Biology Lab Book

8,405 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,405
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Biology Lab Book

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 LABS THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY NAME__________________________ LAB 1A – SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATIONSMATERIALS: peanuts pencil metric ruler string balance graduated cylinderINTRODUCTION: Being a scientist requires good skills in data collection. There are two types of data we will be collecting this year.Qualitative Data is data using words or pictures. Some examples would be to describe the color of an object or makea drawing of the object. Qualitative data typically requires using one of your senses. The other type of data isQuantitative Data. Quantitative data is data in numbers. . For example, the mass of an object is 25.5 grams or thelength of an object is 7.8 cm. Think of a quantity of something.PROCEDURE:1. You and your partner will receive a bag of peanuts. Without looking in the bag, remove a peanut. If it is cracked or broken, set it aside and remove another. When you have found a peanut that is not discolored or broken, proceed to step 2.2. In the box below, record at least two types of qualitative data3. In the box below, record at least three types of quantitative data.4. When you have recorded as many observations as you can, return the peanut to the bag. Mix up the peanuts and use your notes to find your peanut again.5. Once you have found your peanut again, check your observations and measurements so that they are as accurate as possible. Your teacher will give you the next step in this investigation. It will be a realistic test of how careful you were in your observations and note-taking. Record the class data in the table below Found own Peanut YES NO YES NO 1
  2. 2. RESULTS:Make a bar graph to compare the percentage of people whose peanut was found.People often confuse observations with inferences. Observations are collected on the scene, using your senses.Inferences are ideas or conclusions based on what you observe or already know. Based on this distinction, which ofthe following statements are observations (O) and which are inferences (I)? a) ______ The shell will crack easily. b) ______The shell has a rough surface. c) ______The shell is uniformly colored. d) ______The shell has 2 lobes and is smaller in diameter between them. e) ______The peanut has a skin around them. f) ______The peanuts are roasted. g) ______The surface markings on the shell are in rows, running lengthwise. h) ______The shell has 13 rows of surface markDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What is the purpose of this lab?2. Include the percentage of class who were able to find their own peanut and the percentage who were able to find the other person’s peanut.3. Give a reason why the percentage went down when it came to finding another person’s peanut. LAB 1B – DESIGNING CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTSMATERIALS: potting soil plant pots metric ruler seedsPROCEDURE:2
  3. 3. 1. In this lab you are going to design your own controlled experiment. You will be measuring the growth of a plant when one variable is affected.2. The first step is to determine what your problem will be. Select a variable in which to test. A sample of variables is listed below. You may choose one of these or make up one of your own. type of soil type of water temperature amount of soil amount of water light PLANNING THE EXPERMIMENT Our research question is: Our hypothesis is: because: The independent variable is: The dependent variable is: Materials Needed to Diagram of Setup: bring in: Controlled Variables:DATA: LENGTH OF GRASS (cm) AVG. LENGTH (cm) DAY Experimental Control Experimental Control 3
  4. 4. Conclusion: Discussion: What does it mean? WRITING A LAB REPORT1. TITLE The title adequately describes the contents of the paper in as few words as possible. The independent and dependent variable as well as the population or organisms being studied must be mentioned. The title is written as a statement. (1 sentence)2. HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis states in one sentence what the outcome of the research project MIGHT be. The hypothesis should always be written before the experiment has started. The hypothesis cannot be marked right or wrong. Your results will determine whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. A hypothesis is always written as an “If... then...” statement. The If... statement is a reason for your prediction and the then... statement is your prediction. (1 sentence)3. MATERIALS AND METHODS The materials and methods section describes how the study was done. There should be enough detail to allow someone to replicate your experiment. Not only are you describing how the experiment was done, but what materials you used to complete the experiment. Do not make a list of these materials, rather include them in your summary.(3 - 4 sentences)4. RESULTS The results section presents the data that was found. Data is represented in a table, graph, or both. The tables and graphs should be made properly and lack mistakes. Graphs need to be on graph paper. Qualitative data should also be included. (1 page)5. CONCLUSION Based on the data, state your conclusion to the experiment. This will be followed by a summary of the data in paragraph form. (1 paragraph)6. DISCUSSION The discussion begins with the hypothesis being accepted or rejected based on the results collected. The discussion section must included an analysis of the results and form conclusions based on the analysis. The data must be interpreted (1 paragraph)7. PROPER ORDER In a lab report, a particular format must be used. Each of the sections must be labeled (except the title) and in the proper order. For example, do not place your results after your conclusion or discussion. The results must appear after the Materials and Methods and Conclusion TITLE CONCLUSION _____ (1) Includes independent & dependent variable _____ (1) Conclusion clearly stated4
  5. 5. _____ (1) Accurately describes lab in statement form _____ (1) Results summarized in paragraph form HYPOTHESIS DISCUSSION _____ (1) Written as an If…then… statement _____ (4) Results are interpreted _____ (1) then… component is a prediction _____ (1) Hypothesis revisited _____ (1) If… component is a reason for prediction PAPER PRESENTATION MATERIALS & METHODS _____ (1) Includes all headings in the proper order (not part of 20 points) _____ (1) Accurate & concise description of procedure _____ (1) Includes all materials used in experiment (not a list) GRADING SCALE 18-20 = A RESULTS 16-17 = B _____ (3) Properly displays all relevant data 14-15 = C _____ (1) Tables & graphs labeled properly 12-13 = D _____ (1) Neatness of data – uses graph paper 11  = F _____ (1) Includes qualitative data EXAMPLE OF A LAB REPORT EFFECTS OF AGE ON CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETESHYPOTHESIS: If a person has more years of training as an athlete, then the older athletes will be better shape thanyounger athletes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten athletes from each grade level (9-12) were selected at random. At the start of the experiment,each person had their pulse rate recorded for one minute using a stop watch. The subjects were in astanding position. Each subject received a jump rope and jumped continuously for two minutes. After thetwo minutes, their pulse was recorded again for one minute.RESULTS: Data table 1 AGE AVG. PULSE RATE 15 117 16 115 17 112 18 110 120 115 5 110
  6. 6. Avg.Pulse Qualitative DataRate(bpm) It was a hot day and all the participants were sweating profusely. 16 15 17 18 Age (years)CONCLUSION: The older the athlete, the better cardiovascular fitness they are in. The data shows that the youngerthe age, the higher the pulse rate. According to data table 1, the average 15 year old had a pulse rate of117, the 16 year olds had a rate of 115, the 17 year olds had a rate of 112, and the 18 year olds had a pulserate of 110.DISCUSSION: The data does support my original hypothesis as the older students a lower pulse rate than theyounger students. This may be due to the fact that they older students have had more time andopportunity to participate in organized activities where they need to stay physically fit. Also the 18 yearolds are reaching physical maturity while the younger students are still undergoing change. Because theyare more physically mature, their bodies are able to reach normal levels quicker than a growing andchanging body.6
