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# Biology Lab Book

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### Biology Lab Book

1. 1. CHAPTER 1 LABS THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY NAME__________________________ LAB 1A – SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATIONSMATERIALS: peanuts pencil metric ruler string balance graduated cylinderINTRODUCTION: Being a scientist requires good skills in data collection. There are two types of data we will be collecting this year.Qualitative Data is data using words or pictures. Some examples would be to describe the color of an object or makea drawing of the object. Qualitative data typically requires using one of your senses. The other type of data isQuantitative Data. Quantitative data is data in numbers. . For example, the mass of an object is 25.5 grams or thelength of an object is 7.8 cm. Think of a quantity of something.PROCEDURE:1. You and your partner will receive a bag of peanuts. Without looking in the bag, remove a peanut. If it is cracked or broken, set it aside and remove another. When you have found a peanut that is not discolored or broken, proceed to step 2.2. In the box below, record at least two types of qualitative data3. In the box below, record at least three types of quantitative data.4. When you have recorded as many observations as you can, return the peanut to the bag. Mix up the peanuts and use your notes to find your peanut again.5. Once you have found your peanut again, check your observations and measurements so that they are as accurate as possible. Your teacher will give you the next step in this investigation. It will be a realistic test of how careful you were in your observations and note-taking. Record the class data in the table below Found own Peanut YES NO YES NO 1
2. 2. RESULTS:Make a bar graph to compare the percentage of people whose peanut was found.People often confuse observations with inferences. Observations are collected on the scene, using your senses.Inferences are ideas or conclusions based on what you observe or already know. Based on this distinction, which ofthe following statements are observations (O) and which are inferences (I)? a) ______ The shell will crack easily. b) ______The shell has a rough surface. c) ______The shell is uniformly colored. d) ______The shell has 2 lobes and is smaller in diameter between them. e) ______The peanut has a skin around them. f) ______The peanuts are roasted. g) ______The surface markings on the shell are in rows, running lengthwise. h) ______The shell has 13 rows of surface markDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What is the purpose of this lab?2. Include the percentage of class who were able to find their own peanut and the percentage who were able to find the other person’s peanut.3. Give a reason why the percentage went down when it came to finding another person’s peanut. LAB 1B – DESIGNING CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTSMATERIALS: potting soil plant pots metric ruler seedsPROCEDURE:2
3. 3. 1. In this lab you are going to design your own controlled experiment. You will be measuring the growth of a plant when one variable is affected.2. The first step is to determine what your problem will be. Select a variable in which to test. A sample of variables is listed below. You may choose one of these or make up one of your own. type of soil type of water temperature amount of soil amount of water light PLANNING THE EXPERMIMENT Our research question is: Our hypothesis is: because: The independent variable is: The dependent variable is: Materials Needed to Diagram of Setup: bring in: Controlled Variables:DATA: LENGTH OF GRASS (cm) AVG. LENGTH (cm) DAY Experimental Control Experimental Control 3
4. 4. Conclusion: Discussion: What does it mean? WRITING A LAB REPORT1. TITLE The title adequately describes the contents of the paper in as few words as possible. The independent and dependent variable as well as the population or organisms being studied must be mentioned. The title is written as a statement. (1 sentence)2. HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis states in one sentence what the outcome of the research project MIGHT be. The hypothesis should always be written before the experiment has started. The hypothesis cannot be marked right or wrong. Your results will determine whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. A hypothesis is always written as an “If... then...” statement. The If... statement is a reason for your prediction and the then... statement is your prediction. (1 sentence)3. MATERIALS AND METHODS The materials and methods section describes how the study was done. There should be enough detail to allow someone to replicate your experiment. Not only are you describing how the experiment was done, but what materials you used to complete the experiment. Do not make a list of these materials, rather include them in your summary.(3 - 4 sentences)4. RESULTS The results section presents the data that was found. Data is represented in a table, graph, or both. The tables and graphs should be made properly and lack mistakes. Graphs need to be on graph paper. Qualitative data should also be included. (1 page)5. CONCLUSION Based on the data, state your conclusion to the experiment. This will be followed by a summary of the data in paragraph form. (1 paragraph)6. DISCUSSION The discussion begins with the hypothesis being accepted or rejected based on the results collected. The discussion section must included an analysis of the results and form conclusions based on the analysis. The data must be interpreted (1 paragraph)7. PROPER ORDER In a lab report, a particular format must be used. Each of the sections must be labeled (except the title) and in the proper order. For example, do not place your results after your conclusion or discussion. The results must appear after the Materials and Methods and Conclusion TITLE CONCLUSION _____ (1) Includes independent & dependent variable _____ (1) Conclusion clearly stated4
