Critical thinking bs detector

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Critical thinking bs detector

  1. 1. CRITICAL THINKING: How To Be Your Own ‘BS’ Detector. Group Colloquium Project English 100-71 Mr. Ganter
  2. 2. GROUP READINGS “Chapter 1: An Appeal to Students,” 3-16, M. Savio, “An End to History,” 17-19 “Chapter 6: From Cocksure Ignorance to Thoughtful Uncertainty,” p. 125-147 “Chapter 7: Overgeneralization, Stereotyping, and Prejudice,” p. 153-162 “Chapter 3: Definitions and Criteria of Critical Thinking,” 54-68
  3. 3. What To Expect?
  4. 4. Chapter 3: Definitions and Criteria of Critical Thinking
  5. 5. Critical Points:  1980 American educators began to identify critical thinking as a subject that needed to be brought into high schools and colleges  Definitions: - Being recursive involves the process of rereading as many times as necessary to decode the authors full, complex meaning. - Cumulativeness refers to the continuous building and holding of knowledge, ideas, and reasoning throughout a particular work -A Rogerian Argument is a form of discussion based on finding common ground, it helps us get outside of our own egos and empathize with others’ viewpoints
  6. 6. Critical Points: cont.  Ethnocentrism is the belief in the superiority of ones own ethnic group - Egocentrism: the tendency to perceive, understand and interpret the world in terms of the self.  Criteria: - Analytic and synthetic skills include the ability to reason back and forth and connect ] the concrete and abstract; personal and impersonal; literal and figurative; explicit and implicit; actual and hypothetical. - Analytic and synthetic skills also include the abilities to understand multiple levels of meaning, points of view, to recognize irony, paradox, and ambiguity between what is said and meant.
  7. 7. Critical Points: cont.  - Higher order thinking is the ability to retain and apply material previously studied and to sustain an extended line of argument in reading, writing, and speaking, and also incorporating recursive and cumulative thinking. (Meaning: the ability to refer back to previously covered material and to build on it) - Higher Order Thinking further contributes to making connections between diverse experiences, ideas, and subjects studied through analysis and synthesis
  8. 8. Chapter 7: Overgeneralization, Stereotyping and Prejudice.
  9. 9. Overgeneralizations and Stereotypes: -Overgeneralizations are the most common type of logical fallacies. -Critical thinkers must draw the line at the degree to which one can generalize. -Never say “all” ,”always” and “never” and if you must, say “most”- and you better back it up with some evidence. Prejudiced- An ad hominen fallacy is when you disagree with an argument in a paper instead of judging it on its own merits or prejudging it. Prejudice happens in many forms through comedy and blatantly assuming a whole race is the same at a certain skill for example, driving.
  10. 10. Overgeneralizations and Stereotypes: Cont. There are two other classes of prejudice: Class prejudiced and Reverse prejudice Class prejudice- seeing certain ethnics groups as being poor and purposefully deterring them from getting ahead and allowing the rich to get ahead instead .An example would be when the government hands out grants to seemingly poor corporations, in “need “ of money. The wealthy through business entertaining ( a euphemism for bribery) has a way of obtaining funds.
  11. 11. Overgeneralizations and Stereotypes: Cont. Reverse prejudice-This is often the case of preferential treatment of a class of people who have been discriminated against in the past. This is used as a reason for people to discriminate against a group. Either you discriminate or you. This would be the fallacy “equal and opposite extremes.”
  12. 12. Chapter 6: From Cocksure Ignorance to Thoughtful Uncertainty
  13. 13. BIASED AND UNBIASED VIEWPOINTS: - Every reader has a viewpoint/opinion - We should aim to always identify and understand others viewpoints - Bias- is usually just a viewpoint and we are ALL biased because of the life we live. The word ‘bias’ usually comes with a negative connotation. - Skepticism- it is necessary to be skeptic when writing an essay so that we can separate rationally legitimate from false. Skepticism is not only to belittle others beliefs and values.
  14. 14. BIASED AND UNBIASED VIEWPOINTS: cont. “To be a good student we must accept our own ignorance or become susceptible to being biased.” “We don’t know what we don’t know.” - We as students must aim to be objective when essay writing and critical thinking, and to be that way we must be aware of our personal biases. - It is always hard to identify our own biases but easy to pick out others. We must use the ‘ESBYODS’ Rule. “Everybody sh*ts but your own don’t stink.”
  15. 15. BIASED AND UNBIASED VIEWPOINTS: cont.  People are biased because of partisan ideology, gender, race, culture, social class, age etc.  When writing an essay: be a skeptic, present ideas that oppose your own, then refute them politely. If you present ideas that oppose your own you will be more credible.  **ESSENTIAL sometimes opposing sides will not have equal evidence, don’t let your quest for being fair let you give more credit or weight to a side than is due.  Do not feel obligated to providing private anecdotes when acknowledging your biases.
  16. 16. TOTEMS AND TABOOS:  We go through life defending some things because they ‘just are’ or ‘have always been that way’ e.g.) beliefs, customs, habits and routines.  We blindly worship these things as Totems and Taboos  We blindly conform to these things as a method of preservation. We don’t want to lose how things have been.  But sometimes Totems and Taboos blind us of Right vs. Wrong. E.g.) Slavery, slavery was always done but is slavery right?
  17. 17. ETHNOCENTRISM:  “Ours is best!” “We’re #1” Attitude.  Refers to life viewed by one ethnic group, sometimes this view is prejudice, mistaken or misinformed.  We learn to think beyond our culture and upbringing as we mature and start to think independently.  Nationalistic ethnocentrism is common in most countries.  Ethnocentrism often leads to denial and defense mechanisms.
  18. 18. Chapter 1: An Appeal to Students
  19. 19. Chapter 1: And M. Savio, “An End to History.”
  20. 20. An Appeal to Students- Critical Points: -politics are interested in you whether or not you are interested in them -we must get over our lazy uncritical attitude, this will happen without us if we don’t participate -this means participating in politics -this means in examining our presuppositions -this means examining our role models -this means ensuring we are able to detect lies and promote truth
  21. 21. “An End to History”- Critical Points: -bureaucratic abuses in university and else where -contesting the view of bureaucrats that history has ended -fighting despite the bleak outlook to ensure that history continues as it should
  22. 22. WORKS CITED: 1. Lazere, Donald, ed. Reading and Writing for Civic Literacy. Boulder: Paradigm, 2009. Print.
  23. 23. STARRING:  Kendra Graham  Micah Harding  Tracey Klein  Victoria DeHart

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