  7. 7. LAB 1C – WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF THREE SOLUTIONS ON POTATO CORES?MATERIALS: graduated cylinder 3 test tubes metric ruler balance cork borer scalpel dissecting needle cork potato test tube rack 20% sugar solution 10% sugar solutionPROCEDURE:1. Using a cork borer, cut 3 cores from a potato. With the scalpel, trim each core so that it is at least 30mm long. Make all cores as nearly the same length as possible. Keep these cores separated and identify them as core A, core B, and core C.2. Measure the length and diameter of each core to the nearest millimeter and record the measurement in the table.3. Measure the volume of each core by the following method. Pour water into the graduated cylinder until it is half full. Hold the cylinder at eye level and read the line on the level with the lower part of the curved surface of the water. This curved liquid surface is called the meniscus. Record this exact amount of water. Holding the core by a dissecting needle, sink it just under the water’s surface and record the new water level. The difference between the 2 water levels represents the volume of the core in milliliters. Record the volume of each core in your data table.4. Mr. Furlong will show you how to use the electronic balance. Blot dry the cores with paper towels. Determine the mass of each core to the nearest 0.1 gram. Again, record your results in the data table.5. Place each core in the different test tube and label each test tube A, B, or C, according to the core identification. Pour distilled water (100% water) onto test tube A until core A is covered. Add a 10% sugar solution in water (90% water) to test tube B until core B is covered; then add a 20% sugar solution in water (80% water) to test tube C in the same way. Cork each test tube. Store the test tubes in a test tube rack until your next class period.DATA: CORE A CORE B CORE C Difference Difference DifferenceMeasurement 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day 2nd Day ( + or – ) ( + or – ) ( + or – ) length (mm) diameter (mm) volume (mL) 7
  8. 8. Rigidity(+, ++, +++, ++ ++) mass (g)RESULTS:1. Plot the changes in mass of the 3 cores on the graph below.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Recopy your graph from the results section above.2. Predict the water concentration at which a potato core would not change its mass. Use your graph.3. What is the relationship between the concentration of water and the change of mass in the potato cores?4. Hypothesize why the mass changed in the different water concentrations? (Does not have to be an If…then… statement) LAB 1D – DO ACTIVE LIVING THINGS GIVE OFF A COMMON SUBSTANCE?MATERIALS: phenol red limewater carbonated water paper towels acid straws test tube rack test tubes yeast-sugar solution cork brass screws dry seeds sprouted seeds live insect dead insect boiled yeast-sugar solutionPROCEDURE:Part A: Testing Materials with Phenol Red1. Set up 7 test tubes in a test tube rack and add 10 drops of phenol red solution to each test tube. Tilt each tube and gently slide a bolt to the bottom. Now, add the following materials to each test tube. Tube 1: Nothing Tube 2: A small, rolled piece of paper towel moistened with a yeast-sugar solution. Tube 3: A similar piece of paper towel moistened with boiled yeast-sugar solution. Tube 4: 10 small dry pea seeds.8
  9. 9. Tube 5: 10 sprouted pea seeds. Tube 6: A live cricket. Tube 7: A dead cricket.2. Cork the test tubes after all the tubes have been prepared. Watch for changes in the phenol red solution and record the approximate time required for the change to take place.Part B: Determine the Meaning of the Phenol Red1. Set up 6 test tubes in a rack and label them 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.2. In test tubes 8, 9, and 10 place 10-12 drop of phenol red. Fill tubes 11, 12, and 13 about 1/4 full of limewater. Record your indicator changes as the following substances are added. Tube 8: 5 drops of acid. Tube 9: 10 drops of carbonated water Tube 10: Your breath blown through a straw for 30 seconds into the phenol red solution. Tube 11: 20 drops of acid. Tube 12: 10 drops of carbonated water. Tube 13: Your breath blown through a straw into the limewater for 30 seconds.DATA: Tube # Material Added Indicator Change Time for Change 1 2 3 4 5 9
  10. 10. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. According to the results of the tests in tubes 8 and 9, what kind of substance does carbon dioxide form when it is dissolved in water?2. What is the evidence that shows your breath contains a substance that forms an acid when mixed with the water of the phenol red solution?3. What do the materials that caused an indicator change in Part A have in common? CHAPTER 3 LABS THE BIOSPHERE NAME__________________________ LAB 3A – ACID RAIN AND SEED GERMINATIONMATERIALS: petri dish paper towels scissors ruler pH water cornPROCEDURE:1. Make a hypothesis about which pH will the corn grow best in. Write your hypothesis in the space below. Also include a reason for choosing that pH.10
  11. 11. 2. Cut four discs the size of the petri dish from the paper towel.3. Dampen the discs with water assigned to you. Record the pH of the water. pH = ______________4. Place two of the paper discs on the bottom of the petri dish. DAY LENGTHS AVERAGE5. Use the ruler to measure the lengths of your four seeds in millimeters. Determine the average length and record under Day 0 in your data table.6. Sketch the shape of the seeds and note their color.7. Arrange the seeds in the petri dish and cover with the two remaining discs. Make sure the discs are still moist.8. Place the lid on the petri dish and label with your team name.DATA: pH / Day 2 3 4 5 6 7 RainwaterDraw your seeds. Day 1 Last Day 11
  12. 12. LAB REPORT INFORMATION: RESULTS:TITLE: IV – DV – Subj –HYPOTHESIS: Must be written as an If…then… statement If… is the reason for your prediction then… is your prediction CONCLUSION: State your conclusionMATERIALS AND METHODS: Summarize your data DISCUSSION: Accept or reject your hypothesis Interpret your data LAB 3B – THE ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDYMATERIALS: sling psychrometer relative humidity tablesPROCEDURE:1. You will be taking the relative humidity at 3 separate locations a) in the field (dense vegetation) b) in the grass (little vegetation) c) in the parking lot (no vegetation)2. Swing the sling psychrometer for 30 seconds close to the ground. Record the wet bulb reading and the dry bulb reading.3. Wait one minute between readings. Hold the thermometers in your hand.4. Repeat this procedure so the sling psychrometer is waist height. Record temperatures. Then repeat at a height above the head.5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 in the other two areas.DATA:12
  13. 13. Location Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative HumidityLocation Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative HumidityLocation Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative Humidity 13
  14. 14. RESULTS:1. Graph the relative humidity v. height for each of the 3 locationsDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Recopy the graph.2. What is the relationship between the amount of vegetation and relative humidity? LAB 3C – YOUR PERSONAL FOOD WEBPROCEDURE:1. Make a list of all the foods you ate yesterday.2. Separate these items into foods that came from animals and foods that came from plants. Many foods are a combination of items. Such as: Bread Cake Pizza flour – wheat flour – wheat flour - wheat sugar – sugar beet eggs – chicken sauce – tomato sugar – sugar beets pepperoni – pig cheese – cow3. For each animal you have listed, add at least one food it would eat to the plant list.14