5. 5. _____ (1) Accurately describes lab in statement form _____ (1) Results summarized in paragraph form HYPOTHESIS DISCUSSION _____ (1) Written as an If…then… statement _____ (4) Results are interpreted _____ (1) then… component is a prediction _____ (1) Hypothesis revisited _____ (1) If… component is a reason for prediction PAPER PRESENTATION MATERIALS & METHODS _____ (1) Includes all headings in the proper order (not part of 20 points) _____ (1) Accurate & concise description of procedure _____ (1) Includes all materials used in experiment (not a list) GRADING SCALE 18-20 = A RESULTS 16-17 = B _____ (3) Properly displays all relevant data 14-15 = C _____ (1) Tables & graphs labeled properly 12-13 = D _____ (1) Neatness of data – uses graph paper 11  = F _____ (1) Includes qualitative data EXAMPLE OF A LAB REPORT EFFECTS OF AGE ON CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETESHYPOTHESIS: If a person has more years of training as an athlete, then the older athletes will be better shape thanyounger athletes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten athletes from each grade level (9-12) were selected at random. At the start of the experiment,each person had their pulse rate recorded for one minute using a stop watch. The subjects were in astanding position. Each subject received a jump rope and jumped continuously for two minutes. After thetwo minutes, their pulse was recorded again for one minute.RESULTS: Data table 1 AGE AVG. PULSE RATE 15 117 16 115 17 112 18 110 120 115 5 110
6. 6. Avg.Pulse Qualitative DataRate(bpm) It was a hot day and all the participants were sweating profusely. 16 15 17 18 Age (years)CONCLUSION: The older the athlete, the better cardiovascular fitness they are in. The data shows that the youngerthe age, the higher the pulse rate. According to data table 1, the average 15 year old had a pulse rate of117, the 16 year olds had a rate of 115, the 17 year olds had a rate of 112, and the 18 year olds had a pulserate of 110.DISCUSSION: The data does support my original hypothesis as the older students a lower pulse rate than theyounger students. This may be due to the fact that they older students have had more time andopportunity to participate in organized activities where they need to stay physically fit. Also the 18 yearolds are reaching physical maturity while the younger students are still undergoing change. Because theyare more physically mature, their bodies are able to reach normal levels quicker than a growing andchanging body.6
7. 7. LAB 1C – WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF THREE SOLUTIONS ON POTATO CORES?MATERIALS: graduated cylinder 3 test tubes metric ruler balance cork borer scalpel dissecting needle cork potato test tube rack 20% sugar solution 10% sugar solutionPROCEDURE:1. Using a cork borer, cut 3 cores from a potato. With the scalpel, trim each core so that it is at least 30mm long. Make all cores as nearly the same length as possible. Keep these cores separated and identify them as core A, core B, and core C.2. Measure the length and diameter of each core to the nearest millimeter and record the measurement in the table.3. Measure the volume of each core by the following method. Pour water into the graduated cylinder until it is half full. Hold the cylinder at eye level and read the line on the level with the lower part of the curved surface of the water. This curved liquid surface is called the meniscus. Record this exact amount of water. Holding the core by a dissecting needle, sink it just under the water’s surface and record the new water level. The difference between the 2 water levels represents the volume of the core in milliliters. Record the volume of each core in your data table.4. Mr. Furlong will show you how to use the electronic balance. Blot dry the cores with paper towels. Determine the mass of each core to the nearest 0.1 gram. Again, record your results in the data table.5. Place each core in the different test tube and label each test tube A, B, or C, according to the core identification. Pour distilled water (100% water) onto test tube A until core A is covered. Add a 10% sugar solution in water (90% water) to test tube B until core B is covered; then add a 20% sugar solution in water (80% water) to test tube C in the same way. Cork each test tube. Store the test tubes in a test tube rack until your next class period.DATA: CORE A CORE B CORE C Difference Difference DifferenceMeasurement 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day 2nd Day ( + or – ) ( + or – ) ( + or – ) length (mm) diameter (mm) volume (mL) 7
8. 8. Rigidity(+, ++, +++, ++ ++) mass (g)RESULTS:1. Plot the changes in mass of the 3 cores on the graph below.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Recopy your graph from the results section above.2. Predict the water concentration at which a potato core would not change its mass. Use your graph.3. What is the relationship between the concentration of water and the change of mass in the potato cores?4. Hypothesize why the mass changed in the different water concentrations? (Does not have to be an If…then… statement) LAB 1D – DO ACTIVE LIVING THINGS GIVE OFF A COMMON SUBSTANCE?MATERIALS: phenol red limewater carbonated water paper towels acid straws test tube rack test tubes yeast-sugar solution cork brass screws dry seeds sprouted seeds live insect dead insect boiled yeast-sugar solutionPROCEDURE:Part A: Testing Materials with Phenol Red1. Set up 7 test tubes in a test tube rack and add 10 drops of phenol red solution to each test tube. Tilt each tube and gently slide a bolt to the bottom. Now, add the following materials to each test tube. Tube 1: Nothing Tube 2: A small, rolled piece of paper towel moistened with a yeast-sugar solution. Tube 3: A similar piece of paper towel moistened with boiled yeast-sugar solution. Tube 4: 10 small dry pea seeds.8
