peng Liang, Chih-Chung Liu, Tse-Min Lin, & Binshan Lin. (2007). Effect of team diversity on software project performance. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 107(5), 636. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1343827571). This research seeks to investigate the relationship between knowledge diversity (KD) in software teams and project performance. Previous research has shown that member diversity affects team performance; most of that work, however, has focused on diversity in personal or social attributes, such as gender or social category. Current research targets at the knowledge level aim to facilitate the implementation of knowledge management in organizations. A research framework was developed based on conflict theory and empirically tested on software teams in Taiwan. It was found that KD increases task conflict, which in turn has significant positive effects on team performance and that value diversity (VD) increases relationship conflict, which in turn negatively affects team performance. The findings indicate that task conflict can enhance team performance, while relationship conflict can reduce team performance. Therefore, it is important to maintain healthy relationships among team members. This research concludes that KD is beneficial and that VD is harmful to project outcome in software development. It is, therefore, useful for managers to form teams whose members encompass a broad knowledge base.
Conflict is essential to a team’s creativity and productivity. Because most people dislike conflict, they often assume that effective teams do not have it. In fact, both effective and ineffective teams experience conflict. The difference is that effective teams manage it constructively. In fact, effective teams see conflict as positive.Managed conflict ensures that problems are not swept under the rug. It means that the team has discussed members’ points of view about an issue and has come to see well-managed conflict as a healthy way to bring out new ideas and to solve whatever seems to be unsolvableLiu, J., Chen, J., Klein, G., & Jiang, J.. (2009). THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF CONFLICT ON THE INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS, PRODUCT, AND PROJECT. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 49(4), 98-104. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1839204961). Prior research in information systems generally finds that conflict during development can only have a negative impact and cannot be controlled even through effective processes. However, the literature examines direct impact to project success measures without considering the process as a mediator nor possible beneficial effects on criteria other than traditional measures of project budget and schedule. We extend the study of conflict by considering the quality of the software product in addition to the project measures and include the process as a specific mediator. Results from a survey of system developers finds that conflict does indeed impact both measures negatively and is not fully mediated by effective processes. Researchers and practitioners should turn their attentions earlier in a development project to prevent the detrimental effects of conflict
To be truly successful, a team must have a climate of trust and openness, that is, a positive atmosphere. A positive atmosphere indicates that members of the team are committed and involved. It means that people are comfortable enough with one another to be creative, take risks, and make mistakes. It also means that you may hear plenty of laughter, and research shows that people who are enjoying themselves are more productive than those who dislike what they are doing.Anonymous, . LEADERSHIP THROUGH COLLABORATION AND HARMONY: HOW TO LEAD WITHOUT FORMAL AUTHORITY. (2009). Perspectives for Managers,(180), 1-4. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1929714881). The ATLAS detector is the largest, most complex scientific device ever built. It took the collaboration of 169 research institutions and national agencies from 37 countries and 2,500 scientists almost 20 years to imagine, design, fund, build, install and go operational with the ATLAS detector. The ATLAS management teams leadership style was more about stewardship -- encouraging participation and ideas rather than dictating and directing project evolution. Funds were allocated to ideas so that they could build momentum and grow. Regular meetings -- open to all -- facilitated the openness and knowledge sharing. CERN's role was to provide the legal structure and oversight processes to channel and realize the best ideas. Key to the ATLAS collaboration was the capacity of all involved to work for one another and go beyond personal recognition
Glancszpigel, D.. (2009, October). Key Strategies for Planning & Executing Successful Global Clinical Trials. Pharmaceutical Executive: THE SUCCESSFUL PRODUCT MANAGER'S HANDBOOK, 10, 4-7,9-11. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1906730101). The successful execution of a clinical trial means the project is finished on time, on budget, and has a high level of quality. Before defining time, budget, and quality metrics, a comprehensive project plan is required, otherwise objectives will not he realistic. The main purpose of planning is to anticipate all possible actions that will take place throughout the project. One of the main issues when creating a project plan is to design a system where the project team does not have to start from scratch every time there is a new clinical trial. Once the project plan template is developed and implemented, the project manager should customize the tool according to the study-specific requirements. Then, lock the planning by saving the baseline. The success of any project is in the planning phase. If all the steps to achieve the goals in the project are defined at the outset, including timelines, and they are understood by the project team, the chances of failure are much lower.