  15. 15. 4. Across the bottom of a blank sheet of paper, write the names of all the plants listed. In a row above this, listall the animals, and above this, write the word ME.5. Add some decomposers to the bottom of the paper.6. Add some animals that you compete with you for this food.7. Draw arrows to show the energy flow in this food web.8. Draw a picture of each type of organism on your food web. LAB 3D – ENERGY NEEDS OF A SECONDARY CONSUMERMATERIALS: tweezers dissecting needle owl pellet ruler balancePROCEDURE:1. On a sheet of white paper, carefully unwrap the owl pellet. Measure its length, width, and mass. Record below. Length Mass Width2. Using the dissecting needle and tweezers, carefully pick apart the pellet. (you may want to soak it in warm water in a beaker for a few minutes first) Look carefully for bones, many of which are very tiny. Separate the bones from the other materials.3. Examine the bones. Look for skulls, skull bones, or lower jaw bones. Use the diagrams to identify the rodent prey.4. Most pellets contain cones of small, mouse-like rodent called a meadow mouse or vole (Microtus). pair into right and left halves any vole jaw bones in your pellet.5. Measure, in millimeters, the length of each vole jaw, as shown in the picture below. Be sure to measure eachjaw only once. Record these measurements in your table and on the whiteboard. Record the class data.6. The pellet is waste material from live prey that does not passcompletely through the digestive tract. To determine howmuch food energy the pellet represents, you will relate jaw lengthto live mass of vole. This relationship is an estimate, becausethe condition of each vole differs, depending on its age, health,nutritional state, the season, and other factors. Use thisgraph to complete the table in your data sheet 15
  16. 16. 7. If there are remains of other animals in your pellet, treat them as if they were voles, using the graph to estimate their massDATA: ESTIMATED LIVE MASS PREY SPECIES JAW LENGTH (mm) (g) TOTAL GROUP AVERAGE CLASS AVERAGERESULTS:1. Use the class data to prepare a histogram of jaw lengths. Label the x-axis vole jaw length (mm) and the y-axis frequency.16
  17. 17. 2. Assuming an average of 1.5 pellets per day, how much food (in grams) does the owl that produced your pellet eat per day? (Your average live mass x 1.5)3. A single pellet may not be from a typical day. The average of the data of all pellets examined in class provides a better estimate. From the class data, determine the average number of prey eaten by a barn owl per day. (average # of prey per day = class avg. # of prey per pellet x 1.5)4. What is the average mass of prey eaten by a barn owl per pellet? What is the average mass of prey eaten by a barn owl per day? (Avg. mass of prey eaten per pellet = class avg. mass x avg. # of prey per pellet) (Avg. mass of prey eaten per day = class avg. mass x avg. # of prey per day)DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Show your work and answer results question #2.2. Show your work and answer results question #3.3. Show your work and answer results question #4.4. Draw a food energy pyramid of the owls, the prey they eat, and the producers. (Assume all prey are herbivores) CHAPTER 4 LABS ECOSYSTEMS AND COMMUNITIES LAB 4A – CLIMATOGRAMMATERIALS:Climatogram Data SheetPROCEDURE:1. Using the data from the Climatogram Data Sheet on the next page, construct your unknown climatogram.2. Determine which biome is your unknown biome be comparing your climatogram with the ten known climatograms from pages 112-115 in your textbook. 17
  18. 18. 3. Using the data table, construct the climatogram from the Bowling Green area. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec T 1.1 1.7 6.1 12.2 17.8 22.2 25.0 23.3 20.0 13.9 7.8 2.2 1. P 8.1 7.6 8.9 8.4 9.2 9.9 11.2 10.2 7.9 7.9 6.4 7.9 T 10.6 11.1 12.2 14.4 15.6 19.4 21.1 21.7 20.0 16.7 13.9 11.1 2. P 9.1 8.9 8.6 6.6 5.1 2.0 0.5 0.5 3.6 8.4 10.9 10.4 T 25.6 25.6 24.4 25.0 24.4 23.3 23.3 24.4 24.4 25.0 25.6 25.6 3. P 25.8 24.9 31.0 16.5 25.4 18.8 16.8 11.7 22.1 18.3 21.3 29.2 T 12.8 15.0 18.3 21.1 25.0 29.4 32.8 32.2 28.9 22.2 16.1 13.3 4. P 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.0 T -3.9 -2.2 1.7 8.9 15.0 20.0 22.8 21.7 16.7 11.1 5.0 -0.6 5. P 2.3 1.8 2.8 2.8 3.2 5.8 5.3 3.0 3.6 2.8 4.1 3.3 T -22.2 -22.8 -21.1 -14.4 -3.9 1.7 5.0 5.0 1.1 -3.9 -10.0 -17.2 6. P 1.0 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.3 2.3 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 1.3 T 11.7 12.8 17.2 20.6 23.9 27.2 28.3 28.3 26.1 21.1 16.1 12.2 7. P 3.6 4.1 4.6 6.9 8.1 6.9 6.4 6.6 8.9 5.1 5.6 4.6 T 17.2 18.9 21.1 22.8 23.3 22.2 21.1 21.1 20.6 19.4 18.9 17.2 8. P 0.3 0.5 1.5 3.6 8.6 9.2 9.4 11.4 10.9 5.3 0.8 0.3 T -20.0 -18.9 -12.2 -2.2 5.6 12.2 16.1 15.0 10.6 3.9 -5.6 -15.0 9. P 3.3 2.3 2.8 2.5 4.6 5.6 6.1 8.4 7.4 4.6 2.8 2.8 T -0.6 2.2 5.0 10.0 13.3 18.3 23.3 22.2 16.1 10.6 4.4 0.010. 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.5 P4. Determine which biome Bowling Green is by comparing the climatogram with the ten known climatograms from pages 112-115 in your textbook.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Compare the Bowling Green climatogram with the climatograms from the textbook pgs. 112 – 115. Which one does this climatogram most closely resemble?2. Consider the biotic characteristics of the biome in Northwest Ohio. These would be large deciduous trees, dense vegetation, and a variety of animal life. Which abiotic characteristics would be important factors in determining these biotic characteristics? Explain why.3. Write the number of your unknown climatogram. Compare this unknown with the 10 known climatograms from the text book. Which biome was your unknown?Bowling Green Climate Data (1980 – 2010)18
  19. 19. J F M A M J J A S O N DT -5.3 -3.8 2.3 8.7 14.8 19.9 22.3 21 17.2 10.7 4.4 -2.3P 4.4 4.4 6.7 7.5 7.4 9.5 8.3 8.2 7.2 5.3 7.1 7.4RESULTS:CHAPTER 2 LABS THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE NAME__________________________ LAB 2A – ORGANISMS AND pHMATERIALS: 30 mL beakers HCl solutions of food NaOH graduated cylinder stirring rodPROCEDURE:1. Measure 25 mL of tap water and pour into your 30mL beaker.2. Record the initial pH of the water by tearing off a small piece of pH paper and dipping it into the water. Match the color of the paper with the color chart.3. Add 5 drops of hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide to the beaker. Stir. Record the pH in the data table.4. Continue adding 5 drops of acid or base to the beaker and recording the pH after the addition of every 5 drops until 30 drops are added.DATA: Tests with 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid Tests with 0.1M Sodium Hydroxide Solution pH after the addition of ___ drops pH after the addition of ___ drops Tested 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Tap water Milk Potato 19
  20. 20. Egg white Gelatin BufferRESULTS:Graph the data for the tap water, buffer, and the food item you tested. Include both the HCl and NaOH information.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Summarize the effects of HCl and NaOH on the pH of tap water. Give data to support your answer.2. Look at the pH response of the buffer. Is the buffer more like that of tap water or the food item you tested. Explain. LAB 2B – COMPOUNDS IN LIVING ORGANISMSMATERIALS: Benedict’s solution test tube test tube clamp biuret solution iodine test tube rack distilledwater food items to be testedPROCEDURE:1. Complete the following data table during the demonstration by Mr. Furlong. ORGANIC COMPOUND REAGENT TEST RESULTS Protein Biuret Solution Glucose Bendict’s Solution Starch Iodine Lipid Brown Paper2. Lipid test - Place 1 drop of the food on a piece of brown paper bag. Allow it to set for 15 minutes. Then, hold the paper up to a light. If there is a grease spot, lipids are present. If it is dry,b then no lipids are present.20
  21. 21. 3. Protein test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 10 drops of biuret reagent. A purple or pink color indicates a presence of protein in the food sample.4. Glucose test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 10 drops of Benedict’s solution to the test tube. Place the test tube in a boiling water bath for 1 minute. A red, orange, green, or yellow color change indicates glucose is present.5. Starch test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 5 drops of iodine solution to the test tube. A dark blue to black color change indicates the presence of starch.DATA: SUBSTANCE Protein Glucose Starch Lipids Tap Water Test results Prediction Potato Test results Prediction Egg White Test results Prediction Grape Juice Test results Prediction Gelatin Test results Prediction Milk Test results Prediction Chicken Broth Test resultsRESULTS:1. How many of your predictions were supported?2. Which food item contained the most organic compounds? LAB 2C – WHICH FOOD CONTAINS THE MOST ENERGY?MATERIALS: calorimeter flask thermometer balance graduated cylinder matches pecans walnutsHYPOTHESIS:Write a hypothesis to predict which food item has the most energy. Give a reason for your prediction.PROCEDURE:1. Obtain a calorimeter, assemble it as shown by Mr. Furlong 21