9. 9. Tube 5: 10 sprouted pea seeds. Tube 6: A live cricket. Tube 7: A dead cricket.2. Cork the test tubes after all the tubes have been prepared. Watch for changes in the phenol red solution and record the approximate time required for the change to take place.Part B: Determine the Meaning of the Phenol Red1. Set up 6 test tubes in a rack and label them 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.2. In test tubes 8, 9, and 10 place 10-12 drop of phenol red. Fill tubes 11, 12, and 13 about 1/4 full of limewater. Record your indicator changes as the following substances are added. Tube 8: 5 drops of acid. Tube 9: 10 drops of carbonated water Tube 10: Your breath blown through a straw for 30 seconds into the phenol red solution. Tube 11: 20 drops of acid. Tube 12: 10 drops of carbonated water. Tube 13: Your breath blown through a straw into the limewater for 30 seconds.DATA: Tube # Material Added Indicator Change Time for Change 1 2 3 4 5 9
10. 10. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. According to the results of the tests in tubes 8 and 9, what kind of substance does carbon dioxide form when it is dissolved in water?2. What is the evidence that shows your breath contains a substance that forms an acid when mixed with the water of the phenol red solution?3. What do the materials that caused an indicator change in Part A have in common? CHAPTER 3 LABS THE BIOSPHERE NAME__________________________ LAB 3A – ACID RAIN AND SEED GERMINATIONMATERIALS: petri dish paper towels scissors ruler pH water cornPROCEDURE:1. Make a hypothesis about which pH will the corn grow best in. Write your hypothesis in the space below. Also include a reason for choosing that pH.10
11. 11. 2. Cut four discs the size of the petri dish from the paper towel.3. Dampen the discs with water assigned to you. Record the pH of the water. pH = ______________4. Place two of the paper discs on the bottom of the petri dish. DAY LENGTHS AVERAGE5. Use the ruler to measure the lengths of your four seeds in millimeters. Determine the average length and record under Day 0 in your data table.6. Sketch the shape of the seeds and note their color.7. Arrange the seeds in the petri dish and cover with the two remaining discs. Make sure the discs are still moist.8. Place the lid on the petri dish and label with your team name.DATA: pH / Day 2 3 4 5 6 7 RainwaterDraw your seeds. Day 1 Last Day 11
13. 13. Location Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative HumidityLocation Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative HumidityLocation Height 0 cm 100 cm 150 cmDry Bulb TempWet Bulb TempRelative Humidity 13
14. 14. RESULTS:1. Graph the relative humidity v. height for each of the 3 locationsDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Recopy the graph.2. What is the relationship between the amount of vegetation and relative humidity? LAB 3C – YOUR PERSONAL FOOD WEBPROCEDURE:1. Make a list of all the foods you ate yesterday.2. Separate these items into foods that came from animals and foods that came from plants. Many foods are a combination of items. Such as: Bread Cake Pizza flour – wheat flour – wheat flour - wheat sugar – sugar beet eggs – chicken sauce – tomato sugar – sugar beets pepperoni – pig cheese – cow3. For each animal you have listed, add at least one food it would eat to the plant list.14
15. 15. 4. Across the bottom of a blank sheet of paper, write the names of all the plants listed. In a row above this, listall the animals, and above this, write the word ME.5. Add some decomposers to the bottom of the paper.6. Add some animals that you compete with you for this food.7. Draw arrows to show the energy flow in this food web.8. Draw a picture of each type of organism on your food web. LAB 3D – ENERGY NEEDS OF A SECONDARY CONSUMERMATERIALS: tweezers dissecting needle owl pellet ruler balancePROCEDURE:1. On a sheet of white paper, carefully unwrap the owl pellet. Measure its length, width, and mass. Record below. Length Mass Width2. Using the dissecting needle and tweezers, carefully pick apart the pellet. (you may want to soak it in warm water in a beaker for a few minutes first) Look carefully for bones, many of which are very tiny. Separate the bones from the other materials.3. Examine the bones. Look for skulls, skull bones, or lower jaw bones. Use the diagrams to identify the rodent prey.4. Most pellets contain cones of small, mouse-like rodent called a meadow mouse or vole (Microtus). pair into right and left halves any vole jaw bones in your pellet.5. Measure, in millimeters, the length of each vole jaw, as shown in the picture below. Be sure to measure eachjaw only once. Record these measurements in your table and on the whiteboard. Record the class data.6. The pellet is waste material from live prey that does not passcompletely through the digestive tract. To determine howmuch food energy the pellet represents, you will relate jaw lengthto live mass of vole. This relationship is an estimate, becausethe condition of each vole differs, depending on its age, health,nutritional state, the season, and other factors. Use thisgraph to complete the table in your data sheet 15
16. 16. 7. If there are remains of other animals in your pellet, treat them as if they were voles, using the graph to estimate their massDATA: ESTIMATED LIVE MASS PREY SPECIES JAW LENGTH (mm) (g) TOTAL GROUP AVERAGE CLASS AVERAGERESULTS:1. Use the class data to prepare a histogram of jaw lengths. Label the x-axis vole jaw length (mm) and the y-axis frequency.16