The participative leadership block is not at the top of the model because it is the most important. It is at the top because it is the only block that can be removed without disturbing the rest. Participative leadership means that leaders share the responsibility and the glory, are supportive and fair, create a climate of trust and openness, and are good coaches and teachers.In general, it means that leaders are good role models and that the leadership shifts at various times. In the most productive teams, it is difficult to identify a leader during a casual observation.In conclusion, a high-performing team can accomplish more together than all the individuals can apart.Davis M Woodruff. (2009, December). What are the 10 secrets of successful leaders? Hydrocarbon Processing,27-30. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. (Document ID: 1939160211). Secret No. 1: Treat people right. Successful leaders work to earn the respect of the people who report to them and of the people with whom they interact. This means supervisors, employees, co-workers, customers and suppliers. The attitudes that employees develop toward their bosses are based upon the qualities and actions of the person in charge. Employee attitudes are critical to the leader's success, as well as to the productivity in the workplace. The "top secret" is to treat all people with dignity and regard them as individuals. Really, just treat others like you would want to be treated, to paraphrase the "Golden Rule.”Secret No. 2: Define expectations for each employee. Every employee has a need and a right to know what their boss expects. Managers (leaders) have a responsibility to define and communicate expectations for each employee. Failure to do so leads to frustration and poor performance. If you want to reduce stress and frustration, then make this secret work for you and your organization.Secret No. 3: Have a clear vision and articulate it. Vision is simply looking ahead and seeing the things others don't see, and providing a long-term sense of direction for the organization. Spend time to look beyond today. Look ahead 5 or 10 years and make your best estimate of what needs to happen in your business unit, operating unit or overall business to continue being successful.Secret No. 4: Delegate effectively. Delegation is making effective work assignments based on the competencies of your people. Many managers today are overloaded with work, and yet they fail to realize the importance of effective delegation. Successful managers or leaders know what can and should be delegated. They make the assignments and then leave their people alone to get the job done. Ineffective leaders will take care of many tasks themselves, stay busy and then fail to fulfill their role as a manager.Secret No. 5: Pay attention to details. The details that we are talking about are little things but they make the difference between success and failure.Secret No. 6: Evaluate alternatives. Alternatives are the different potential courses of action to resolve a problem, a workplace situation or to achieve an objective. Failure often comes from a single-minded approach to problems. Being "boxed in" without understanding alternative recourses can lead to even more trouble in some situations.Secret No. 7: Ask the right questions. Sometimes simply knowing the right questions to ask can make a person much more successful as a leader. Of course, the simple "why?", when asked about five times, can help us get to the root cause of many problems. Generally, we arrive at the root cause about the third or fourth time we ask "why." Secret No. 8: Know when to make exceptions. An exception is when a policy, work rule or procedure is knowingly violated in the interest of an employee, customer or business need. While it's important to follow work rules and procedures, there are times in the real world when work rules or procedures may restrict a manager from acting in the best interest of an employee, a customer or a business.Secret No. 9: Be decisive. General George Patton said, "When in command, command." In the business world, the workforce is looking for leaders who will make decisions based on the facts of the situation and not just "what someone will accept." So when you are the leader, lead!Secret No. 10: Follow up to let people know you care. Follow-up is just letting people know that you care by seeing that work assignments are performed properly. Effective follow-up is not "looking over the shoulder" of an employee, but rather asking how the work is progressing or observing results. It lets the employee know that the work is important and you care. When the boss doesn't care enough to follow up, why should anyone else care?
Beatriz García<br />Project Management. Ten Tips<br />
Tip 1. Clearly defined goals and objectives<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 2. Clearly defined roles<br />If you don’t know where you’re going, no road will take you there.<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 3. Good communication<br />Tell me and I'll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I'll understand[Chinese Proverb]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 4. Decisions<br />Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than being able to decide. [NapoleanBuonaparte]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 5. Participation<br />We ourselves feels that we are doing is just a drop in the ocean. But the ocean would be less because of that missing drop. [Mother Teresa of Calcutta]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 6. Diversity<br />Valued diversity is at the heart of building a team. Team members are valued for the unique contributions that they bring to the team.<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 7. Managing conflicts<br />May the pain you have known and the conflict you have experienced give you the strength to walk through life facing each new situation with courage and optimism.<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 8. Atmosphere & Project Management role<br />Project managers function as bandleaders who pull together their players each a specialist with individual score and internal rhythm. Under the leader's direction, they all respond to the same beat. [L.R. Sayles]<br />True motivation comes from achievement, personal development, job satisfaction, and recognition. [Frederick Herzberg]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 9. Scheduling & Planning<br />Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.[Sun Tzu c. 490 BC, Chinese military strategist]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Tip 10. Leadership<br />“Of all the things I've done, the most vital is coordinating the talents of those who work for us and pointing them towards a certain goal.” [Walt Disney]<br />Beatriz García<br />
Beatriz García<br />Project Management. Ten Tips<br />