  22. 22. 2. Use a graduated cylinder to measure out exactly 50 mL of water into the flask. 3. Measure the temperature of the water in the flask. Record this number in the data table. 4. Find the mass of your food sample (walnut or pecan) using the electronic balance. 5. Place the food sample on the paper clip platform. Ignite the food sample with a match. Allow the food to burn completely. Reignite the sample if necessary. 6. After the sample has burned completely, measure the temperature of the water in the flask. Place the temperature in the data table. 7. Find the mass of the remainder of the burned food sample. Record the mass in the data table. 8. Determine the change in mass of the food item. Record the result. 9. Determine the change in temperature of the water in the flask. Record the result. 10. Repeat steps 2-9 using your other sample. Note: You must empty the water out of the flask and use fresh water. MATH FORMULAS Calculate Calories. Calories = Change in temp x volume of water + 600 Calculate kilocalories. (KCal) KCal = Calories ÷ 1000 Calculate KCal per gram KCal/gram = KCal ÷ Change in mass DATA: Mass of Sample (g) Temperature of Water (°C) Food Energy Before After Change in Before After Change in Calories Kcal KCal/gram Burning Burning Mass Burning Burning TempAverageAverage 22
  23. 23. LAB REPORT INFORMATION: RESULTS:TITLE: IV – DV – Subj –HYPOTHESIS: Must be written as an If…then… statement If… is the reason for your prediction then… is your prediction CONCLUSION: State your conclusionMATERIALS AND METHODS: Summarize your data DISCUSSION Accept or reject your hypothesis Interpret your data LAB 2D – FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITYMATERIALS: liver test tube H2O2 solution NaOH solution test tube holder manganese dioxide HCl solutionPROCEDURE:1. Will just anything, when added to hydrogen peroxide, cause a reaction? To determine this, add a pinch of sand to about 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide in a test tube. Describe the reaction as: none, slow, moderate, or fast.2. Will a reaction occur when chemicals other than those from living things are added to hydrogen peroxide? Add a pinch of manganese dioxide to about 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide to determine this. Rate the reaction.3. Will a reaction occur when a small piece of liver is added to hydrogen peroxide? Use about 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide and a piece of liver about the size of a small pea. Rate the reaction. SAVE THE LIVER AND H2O2 FOR STEP 44. The reaction in step 3 occurs for a time and finally stops. Why? Was it completed? (Is all the hydrogen peroxide changed?) Or was something in the liver “used up” before all the hydrogen peroxide could be changed? 23
  24. 24. To find out, hold the liver in the test tube from step 3 until the reaction stops. (Use a wood splint to hold the liver in the test tube so it does not rise, if necessary). When the reaction stops, remove the piece of liver and put it in a clean test tube. Add some fresh hydrogen peroxide to the used liver. What happens? As a control, add some fresh liver to the used the used hydrogen peroxide in the other tube. Rate the reaction.5. Does temperature have any effect on the rate of the reaction? Obtain a small piece of boiled liver and add to the test tube. Add 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide to a test tube. Add 2 mL of warm hydrogen peroxide to a test tube. Add a small piece of liver to the test tube. Rate the reaction. Add a piece of frozen liver to the test tube. Then add 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide to a test tube. Rate the reaction. TEST RATE OF REACTION sand and H2O2 MnO2 and H2O2 liver and H2O2 new liver and old H2O2 old liver and new H2O2 boiled liver and H2O2 liver and warm H2O2 frozen liver and H2O2 liver, acid, and H2O2 liver, water, and H2O2 liver, base, and H2O26. Does pH affect the rate of reaction? Add a small piece of liver to 3 test tubes. Add 2 droppers of water to one tube, 2 droppers of sodium hydroxide to another, and 2 droppers of hydrochloric acid to the third. WAIT 2 MINUTES!! Pour 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide into each tube and record the rates of reaction.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Give evidence to support the idea that enzymes are re-useable.2. What effect does temperature have on the rate of enzyme activity?3. What effect does pH have on the rate of enzyme activity? CHAPTER 7 LABS CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION NAME__________________________ LAB 7A – USING THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE24
  25. 25. MATERIALS: coverslips pipette slides microscope waterPROCEDURE:Part A: Using the Microscope1. Make a wet mount slide using the o-c-e paper. To do this, place the paper on the slide, add a drop of water, then place the coverslip on top.2. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope and observe the letter o under low power. letter o 40X3. Draw the letter o on your data sheet and write down any observation you make in the data table.4. Move the slide over and observe the letter c. Draw the letter and write down how it appears under the microscope. letter c 40X5. Move the slide over and observe the letter e. Once again, draw the letter and write down how it appears under the microscope. letter e 40XPart B: Using High Power1. Cross 2 human hairs on a microscope slide. Add a drop of water and the coverslip on top of the crossed portion of the hairs.2. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope. Locate the crossed hair in the center of your field of view and focus.3. Turn your objective to medium power. Place the crossed hairs in the center of your field of view and focus. crossed hairs 40X crossed hairs 400XDATA: Object Being Viewed Observations and Comments o 25
  26. 26. c e crossed hairDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What happens to the orientation of the image as you look at it through the microscope?2. When viewing an object through high power, not all the object may be in focus. Explain.3. The field of view is the area you can see when looking through the microscope. What is the relationshipbetween magnification and field of view. LAB 7B – COMPARING CELL TYPESMATERIALS: slide coverslip prepared slides algae pondwaterPROCEDURE: 1. Obtain a prepared slide of cork. Note the “prison cell” like structures observed by Robert Hooke. Draw in space provided. Record in data table. cork 2. Make a wet mount slide of algae. Use high power to focus in on a small section of algae. Draw the cell. Record in data table. algae 3. Obtain a prepared slide of bacteria under high power. These have been stained for easy identification. Draw a few bacteria. Record in data table.4. Make a wet mount slide of pond water. Try to focus in on one of the unicellular organisms that is living in the water. Draw the organism. Record in data table. bacteria 400X26
  27. 27. pond water 100X5. Obtain a prepared slide of E. coli. Draw a few of the bacteria. Record in data table. E. coli 400X6. Obtain a prepared slide of euglena. Draw a few of these organisms. Record in data table.7. Complete the data Table Euglena 100X Slide Name Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic, Cork Algae Bacteria Pond water E. Coli ProtistsRESULTS:1. Which substances were made up of cells?2. What do all those substances (from #1) have in common? LAB 7C – OBSERVING CELLSMATERIALS: slides coverslips water salt solution microscope onion elodea water slide of human cheek cells iodine solution slide of frog blood 27