18. 18. 3. Using the data table, construct the climatogram from the Bowling Green area. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec T 1.1 1.7 6.1 12.2 17.8 22.2 25.0 23.3 20.0 13.9 7.8 2.2 1. P 8.1 7.6 8.9 8.4 9.2 9.9 11.2 10.2 7.9 7.9 6.4 7.9 T 10.6 11.1 12.2 14.4 15.6 19.4 21.1 21.7 20.0 16.7 13.9 11.1 2. P 9.1 8.9 8.6 6.6 5.1 2.0 0.5 0.5 3.6 8.4 10.9 10.4 T 25.6 25.6 24.4 25.0 24.4 23.3 23.3 24.4 24.4 25.0 25.6 25.6 3. P 25.8 24.9 31.0 16.5 25.4 18.8 16.8 11.7 22.1 18.3 21.3 29.2 T 12.8 15.0 18.3 21.1 25.0 29.4 32.8 32.2 28.9 22.2 16.1 13.3 4. P 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.0 T -3.9 -2.2 1.7 8.9 15.0 20.0 22.8 21.7 16.7 11.1 5.0 -0.6 5. P 2.3 1.8 2.8 2.8 3.2 5.8 5.3 3.0 3.6 2.8 4.1 3.3 T -22.2 -22.8 -21.1 -14.4 -3.9 1.7 5.0 5.0 1.1 -3.9 -10.0 -17.2 6. P 1.0 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.3 2.3 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 1.3 T 11.7 12.8 17.2 20.6 23.9 27.2 28.3 28.3 26.1 21.1 16.1 12.2 7. P 3.6 4.1 4.6 6.9 8.1 6.9 6.4 6.6 8.9 5.1 5.6 4.6 T 17.2 18.9 21.1 22.8 23.3 22.2 21.1 21.1 20.6 19.4 18.9 17.2 8. P 0.3 0.5 1.5 3.6 8.6 9.2 9.4 11.4 10.9 5.3 0.8 0.3 T -20.0 -18.9 -12.2 -2.2 5.6 12.2 16.1 15.0 10.6 3.9 -5.6 -15.0 9. P 3.3 2.3 2.8 2.5 4.6 5.6 6.1 8.4 7.4 4.6 2.8 2.8 T -0.6 2.2 5.0 10.0 13.3 18.3 23.3 22.2 16.1 10.6 4.4 0.010. 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.5 P4. Determine which biome Bowling Green is by comparing the climatogram with the ten known climatograms from pages 112-115 in your textbook.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Compare the Bowling Green climatogram with the climatograms from the textbook pgs. 112 – 115. Which one does this climatogram most closely resemble?2. Consider the biotic characteristics of the biome in Northwest Ohio. These would be large deciduous trees, dense vegetation, and a variety of animal life. Which abiotic characteristics would be important factors in determining these biotic characteristics? Explain why.3. Write the number of your unknown climatogram. Compare this unknown with the 10 known climatograms from the text book. Which biome was your unknown?Bowling Green Climate Data (1980 – 2010)18
19. 19. J F M A M J J A S O N DT -5.3 -3.8 2.3 8.7 14.8 19.9 22.3 21 17.2 10.7 4.4 -2.3P 4.4 4.4 6.7 7.5 7.4 9.5 8.3 8.2 7.2 5.3 7.1 7.4RESULTS:CHAPTER 2 LABS THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE NAME__________________________ LAB 2A – ORGANISMS AND pHMATERIALS: 30 mL beakers HCl solutions of food NaOH graduated cylinder stirring rodPROCEDURE:1. Measure 25 mL of tap water and pour into your 30mL beaker.2. Record the initial pH of the water by tearing off a small piece of pH paper and dipping it into the water. Match the color of the paper with the color chart.3. Add 5 drops of hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide to the beaker. Stir. Record the pH in the data table.4. Continue adding 5 drops of acid or base to the beaker and recording the pH after the addition of every 5 drops until 30 drops are added.DATA: Tests with 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid Tests with 0.1M Sodium Hydroxide Solution pH after the addition of ___ drops pH after the addition of ___ drops Tested 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Tap water Milk Potato 19
20. 20. Egg white Gelatin BufferRESULTS:Graph the data for the tap water, buffer, and the food item you tested. Include both the HCl and NaOH information.DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Summarize the effects of HCl and NaOH on the pH of tap water. Give data to support your answer.2. Look at the pH response of the buffer. Is the buffer more like that of tap water or the food item you tested. Explain. LAB 2B – COMPOUNDS IN LIVING ORGANISMSMATERIALS: Benedict’s solution test tube test tube clamp biuret solution iodine test tube rack distilledwater food items to be testedPROCEDURE:1. Complete the following data table during the demonstration by Mr. Furlong. ORGANIC COMPOUND REAGENT TEST RESULTS Protein Biuret Solution Glucose Bendict’s Solution Starch Iodine Lipid Brown Paper2. Lipid test - Place 1 drop of the food on a piece of brown paper bag. Allow it to set for 15 minutes. Then, hold the paper up to a light. If there is a grease spot, lipids are present. If it is dry,b then no lipids are present.20
21. 21. 3. Protein test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 10 drops of biuret reagent. A purple or pink color indicates a presence of protein in the food sample.4. Glucose test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 10 drops of Benedict’s solution to the test tube. Place the test tube in a boiling water bath for 1 minute. A red, orange, green, or yellow color change indicates glucose is present.5. Starch test - Place 5 mL of the food in a test tube. Add 5 drops of iodine solution to the test tube. A dark blue to black color change indicates the presence of starch.DATA: SUBSTANCE Protein Glucose Starch Lipids Tap Water Test results Prediction Potato Test results Prediction Egg White Test results Prediction Grape Juice Test results Prediction Gelatin Test results Prediction Milk Test results Prediction Chicken Broth Test resultsRESULTS:1. How many of your predictions were supported?2. Which food item contained the most organic compounds? LAB 2C – WHICH FOOD CONTAINS THE MOST ENERGY?MATERIALS: calorimeter flask thermometer balance graduated cylinder matches pecans walnutsHYPOTHESIS:Write a hypothesis to predict which food item has the most energy. Give a reason for your prediction.PROCEDURE:1. Obtain a calorimeter, assemble it as shown by Mr. Furlong 21
22. 22. 2. Use a graduated cylinder to measure out exactly 50 mL of water into the flask. 3. Measure the temperature of the water in the flask. Record this number in the data table. 4. Find the mass of your food sample (walnut or pecan) using the electronic balance. 5. Place the food sample on the paper clip platform. Ignite the food sample with a match. Allow the food to burn completely. Reignite the sample if necessary. 6. After the sample has burned completely, measure the temperature of the water in the flask. Place the temperature in the data table. 7. Find the mass of the remainder of the burned food sample. Record the mass in the data table. 8. Determine the change in mass of the food item. Record the result. 9. Determine the change in temperature of the water in the flask. Record the result. 10. Repeat steps 2-9 using your other sample. Note: You must empty the water out of the flask and use fresh water. MATH FORMULAS Calculate Calories. Calories = Change in temp x volume of water + 600 Calculate kilocalories. (KCal) KCal = Calories ÷ 1000 Calculate KCal per gram KCal/gram = KCal ÷ Change in mass DATA: Mass of Sample (g) Temperature of Water (°C) Food Energy Before After Change in Before After Change in Calories Kcal KCal/gram Burning Burning Mass Burning Burning TempAverageAverage 22