  28. 28. PROCEDURE: 1. Separate one layer of cells from an onion as demonstrated by Mr. Furlong. 2. Place the layer of onion on your slide. Add a drop of water to the onion and a coverslip. 3. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope and focus under low power. Then change to medium power and focus. If it is possible, focus again under high power. 4. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell wall.Onion Onion 5. Remove the slide from the microscope. Remove the coverslip and add a drop of iodine solution. Replace the coverslip and return slide to microscope. 6. Once again focus under low power first, then medium power, and finally high power. 7. Sketch a few cells. Notice the nucleus is now visible using the stain. Label the cell wall and nucleus. Onion & Iodine 8. Add one small elodea leaf to a new slide. Add a drop of water to the leaf and the coverslip. 9. Place the slide on the microscope stage and focus under low power. Then change to medium power and focus. If it is possible, focus again under high power. 10. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell wall and chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are the green circular structures within the cell. Elodea 11. Remove the slide from the microscope. Remove the coverslip and add a drop of salt solution. Replace the coverslip and return slide to microscope. 12. Once again focus under low power first, then medium power, and finally high power. 13. Sketch a few cells. The salt water causes water to leave the cell. Now the cell membrane is visible. Label the cell wall, cell membrane, and chloroplasts. 14. Throw away both slides. Elodea & Salt 15. Obtain a prepared slide of stained human cheek cells. Find several cells. Label the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. 28
  29. 29. 16. Under low power, examine a prepared slide of frog blood. Find an area where the cells Human cheeks cells are not too crowded and switch to medium power. If possible, focus under high power.17. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus Frog bloodRESULTS:Place a  in any box that organelle is observed.Type of Cell Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasm Chloroplast Cell MembraneOnionElodeaCheekFrog BloodDISCUSSIONOn a piece of binder paper, answer the following question.1. Based on your observations, which cells seem to be more rounded in shape? What do these cells have incommon?2. Based on your observations, which cells seem to have more rectangular in shape? What do these cells have in common?3. What structure may be involved in determining the shape of a plant cell? an animal cell? LAB 7D – DIFFUSION THROUGH A CELL MEMBRANEMATERIALS: 2 beakers dialysis tubing tubing clamps glucose test strip 10% starch solution 10% glucose solution iodine 29
  30. 30. PROCEDURE:Part A: Starch and iodine diffusion1. Open a section of dialysis tubing as demonstrated by Mr. Furlong. Attach a tubing clamp to one end.2. Using a pipette, add the starch solution so it is about ¾ full. Twist the open end and attach the tubing clamp.3. Place the tubing into one of the beakers and add enough HOT water to fully submerge the tubing. This will be called Beaker A4. Add enough iodine solution to the water to give it a distinct yellow color.5. Determine the color of the solution inside the tubing as well as the color of the water. Record on data table.6. Let beaker sit for 20 minutes and record the color of the solutions inside the tubing as well as the color of the water.Part B: Glucose and water diffusion.1. With the second piece of dialysis tubing, add enough glucose solution until it is about ¾ full. Place this in a beaker and fill with HOT water. This beaker will be known as Beaker B.2. Allow the tubing to sit in the hot water for 20 minutes.3. After 20 minutes, dip the glucose test strip into the beaker of water. Record if any color change occurs on the strip.DATA: Beaker Color at Start Color after 20 minutes INSIDE OUTSIDE INSIDE OUTSIDE A GLUCOSE PRESENT? GLUCOSE PRESENT? B Beaker A at start Beaker A after 20 minutesDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Did iodine enter or leave the dialysis tubing in beaker A? What evidence do you have to support this statement.2. Did glucose enter or leave the dialysis tubing in beaker B? What evidence do you have to support this statement.3. Which substance did not pass through the membrane? How do you know the substance did not pass?4. The structure of the dialysis tubing is similar to what cell organelle? CHAPTER 8 LABS PHOTOSYNTHESIS NAME__________________________ LAB 8A – LEAF STRUCTURE AND PIGMENT CHROMATOGRAPHY30
  31. 31. MATERIALS: filter paper rubbing alcohol pencil metric ruler flask spinach microscope quarterPROCEDURE:1. Get a piece of filter paper. Using a pencil, draw a base line 1.5 cm from the bottom of the long side of the paper.2. Place a spinach leaf over the base line (pencil line). Roll the coin over the leaf so that there is a green line over your pencil line.3. Add about 50 mL of isopropyl alcohol to the flask. Be sure the pigment line will not touch the alcohol.4. Tape the chromatography paper to a pencil. Put the paper into the flask containing alcohol. The solvent will begin to move up the paper and cause the pigments to move as well.5. Do not disturb the beakers for 15 minutes.6. WHILE YOU ARE WAITING THE 15 MINUTES, OBSERVE THE CROSS SECTION OF A LEAF AND STRUCTURE OF STOMATE ON SPINACH AS SHOWN ON THE BOARD. stomate cross section of leaf7. Total number of stomates = ________________________8. RETRUN TO YOUR CHROMATOGRAPHY PAPER.9. When the solvent is about 1 cm from the top of the paper, remove the paper and mark the farthest point of the solvents progress with your pencil before the line evaporates.10. Measure the distance each color moved up the paper. You will need these to determine the Rf values for each type of pigment? Rf = Distance substance (solute) traveled Distance solvent traveled11. Draw the chromatography paper.DATA: Color of Pigment Pigment Name Rf Value 31
  32. 32. 1st Color2nd Color3rd ColorDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following question.1. Is the pigment in the spinach leaf a single compound or a mixture of several compounds? What evidence do you have that supports your statement?2. Explain why it is important to have many different types of pigments in a leaf.3. Most plants are green due to the presence of chlorophyll. Explain how a Japanese Maple tree, having only red leaves, can carry out photosynthesis.4. A student separated the pigments of a maple tree leaf using the chromatography procedure. The results are shown below. Which pigment has the greatest Rf value? Where are these pigments found? LAB 8B – PHOTOSYNTHESISYou will be designing and conducting 3 separate experiments about photosynthesis. Let’s examine a few thingsbefore setting up our experiment.1. Review of photosynthesis2. What type of plant should we use? A water or land plant?3. How will we identify the substances that are produced or given off during photosynthesis?4. What factor affecting photosynthesis could best be used to start and stop the process of photosynthesis? Problem A: Does a green plant use CO2 during photosynthesis? Problem B: Is light necessary for photosynthesis to occur? Problem C: Do plants use O2 when not using photosynthesis?32
  33. 33. DATA: Expected Actual Indicator What the Changes Show Tube Material Added Indicator Change Change (Data) (Interpretation) (Hypothesis) 1 2 3 4 5 6DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What evidence do you have that light alone does not change the color of the bromothymol blue? What tube or combination of tubes listed in the table shows this?2. What tube or combination of tubes shows that light is necessary for a plant to carry out photosynthesis?3. A green plant uses CO2 during photosynthesis. What evidence do you have to support this statement.4. How is CO2 involved in a plant that is not carrying out photosynthesis? What tube or combination of tube shows this? LAB 8C – FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESISGo to http://www.furlong.eboard.com Click on the green note and open the link for the simulation. 33
  34. 34. Part A: Effect of light color on the rate of photosynthesis Light Color Bubble Count White (colorless) Red Blue Green1. Adjust the light level to 7.0 and the CO2 level to 7.0. These variables will be controlled.2. The light bulb should say colourless. (British spelling of the word) This is white light.3. Click on the start button. It will run for 30 seconds.4. Record the data in the data table.5. Click on the + triangle next to the light bulb. The color of the light is now red.6. Click start again and record data.7. Repeat with the blue and green light. Then graph your data.8. Click on the Clear button to clear your data34
  35. 35. Part B: Effect of Light Intensity on the Rate of Photosynthesis Light Level Bubble Count 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.01. Keep the CO2 level at 7.0 and change the color of light to colorless (white).2. Adjust the Light Level to 2.0.3. Start the simulation. Record Data.4. Continue simulation by increasing the Light Level by 2.0.5. Record data and graph.6. Clear the data.Part C: Affect of CO2 Levels on the Rate of Photosynthesis1. Adjust the Light level at 7.0 and keep the color of light to CO2 Level Bubble Count colorless (white). 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.02. Adjust the CO2 Level to 2.0.3. Start the simulation. Record Data. 35
  36. 36. 4. Continue simulation by increasing the CO2 Level by 2.0.5. Record data and graph.6. Clear the data.Part D: Manipulating the Variables.1. Choose the 3 variables that allowed for photosynthesis to occur best at.2. Set the experiment to run those variables record the data as Run 1.3. Next, choose the 3 lowest variables for photosynthesis.4. Set the experiment to run those variables and record the data as Run 2.5. Finally, choose any 2 of the best variables and one of the lowest.6. Set the experiment to run those variables and record the data as Run 3 Run CO2 Level Light Level Light Color Bubble Count 1 2 3Discussion:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. According to Part A, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best in which color(s) of light?2. According to Part B, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best at which light level?3. According to Part C, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best at which CO2 level?4. According to Part D, when one variable is not at the optimum level, how does that affect the rate of photosynthesis? CHAPTER 9 LABS CELL RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION LAB 9A – COMPARING CELL RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION36
  37. 37. INTRODUCTION: In this lab we will be using data obtained from an experiment using a type of organism that canlive in an environment with or without oxygen. This type of organism is called a facultative anaerobe. This investigation uses data from an experiment with Aerobacter aerogenes. The organisms were allowed togrow in test tubes containing distilled water to which only a few salts and various concentrations of glucose wereadded. Some of the tubes were sealed so that no air was available to the cells. Other tubes had a stream of airbubbling through the growth solution. You will work with and interpret the data and develop a hypothesis to explainthe findings.PROCEDURE:1. Using the data shown in the data table, construct 2 lines on the same graph. Label the y-axis millions of cells per mL and the x-axis glucose (mg/100mL). Plot the data from series A (test tubes without air).2. For the second line on the graph, plot the data from series B (test tubes with air). Label the first graph line Growth without air. Label the second line Growth with air.3. Use this graph to help answer the Discussion Questions.DISCUSSION:On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions. Concentration of Number of Cells at Maximum Growth Glucose (millions per ml)(mg/100ml of H2O) Tube # Tubes without Air Tube # Tubes with Air 18 1A 50 1B 200 36 2A 90 2B 500 54 3A 170 3B 800 72 4A 220 4B 1100 162 5A 450 5B 2100 288 6A 650 6B 360 7A 675 7B 432 8A 675 8B 540 9A 675 9B1. Look at the data table and compare test tubes 4A and 4B. How many times greater was the growth when air was present?2. Compare test tubes 4A and 4B. How many cells were produced per milligram of glucose in each case?3. Give a reason why there were so many more cells per milligram of glucose in the B test tubes than in the A test tubes.4. A scientist collecting data was interested in how the volume of oxygen breathed in was affected as the difficulty level of the exercise (measured in Watts) increased. The volume of oxygen uptake was measured in liters per minute (L/min). The data is shown below. Based on the graph, what is the relationship between exercise difficulty and oxygen uptake? 37
  38. 38. LAB 9B – RATE OF CELL RESPIRATIONMATERIALS:38
  39. 39. volumeter colored water thermometer corn seeds pea seeds lime packetsPROCEDURE:Part A: Volumeter Assembly1. Follow the instructions from Mr. Furlong on the set-up of your volumeter.2. Remove the stopper assemblies from the test tubes. Place 10 corn seeds in one test tube. Add a cotton ball and place one spoonful of soda lime on top of the cotton.3. Fill a second test tube with 10 pea seeds, a cotton ball and soda lime.4. Once the 2 test tubes are in place, follow the instructions of Mr. Furlong again in completing the volumeter assembly.5. Allow the volumeter to stand for about 5 minutes to permit temperatures to become uniform throughout the system.Part B: Recording Data1. Write a hypothesis about which seed carries on cell respiration the fastest in the box below.2. On the paper beneath the capillary tubes, mark the position of one end of the drop.3. Record the position of each drop of water every minute for 10 minutes. If cell respiration is rapid, you may need to reposition the green drop. If you do this, be sure to add both measurements of the distance moved by the drops to calculate the total change during the experiment.DATA: Time Volumeter #1 – Corn Volumeter #2 – Pea Rate of Cell Respiration Organism (mm3 of O2 absorbed/min) 1 min. 2 min. Corn 3 min. Peas 4 min. 5 min. 6 min. 7 min. 8 min. 9 min. 10 min. 39
  40. 40. LAB REPORT INFORMATION: RESULTS:TITLE: IV – DV – Subj –HYPOTHESIS: Must be written as an If…then… statement If… is the reason for your prediction then… is your prediction CONCLUSION: State your conclusionMATERIALS AND METHODS: Summarize your data DISCUSSION: Accept or reject your hypothesis Interpret your data LAB 9C – FACTORS AFFECTING FERMENTATIONGo to www.furlong.eboard.com and click on the Note titled Lab 9C. Follow the directions on the note to start your lab.Part A: Effect of Compounds on Fermentation1. Use the following information to make a prediction about the effects various compounds on fermentation Pyruvate – a product of gyclolysis; it is changed into either ethanol or lactic acid during fermentation NaF – an inhibitor of some enzymes of glycolysis40
  41. 41. Glucose – an organic compound used during fermentation CO2 Production Compound (mL/h) Control NaF Glucose Pyruvate2. Write a prediction as per Mr. Furlong’s instructions.3. Follow the procedures for Part A below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the Fermentation tab. b. Select Control and then click Graph Data c. Repeat for glucose, pyruvate, NaF d. Record your results in the data table.4. Graph your data.Part B: Effect of Temperature on Fermentation Temperature CO2 Production (mL/h) Ice Bath (0°C) Room Temp (25°C) 90° F (32°C) Boiling (100°C)4. Predict the effects of increasing temperature on fermentation rates.5. Follow the procedures for Part B below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the Temperature tab. b. Select Ice Bath and then click Graph Data 41
  42. 42. c. Repeat for Room Temperature, 90 °F, and Boiling d. Record your results in the data table.6. Graph your data.Part C: Effects of pH on Fermentation7. Predict the effects of increasing pH on fermentation rates. pH Level CO2 Production (mL/h) pH 2 pH 4 pH 6 pH 8 pH 108. Follow the procedures for Part C below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the pH tab. b. Select pH 2 and then click Graph Data c. Repeat for pH values of 4, 6, 8, 10 d. Record your results in the data table9. Graph your data.42
  43. 43. DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. In part A, why did adding NaF to the fermentation tube decrease the rate of fermentation?2. In part B, what is the ideal temperature for fermentation to occur?3. In part B, why did the boiling temperature show no fermentation? (Recall information learned in Lab 2D)4. In part C, predict the amount of CO2 produced if the pH is 5? CHAPTER 10 LABS CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION NAME__________________________ LAB 10A – CELL SIZE AND DIFFUSIONMATERIALS: beaker ruler spoon .1% HCl solution agar cubes scalpelPROCEDURE:1. Using a scalpel, cut the agar block into three cubes – one 3 cm, one 2 cm, and one 1 cm per side.2. Place the cubes into the beaker and cover them with the HCl solution. Record the time. Use the plastic spoon to turn the cubes frequently for the next 10 minutes.3. While you are waiting, complete the surface area, volume and ratio. Be sure to surfacearea complete the data for the 0.01 cm cell. This is the actual size of the cell and is NOT Ratio = volume one of the agar cubes.4. After 10 minutes, carefully pour the HCl back into the bottle. Place the agar cubes on to a piece of paper towel. Be sure to wear gloves. Blot the cubes dry.5. Using the scalpel, cut each cube in half.6. Measure the depth of diffusion for each cube. Record on data sheet.7. Throw away the paper towels and agar cubes. 43