25. 25. MATERIALS: coverslips pipette slides microscope waterPROCEDURE:Part A: Using the Microscope1. Make a wet mount slide using the o-c-e paper. To do this, place the paper on the slide, add a drop of water, then place the coverslip on top.2. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope and observe the letter o under low power. letter o 40X3. Draw the letter o on your data sheet and write down any observation you make in the data table.4. Move the slide over and observe the letter c. Draw the letter and write down how it appears under the microscope. letter c 40X5. Move the slide over and observe the letter e. Once again, draw the letter and write down how it appears under the microscope. letter e 40XPart B: Using High Power1. Cross 2 human hairs on a microscope slide. Add a drop of water and the coverslip on top of the crossed portion of the hairs.2. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope. Locate the crossed hair in the center of your field of view and focus.3. Turn your objective to medium power. Place the crossed hairs in the center of your field of view and focus. crossed hairs 40X crossed hairs 400XDATA: Object Being Viewed Observations and Comments o 25
26. 26. c e crossed hairDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What happens to the orientation of the image as you look at it through the microscope?2. When viewing an object through high power, not all the object may be in focus. Explain.3. The field of view is the area you can see when looking through the microscope. What is the relationshipbetween magnification and field of view. LAB 7B – COMPARING CELL TYPESMATERIALS: slide coverslip prepared slides algae pondwaterPROCEDURE: 1. Obtain a prepared slide of cork. Note the “prison cell” like structures observed by Robert Hooke. Draw in space provided. Record in data table. cork 2. Make a wet mount slide of algae. Use high power to focus in on a small section of algae. Draw the cell. Record in data table. algae 3. Obtain a prepared slide of bacteria under high power. These have been stained for easy identification. Draw a few bacteria. Record in data table.4. Make a wet mount slide of pond water. Try to focus in on one of the unicellular organisms that is living in the water. Draw the organism. Record in data table. bacteria 400X26
27. 27. pond water 100X5. Obtain a prepared slide of E. coli. Draw a few of the bacteria. Record in data table. E. coli 400X6. Obtain a prepared slide of euglena. Draw a few of these organisms. Record in data table.7. Complete the data Table Euglena 100X Slide Name Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic, Cork Algae Bacteria Pond water E. Coli ProtistsRESULTS:1. Which substances were made up of cells?2. What do all those substances (from #1) have in common? LAB 7C – OBSERVING CELLSMATERIALS: slides coverslips water salt solution microscope onion elodea water slide of human cheek cells iodine solution slide of frog blood 27
28. 28. PROCEDURE: 1. Separate one layer of cells from an onion as demonstrated by Mr. Furlong. 2. Place the layer of onion on your slide. Add a drop of water to the onion and a coverslip. 3. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope and focus under low power. Then change to medium power and focus. If it is possible, focus again under high power. 4. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell wall.Onion Onion 5. Remove the slide from the microscope. Remove the coverslip and add a drop of iodine solution. Replace the coverslip and return slide to microscope. 6. Once again focus under low power first, then medium power, and finally high power. 7. Sketch a few cells. Notice the nucleus is now visible using the stain. Label the cell wall and nucleus. Onion & Iodine 8. Add one small elodea leaf to a new slide. Add a drop of water to the leaf and the coverslip. 9. Place the slide on the microscope stage and focus under low power. Then change to medium power and focus. If it is possible, focus again under high power. 10. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell wall and chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are the green circular structures within the cell. Elodea 11. Remove the slide from the microscope. Remove the coverslip and add a drop of salt solution. Replace the coverslip and return slide to microscope. 12. Once again focus under low power first, then medium power, and finally high power. 13. Sketch a few cells. The salt water causes water to leave the cell. Now the cell membrane is visible. Label the cell wall, cell membrane, and chloroplasts. 14. Throw away both slides. Elodea & Salt 15. Obtain a prepared slide of stained human cheek cells. Find several cells. Label the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. 28
29. 29. 16. Under low power, examine a prepared slide of frog blood. Find an area where the cells Human cheeks cells are not too crowded and switch to medium power. If possible, focus under high power.17. Sketch a few cells. Label the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus Frog bloodRESULTS:Place a  in any box that organelle is observed.Type of Cell Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasm Chloroplast Cell MembraneOnionElodeaCheekFrog BloodDISCUSSIONOn a piece of binder paper, answer the following question.1. Based on your observations, which cells seem to be more rounded in shape? What do these cells have incommon?2. Based on your observations, which cells seem to have more rectangular in shape? What do these cells have in common?3. What structure may be involved in determining the shape of a plant cell? an animal cell? LAB 7D – DIFFUSION THROUGH A CELL MEMBRANEMATERIALS: 2 beakers dialysis tubing tubing clamps glucose test strip 10% starch solution 10% glucose solution iodine 29
30. 30. PROCEDURE:Part A: Starch and iodine diffusion1. Open a section of dialysis tubing as demonstrated by Mr. Furlong. Attach a tubing clamp to one end.2. Using a pipette, add the starch solution so it is about ¾ full. Twist the open end and attach the tubing clamp.3. Place the tubing into one of the beakers and add enough HOT water to fully submerge the tubing. This will be called Beaker A4. Add enough iodine solution to the water to give it a distinct yellow color.5. Determine the color of the solution inside the tubing as well as the color of the water. Record on data table.6. Let beaker sit for 20 minutes and record the color of the solutions inside the tubing as well as the color of the water.Part B: Glucose and water diffusion.1. With the second piece of dialysis tubing, add enough glucose solution until it is about ¾ full. Place this in a beaker and fill with HOT water. This beaker will be known as Beaker B.2. Allow the tubing to sit in the hot water for 20 minutes.3. After 20 minutes, dip the glucose test strip into the beaker of water. Record if any color change occurs on the strip.DATA: Beaker Color at Start Color after 20 minutes INSIDE OUTSIDE INSIDE OUTSIDE A GLUCOSE PRESENT? GLUCOSE PRESENT? B Beaker A at start Beaker A after 20 minutesDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. Did iodine enter or leave the dialysis tubing in beaker A? What evidence do you have to support this statement.2. Did glucose enter or leave the dialysis tubing in beaker B? What evidence do you have to support this statement.3. Which substance did not pass through the membrane? How do you know the substance did not pass?4. The structure of the dialysis tubing is similar to what cell organelle? CHAPTER 8 LABS PHOTOSYNTHESIS NAME__________________________ LAB 8A – LEAF STRUCTURE AND PIGMENT CHROMATOGRAPHY30
31. 31. MATERIALS: filter paper rubbing alcohol pencil metric ruler flask spinach microscope quarterPROCEDURE:1. Get a piece of filter paper. Using a pencil, draw a base line 1.5 cm from the bottom of the long side of the paper.2. Place a spinach leaf over the base line (pencil line). Roll the coin over the leaf so that there is a green line over your pencil line.3. Add about 50 mL of isopropyl alcohol to the flask. Be sure the pigment line will not touch the alcohol.4. Tape the chromatography paper to a pencil. Put the paper into the flask containing alcohol. The solvent will begin to move up the paper and cause the pigments to move as well.5. Do not disturb the beakers for 15 minutes.6. WHILE YOU ARE WAITING THE 15 MINUTES, OBSERVE THE CROSS SECTION OF A LEAF AND STRUCTURE OF STOMATE ON SPINACH AS SHOWN ON THE BOARD. stomate cross section of leaf7. Total number of stomates = ________________________8. RETRUN TO YOUR CHROMATOGRAPHY PAPER.9. When the solvent is about 1 cm from the top of the paper, remove the paper and mark the farthest point of the solvents progress with your pencil before the line evaporates.10. Measure the distance each color moved up the paper. You will need these to determine the Rf values for each type of pigment? Rf = Distance substance (solute) traveled Distance solvent traveled11. Draw the chromatography paper.DATA: Color of Pigment Pigment Name Rf Value 31
32. 32. 1st Color2nd Color3rd ColorDISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following question.1. Is the pigment in the spinach leaf a single compound or a mixture of several compounds? What evidence do you have that supports your statement?2. Explain why it is important to have many different types of pigments in a leaf.3. Most plants are green due to the presence of chlorophyll. Explain how a Japanese Maple tree, having only red leaves, can carry out photosynthesis.4. A student separated the pigments of a maple tree leaf using the chromatography procedure. The results are shown below. Which pigment has the greatest Rf value? Where are these pigments found? LAB 8B – PHOTOSYNTHESISYou will be designing and conducting 3 separate experiments about photosynthesis. Let’s examine a few thingsbefore setting up our experiment.1. Review of photosynthesis2. What type of plant should we use? A water or land plant?3. How will we identify the substances that are produced or given off during photosynthesis?4. What factor affecting photosynthesis could best be used to start and stop the process of photosynthesis? Problem A: Does a green plant use CO2 during photosynthesis? Problem B: Is light necessary for photosynthesis to occur? Problem C: Do plants use O2 when not using photosynthesis?32
33. 33. DATA: Expected Actual Indicator What the Changes Show Tube Material Added Indicator Change Change (Data) (Interpretation) (Hypothesis) 1 2 3 4 5 6DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What evidence do you have that light alone does not change the color of the bromothymol blue? What tube or combination of tubes listed in the table shows this?2. What tube or combination of tubes shows that light is necessary for a plant to carry out photosynthesis?3. A green plant uses CO2 during photosynthesis. What evidence do you have to support this statement.4. How is CO2 involved in a plant that is not carrying out photosynthesis? What tube or combination of tube shows this? LAB 8C – FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESISGo to http://www.furlong.eboard.com Click on the green note and open the link for the simulation. 33
34. 34. Part A: Effect of light color on the rate of photosynthesis Light Color Bubble Count White (colorless) Red Blue Green1. Adjust the light level to 7.0 and the CO2 level to 7.0. These variables will be controlled.2. The light bulb should say colourless. (British spelling of the word) This is white light.3. Click on the start button. It will run for 30 seconds.4. Record the data in the data table.5. Click on the + triangle next to the light bulb. The color of the light is now red.6. Click start again and record data.7. Repeat with the blue and green light. Then graph your data.8. Click on the Clear button to clear your data34
35. 35. Part B: Effect of Light Intensity on the Rate of Photosynthesis Light Level Bubble Count 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.01. Keep the CO2 level at 7.0 and change the color of light to colorless (white).2. Adjust the Light Level to 2.0.3. Start the simulation. Record Data.4. Continue simulation by increasing the Light Level by 2.0.5. Record data and graph.6. Clear the data.Part C: Affect of CO2 Levels on the Rate of Photosynthesis1. Adjust the Light level at 7.0 and keep the color of light to CO2 Level Bubble Count colorless (white). 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.02. Adjust the CO2 Level to 2.0.3. Start the simulation. Record Data. 35