  44. 44. DATA: Cube Simplest Depth of Diffusion Surface Area Volume Time Dimension Ratio Diffusion Rate .01 cm ---- ---- ---- 1 cm 2 cm 3 cm diffusion rate = depth of diffusion ÷ timeRESULTS:Draw each of the cubes below.DATA: Volume Percent of total volume “Unchanged” Cube Side Volume of cube that has of Original Cube of cube that received Length not changed color (cm3) (cm3) acid 1 cm3 8 cm3 27 cm3Percent Volume of Cube ((original cube volume) – (volume of cube that has not changed color) That Received Acid = (original cube volume) X 100The percent of total volume of cube that received acid is analogous to the percent of cell getting nutrients. Graph the cellvolume (1cm3, 8cm3, and 27cm3) on the x-axis with the percent of total volume of cube that received acid on the y-axis.44
  45. 45. DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What happens to the surface area to volume ratio as the cubes increase in size?2. What is the relationship between rate of diffusion and cell size?3. The acid represents nutrients and oxygen entering the cell by diffusion. Look at the data table above. What is the relationship between cell volume and amount of nutrients and oxygen entering the cell?4. What is the reason why large organisms have developed more cells rather than larger cells? (Hint: You can find the answer in your notes) LAB 10B – MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESISMATERIALS: mitosis cardsPROCEDURE:1. Cut out each picture of mitosis in onion and whitefish cells. Tape in appropriate location on the data table.2. Using the mitosis card, identify the stage each cell is in. Record on your data sheet.3. Count the total number of cells on the card.4. Determine the percent of time a cell is in each stage.DATA: 45
  46. 46. Plant Mitosis Animal Mitosis DISCUSSION: Stage (Onion) (Whitefish) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telopahse InterphaseOn a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. The cell is almost always found in interphase. What stage of mitosis takes the longest time to complete?2. A scientist performed an experiment to determine the effect of temperature on the length of the mitosisin onion cells. Graph the data from this experiment. Place graph on binder paper Temperature Length of Mitosis (°C) (hours) 10 54.6 15 29.8 20 18.8 25 13.346
  47. 47. 3. Given the set of data from above, what is the relationship between temperature and the length ofmitosis? Stage # of cells in stage % of time in stage Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase % time in stage = # of cells in stage x 100 total # of cells counted CHAPTER 11 LABS INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS NAME__________________________ LAB 11A – PROBABILITYMATERIALS: 1 penny 1 nickelPROCEDURE:1. Work in teams of 2. One person will be student A and the other will be student B. 47
  48. 48. 2. Student B will toss the penny 10 times. Student A will use tally marks (/) to indicate the results of each toss. Tally the tosses in the appropriate column on the score sheet.3. After 10 tosses, switch places. This time, student A will toss the penny 10 times and student B will record the data.4. Continue taking turns until a total of 100 tosses (10 series of 10) are finished.5. Next, student A will flip both the penny and the nickel at the same time. Student B will record the results on the data table. Toss both coins a total of 20 tosses. 6. Reverse roles, this time student B will flip both coins a total of 20 times. Student A will record the results on the data table.7. There should be a total of 40 tosses. Trial Heads Tails Deviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOTAL CLASS TOTALDATA:48
  49. 49. 1¢ Heads 1¢ Tails Trial Heads/Heads Tails/Tails 5¢ Tails 5¢ Heads 1 2 TOTAL CLASS TOTALRESULTS:1. In data table 2, how many columns show the data representing the heads of a penny appear? Give a fraction for the total number of tosses in which the heads of a penny appeared. i.e. # of times heads of penny appeared total # of tosses2. In data table 2, how many columns show the data representing the heads of a nickel appear? Give a fraction for the total number of tosses in which the heads of a nickel appeared. i.e. # of times heads of nickel appeared total # of tossesDISCUSSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. How many heads are probable in a series of 10 tosses? How many did you actually observe in your first 10 tosses?2. How does increasing the number of tosses affect the average size of the deviation? LAB 11B – POLYGENIC TRAITS WITH PENNIESMATERIALS: 6 penniesPROCEDURE:1. Each person will toss 3 pennies at once. Record the number of heads and tails in the table below. Repeat 9 more times Flip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 # of Tails 49
  50. 50. # of Heads2. Complete table 2 by adding up the number of times each of the following situations occurred. Record in data table. Flip 6T 5T 4T 3T 2T 1T 0T Situation 0H 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H GROUP DATACLASS DATARESULTS: Graph the class resultsRESULTS:50
  51. 51. Use the following height table to answer the questions. Penny Situation Height 6 Heads and 0 tails 6 feet 1 inch 5 Heads and 1 tail 5 feet 11 inches 4 Heads and 2 tails 5 feet 9 inches 3 Heads and 3 tails 5 feet 7 inches 2 Heads and 4 tails 5 feet 5 inches 1 Head and 5 tails 5 feet 3 inches 0 Heads and 6 tails 5 feet 1 inch Use the following example to answer the questions. A man is 5 feet 7 inches tall, has 3 heads (dominant genes) and 3 tails (recessive genes). He will give 3 genes to his child. These 3 genes can be given randomly. He can give 3 dominant genes and no recessive genes He can give 2 dominant genes and 1 recessive genes He can give 1 dominant genes and 2 recessive genes He can give no dominant genes and 3 recessive genes These are all the possible combinations that he can give his child. The height of the mother will dictate the genes she will give to the child. The combination of the mother’s genes and the father’s genes will decide the height of the child If a male is 5 feet 9 inches tall, it means that he has 4 dominant genes and 2 recessive. He will only give 3 genes to his child. What possible combination of genes can he give? He can give ____ dominant and ____ recessive. He can give ____ dominant and ____ recessive He can give ____ dominant and ____ recessiveDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. The male is 5 feet 7 inches tall and the female is 5 feet 5 inches. Is it possible for them to give their child the necessary genes so the child can be 5 feet 11 inches tall? Explain your answer. Diagrams can be useful here.2. If the male is 5 feet 5 inches tall and the female is 5 feet 3 inches tall, what is the tallest height that their child could attain? Explain.3. If the man is 5 feet 7 inches tall and the mother is 5 feet 3 inches tall, is it possible for them to give their child the necessary genes so the child can be 5 feet 11 inches tall? Explain. CHAPTER 12 LABS DNA 51
  52. 52. NAME__________________________ LAB 12A – WHAT DOES DNA LOOK LIKE?MATERIALS: gatorade stirring rod test tube lysis solution alcohol microtest tubePROCEDURE:1. Obtain a small cup of sports drink (1 mL) and swish it around in your mouth for 1 full minute. As you swish, gently and continuously scrape the sides of your cheeks with your teeth to DATA: help release your cheek cells. 1. Draw a few2. Spit the drink (with your collected cheek cells) back into the small cup.3. Pour the contents of the cup into your labeled test tube (discard the cup).4. Holding the test tube at an angle, use the provided plastic pipet to add 2mL of cell lysis solution to your collected cheek cells. chromosomes.5. Cap your test tube, and invert it 5 times. (This mixes the lysis solution with the cheek cells.)6. Allow this to stand for 2 minutes.7. Using the provided pipet, add the cold alcohol by letting it run gently run down the side of the test tube (hold the test tube atan angle). Add the alcohol until your total volume reaches 12-13mL. You should have 2 distinct layers. DO NOT mix the cheek cell solution with the alcohol!!! 2. Draw8. Watch as wispy strands of translucent DNA begin to clump what your DNA looks like. together where the alcohol layer meets the cheek cell solution. (It kind of looks like cobwebs extending upward.)9. Place your 15mL test tube in a test tube rack and let it stand undisturbed for 15 minutes. During this time the DNA will continue to precipitate out.10. Use a plastic pipet to transfer your DNA into a smaller test tube. To do so, place the pipet near the DNA and draw the DNA into the pipet (along with some alcohol). Do not move your pipet up Nitrogenous Bases (%) and down into the bottom layer. Organism A G T C Human 20.1 29.9 Chicken 28.5 21.5 Bacterium 13.452