36. 36. 4. Continue simulation by increasing the CO2 Level by 2.0.5. Record data and graph.6. Clear the data.Part D: Manipulating the Variables.1. Choose the 3 variables that allowed for photosynthesis to occur best at.2. Set the experiment to run those variables record the data as Run 1.3. Next, choose the 3 lowest variables for photosynthesis.4. Set the experiment to run those variables and record the data as Run 2.5. Finally, choose any 2 of the best variables and one of the lowest.6. Set the experiment to run those variables and record the data as Run 3 Run CO2 Level Light Level Light Color Bubble Count 1 2 3Discussion:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. According to Part A, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best in which color(s) of light?2. According to Part B, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best at which light level?3. According to Part C, the rate of photosynthesis occurs best at which CO2 level?4. According to Part D, when one variable is not at the optimum level, how does that affect the rate of photosynthesis? CHAPTER 9 LABS CELL RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION LAB 9A – COMPARING CELL RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION36
37. 37. INTRODUCTION: In this lab we will be using data obtained from an experiment using a type of organism that canlive in an environment with or without oxygen. This type of organism is called a facultative anaerobe. This investigation uses data from an experiment with Aerobacter aerogenes. The organisms were allowed togrow in test tubes containing distilled water to which only a few salts and various concentrations of glucose wereadded. Some of the tubes were sealed so that no air was available to the cells. Other tubes had a stream of airbubbling through the growth solution. You will work with and interpret the data and develop a hypothesis to explainthe findings.PROCEDURE:1. Using the data shown in the data table, construct 2 lines on the same graph. Label the y-axis millions of cells per mL and the x-axis glucose (mg/100mL). Plot the data from series A (test tubes without air).2. For the second line on the graph, plot the data from series B (test tubes with air). Label the first graph line Growth without air. Label the second line Growth with air.3. Use this graph to help answer the Discussion Questions.DISCUSSION:On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions. Concentration of Number of Cells at Maximum Growth Glucose (millions per ml)(mg/100ml of H2O) Tube # Tubes without Air Tube # Tubes with Air 18 1A 50 1B 200 36 2A 90 2B 500 54 3A 170 3B 800 72 4A 220 4B 1100 162 5A 450 5B 2100 288 6A 650 6B 360 7A 675 7B 432 8A 675 8B 540 9A 675 9B1. Look at the data table and compare test tubes 4A and 4B. How many times greater was the growth when air was present?2. Compare test tubes 4A and 4B. How many cells were produced per milligram of glucose in each case?3. Give a reason why there were so many more cells per milligram of glucose in the B test tubes than in the A test tubes.4. A scientist collecting data was interested in how the volume of oxygen breathed in was affected as the difficulty level of the exercise (measured in Watts) increased. The volume of oxygen uptake was measured in liters per minute (L/min). The data is shown below. Based on the graph, what is the relationship between exercise difficulty and oxygen uptake? 37
38. 38. LAB 9B – RATE OF CELL RESPIRATIONMATERIALS:38
39. 39. volumeter colored water thermometer corn seeds pea seeds lime packetsPROCEDURE:Part A: Volumeter Assembly1. Follow the instructions from Mr. Furlong on the set-up of your volumeter.2. Remove the stopper assemblies from the test tubes. Place 10 corn seeds in one test tube. Add a cotton ball and place one spoonful of soda lime on top of the cotton.3. Fill a second test tube with 10 pea seeds, a cotton ball and soda lime.4. Once the 2 test tubes are in place, follow the instructions of Mr. Furlong again in completing the volumeter assembly.5. Allow the volumeter to stand for about 5 minutes to permit temperatures to become uniform throughout the system.Part B: Recording Data1. Write a hypothesis about which seed carries on cell respiration the fastest in the box below.2. On the paper beneath the capillary tubes, mark the position of one end of the drop.3. Record the position of each drop of water every minute for 10 minutes. If cell respiration is rapid, you may need to reposition the green drop. If you do this, be sure to add both measurements of the distance moved by the drops to calculate the total change during the experiment.DATA: Time Volumeter #1 – Corn Volumeter #2 – Pea Rate of Cell Respiration Organism (mm3 of O2 absorbed/min) 1 min. 2 min. Corn 3 min. Peas 4 min. 5 min. 6 min. 7 min. 8 min. 9 min. 10 min. 39
40. 40. LAB REPORT INFORMATION: RESULTS:TITLE: IV – DV – Subj –HYPOTHESIS: Must be written as an If…then… statement If… is the reason for your prediction then… is your prediction CONCLUSION: State your conclusionMATERIALS AND METHODS: Summarize your data DISCUSSION: Accept or reject your hypothesis Interpret your data LAB 9C – FACTORS AFFECTING FERMENTATIONGo to www.furlong.eboard.com and click on the Note titled Lab 9C. Follow the directions on the note to start your lab.Part A: Effect of Compounds on Fermentation1. Use the following information to make a prediction about the effects various compounds on fermentation Pyruvate – a product of gyclolysis; it is changed into either ethanol or lactic acid during fermentation NaF – an inhibitor of some enzymes of glycolysis40
41. 41. Glucose – an organic compound used during fermentation CO2 Production Compound (mL/h) Control NaF Glucose Pyruvate2. Write a prediction as per Mr. Furlong’s instructions.3. Follow the procedures for Part A below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the Fermentation tab. b. Select Control and then click Graph Data c. Repeat for glucose, pyruvate, NaF d. Record your results in the data table.4. Graph your data.Part B: Effect of Temperature on Fermentation Temperature CO2 Production (mL/h) Ice Bath (0°C) Room Temp (25°C) 90° F (32°C) Boiling (100°C)4. Predict the effects of increasing temperature on fermentation rates.5. Follow the procedures for Part B below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the Temperature tab. b. Select Ice Bath and then click Graph Data 41
42. 42. c. Repeat for Room Temperature, 90 °F, and Boiling d. Record your results in the data table.6. Graph your data.Part C: Effects of pH on Fermentation7. Predict the effects of increasing pH on fermentation rates. pH Level CO2 Production (mL/h) pH 2 pH 4 pH 6 pH 8 pH 108. Follow the procedures for Part C below. a. Click Clear Data and then click the pH tab. b. Select pH 2 and then click Graph Data c. Repeat for pH values of 4, 6, 8, 10 d. Record your results in the data table9. Graph your data.42
43. 43. DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. In part A, why did adding NaF to the fermentation tube decrease the rate of fermentation?2. In part B, what is the ideal temperature for fermentation to occur?3. In part B, why did the boiling temperature show no fermentation? (Recall information learned in Lab 2D)4. In part C, predict the amount of CO2 produced if the pH is 5? CHAPTER 10 LABS CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION NAME__________________________ LAB 10A – CELL SIZE AND DIFFUSIONMATERIALS: beaker ruler spoon .1% HCl solution agar cubes scalpelPROCEDURE:1. Using a scalpel, cut the agar block into three cubes – one 3 cm, one 2 cm, and one 1 cm per side.2. Place the cubes into the beaker and cover them with the HCl solution. Record the time. Use the plastic spoon to turn the cubes frequently for the next 10 minutes.3. While you are waiting, complete the surface area, volume and ratio. Be sure to surfacearea complete the data for the 0.01 cm cell. This is the actual size of the cell and is NOT Ratio = volume one of the agar cubes.4. After 10 minutes, carefully pour the HCl back into the bottle. Place the agar cubes on to a piece of paper towel. Be sure to wear gloves. Blot the cubes dry.5. Using the scalpel, cut each cube in half.6. Measure the depth of diffusion for each cube. Record on data sheet.7. Throw away the paper towels and agar cubes. 43
44. 44. DATA: Cube Simplest Depth of Diffusion Surface Area Volume Time Dimension Ratio Diffusion Rate .01 cm ---- ---- ---- 1 cm 2 cm 3 cm diffusion rate = depth of diffusion ÷ timeRESULTS:Draw each of the cubes below.DATA: Volume Percent of total volume “Unchanged” Cube Side Volume of cube that has of Original Cube of cube that received Length not changed color (cm3) (cm3) acid 1 cm3 8 cm3 27 cm3Percent Volume of Cube ((original cube volume) – (volume of cube that has not changed color) That Received Acid = (original cube volume) X 100The percent of total volume of cube that received acid is analogous to the percent of cell getting nutrients. Graph the cellvolume (1cm3, 8cm3, and 27cm3) on the x-axis with the percent of total volume of cube that received acid on the y-axis.44
45. 45. DISCUSSION:On a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. What happens to the surface area to volume ratio as the cubes increase in size?2. What is the relationship between rate of diffusion and cell size?3. The acid represents nutrients and oxygen entering the cell by diffusion. Look at the data table above. What is the relationship between cell volume and amount of nutrients and oxygen entering the cell?4. What is the reason why large organisms have developed more cells rather than larger cells? (Hint: You can find the answer in your notes) LAB 10B – MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESISMATERIALS: mitosis cardsPROCEDURE:1. Cut out each picture of mitosis in onion and whitefish cells. Tape in appropriate location on the data table.2. Using the mitosis card, identify the stage each cell is in. Record on your data sheet.3. Count the total number of cells on the card.4. Determine the percent of time a cell is in each stage.DATA: 45
46. 46. Plant Mitosis Animal Mitosis DISCUSSION: Stage (Onion) (Whitefish) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telopahse InterphaseOn a piece of binder paper, answer the following questions.1. The cell is almost always found in interphase. What stage of mitosis takes the longest time to complete?2. A scientist performed an experiment to determine the effect of temperature on the length of the mitosisin onion cells. Graph the data from this experiment. Place graph on binder paper Temperature Length of Mitosis (°C) (hours) 10 54.6 15 29.8 20 18.8 25 13.346
47. 47. 3. Given the set of data from above, what is the relationship between temperature and the length ofmitosis? Stage # of cells in stage % of time in stage Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase % time in stage = # of cells in stage x 100 total # of cells counted CHAPTER 11 LABS INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS NAME__________________________ LAB 11A – PROBABILITYMATERIALS: 1 penny 1 nickelPROCEDURE:1. Work in teams of 2. One person will be student A and the other will be student B. 47
48. 48. 2. Student B will toss the penny 10 times. Student A will use tally marks (/) to indicate the results of each toss. Tally the tosses in the appropriate column on the score sheet.3. After 10 tosses, switch places. This time, student A will toss the penny 10 times and student B will record the data.4. Continue taking turns until a total of 100 tosses (10 series of 10) are finished.5. Next, student A will flip both the penny and the nickel at the same time. Student B will record the results on the data table. Toss both coins a total of 20 tosses. 6. Reverse roles, this time student B will flip both coins a total of 20 times. Student A will record the results on the data table.7. There should be a total of 40 tosses. Trial Heads Tails Deviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TOTAL CLASS TOTALDATA:48