  53. 53. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide.On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions 3. If one strand of DNA reads AACGTCGT1. Was the DNA your extracted from one cell or from many cells? what would the other strand read?Explain 4. Copy and complete the following table. CHAPTER 14 LABS HUMAN HEREDITY LAB 14A – DNA FRAGMENT SIZE DETERMINATIONMATERIALS: DNA gel ruler logarithmic graph paperINTRODUCTION: One of the first ways of analyzing your data is to determine the approximate sizes of each of your restrictionfragments. This can be done be comparing the DNA restriction fragments to DNA fragments of known sizes, or a DNAmarker.PROCEDURE:1. Construct a standard curve to determine the sizes of your DNA bands.2. Lanes 2 and 4 are identical. Use either lane and measure the distance in millimeters each band has traveled. Band 1 is the furthest from the well and band 11 is the closest. Record each measurement in the data table.3. Next record the following known DNA lengths for each band. This information is based on data obtained when the restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoR1 are added to the plasmid DNA. Band 1 – 21,226 bp Band 2 – 5,148 bp Band 3 – 4,973 bp Band 4 – 4,268 bp Band 5 – 3,530 bp Band 6 – 2,027 bp Band 7 – 1,904 bp Band 8 – 1,584 bp Band 9 – 1,375 bp Band 10 – 947 bp Band 11 – 831 bp4. Record this data on the logarithmic graph and make a “best of fit” line.5. Measure the length of each band in Lane 1. This is DNA that has been cut by the restriction enzyme HindIII. Using the graph, determine the size of each DNA fragment.6. Measure the length of each band in Lane 3. This is DNA that has been cut by the restriction enzyme EcoR1. Using the graph, determine the size of each DNA fragment.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What is a restriction enzyme?2. In lane 2, how many base pairs can be found in Band #3?3. Comparing the distance the bands travelled, if there are more base pairs in a band, does it travel slower or faster? Explain why. 53
  54. 54. DATA: LANES 1 OR 3 LANE 2 LANE 4 Distance Actual Base Distance Actual Base Distance Actual BaseBand # (mm) Pair (mm) Pair (mm) Pair 1 21,266 2 5,148 3 4,268 4 3,530 5 2,027 6 1,584 7 1,375 8 947 9 83154
  55. 55. CHAPTER 16 LABS DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION NAME__________________________ LAB 16A – VARIATION IN SIZE OF ORGANISMSMATERIALS: metric rulers pine needles scalpel grasshoppers stringPROCEDURE:1. Obtain 25 pine needles. Measure the length of each needle. Repeat with the other 24 needles. Record all measurements in the box below. Pool your data with other groups so that you have a record of at least 50 different seed measurements.2. Measure the length of the femur of a grasshopper. Record in box below Place your measurement on the whiteboard. Record all measurements from the whiteboard into your data table.3. Measure the distance from the outside of one eye to the outside of the other eye by using a string. Place your data on the board.4. Arrange your 3 sets of measurements (needle length, leg width, and eye width) in a manner that will show the number of like measurements. (see table 1 in the data section)5. Prepare a graph of each set of data to show the distribution of the variations. Put the range of measurements on the horizontal axis and the number of individuals on the vertical axis. Draw a smooth line connecting or passing near the dots plotted on each graph. (best of fit graph)6. Calculate the average length in each set of measurements. Mark this length on each graph by finding the average value in the horizontal axis and making a vertical line to indicate the position of the average length.DISCUSSION:1. Assuming that a grasshopper can jump farther with a longer leg, how might leg length be a survival factor in the life of a grasshopper? 55
  56. 56. 2. An optometrist (a doctor who examines eyes and fits glasses) measures the width of the eyes of all people that he or she fits glasses to. If all the thousands of measurements of eye width were plotted on a graph, how would the general shape compare with the one you made?3. Draw what that graph from #2 may look like.DATA: Femur Length (mm) # of GrasshoppersEye Width (mm) # of StudentsNeedle Length (mm)# of Needles56
  57. 57. LAB 16B – NATURAL SELECTIONMATERIALS: Christmas paper 40 pieces of colored paper graph paperPROCEDURE:1. In this investigation, you will attempt to discover what happens to the characteristics of organisms within a population that is subjected to predation over a number of generations.2. To do this lab, you will play the role of a population of birds known as Gooney birdicus (gooney birds). Gooney birds feed on small species of mouse known as Microtus coloriferii. (colorful mice). The role of the colorful mice will be played by the paper circles. Gooney birds are normally very hungry and always capture the first mouse they see. After the capture, they always take their nest (small cup) before they return to the hunt.3. Write a hypothesis below. Which color do you think is best adapted to the environment. Give a reason for your prediction.4. Begin by assigning roles. 3 people need to be a gooney bird, and one person as mother nature.5. Mother Nature will spread 40 "mice" over the piece of Christmas paper. The Christmas paper represents a natural habitat (e.g. pond, meadow, forest, cave, desert).6. At Mr. Furlongs signal, begin capturing mice and depositing them into your nest one at a time. Your group should capture a total of 30 mice. (10 by each gooney bird). There should be 10 mice left in your habitat.7. Remove the 10 survivors by lifting and gently shaking the habitat.8. To have the 10 survivors "reproduce", add 3 paper circles of the same color for each of the survivors. This new population of 40 mice consists of 10 first-generation mice and 30 second-generation mice.9. Repeat steps 4-8 two more times 57
  58. 58. DATA: NUMBER OF SURVIVING MICE COLOR Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Green Blue Brown Yellow Red White Pink Orange Black GrayLAB REPORT INFORMATION: RESULTS:TITLE: IV – DV – Subj –HYPOTHESIS: Must be written as an If…then… statement If… is the reason for your prediction then… is your prediction CONCLUSION: State your conclusionMATERIALS AND METHODS: Summarize your data DISCUSSION: Accept or reject your hypothesis Interpret your data58
  59. 59. LAB 16C – THE PEPPERED MOTH: A POPULATION STUDY1. How might the trees have become darkened?2. Give a hypothesis that might explain why dark moths have increased in number in the soot-darkened woods.3. Complete the data table. Moth type Light Woods Dark Woods Light Moths Dark Moths4. The experiments that follow were conducted by Dr. Kettlewell in England. He started by trapping moths at night.5. Moths were trapped in tow kinds of traps. One kind attracted the moths to light and the other attracted male moths to virgin female moths inside a mercury-vapor trap. Only male moths were used in his experiments, and both kinds of traps worked equally well.6. Each male moth in the experiment was marked with paint on the underside of the wing. Why?7. Marked moths were released in both soot-darkened and soot-free woods.8. Remember the steps in Dr. Kettlewell’s experiment. First he collected both light and dark colored moths. Then he marked them. Then he released them in both dark and light woods.9. Both light and dark moths were released into the dark woods and the light woods. One month later the populations were resampled using the same traps.10. Complete the following data table RELEASE-RECAPTURE DATA FROM SOOT-DARKENED WOODS Moth type Number Released Recaptured Light Moths Dark Moths 59

×