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Leipzig 5 u 6


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Leipzig 5 u 6

  1. 1. SymposiumSEPT20Years – The Co-existence of Nature, Economyand Society as Base for Sustainable EconomicDevelopment, Leipzig, 24 November 2012PES and REDD+ for sustainable landmanagement in developing countries– case studies from Latin America, South East Asia, and AfricaUdo Nehren,Cologne University of Applied Sciences
  2. 2. 1Higher Education Excellence in DevelopmentCooperation – exceed — The CNRD is one of five competence centers for development cooperation in Germany, funded by the German Ministery of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) — CNRD is coordinated by the Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT) at Cologne University of Applied Sciences
  3. 3. 2Orientation towards Millennium DevelopmentGoal 7 (MDG 7) in research, teaching, andtraining
  4. 4. 3The CNRD network
  5. 5. 4"The ninth-centurycollapse andabandonment of theCentral MayaLowlands in theYucatán peninsularregion were theresult of complexhuman–environmentinteractions“(Cook et al. 2012) © Roy Andersen, National Geographic
  6. 6. 5 Maya civilization, Deforestation for agricultural land, urban expansion, depended on building materials, etc. = internal pressure agriculture, technological and cultural progress Longest dry spell of the last 2,000 years = external Growing pressure population Cook et al. (2012):Few centuries later: - Reduced annual precipitationChange of regional - Regional climate change, severe droughtsclimate towardsmoister conditionsIn many areas forestsexpanded Collapse of Maya civilization Population reduced to 10% if its maximum
  7. 7. Civilization 6 ……technical progress
  8. 8. 7
  9. 9. 8Fotos Yucatán Kulturund KarstSlides Nummerieren Climate Change Scenarios
  10. 10. 9Earth System under stress –people under stress Source: UNEP
  11. 11. 10Hans Carl von Wood scarcity in Central Europe;Carlowitz: Sylvicultura reforestation, “forest romanticism”;oeconomica. Acc. to Radkau (2008) start of theAnweisung zur wilden modern environmental movementBaum-Zucht (1713): US: preservation (= natureNachhaltigkeit set aside for its own sake)(Sustainability) versus conservation (= managing for human use)
  12. 12. 10 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 1992 Rio Summit Brundtland report (1987) Global 2000 (1980)Club of Rome (1972): Limits to growth
  13. 13. 10 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 2012 Rio+202002 World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD) in Johannesburg Kyoto Protocol 1997
  14. 14. Action on all fronts and at all levelsResearchers ICZMEcosystemmanagement Kyoto Protocol Food security Soil erosion People Sustainable development IWRM Sea level rise Millennium Ecosystem Water  scarcity   Assessment Agenda 21
  15. 15. 12Markets andeconomicincentives?
  16. 16. 13Biodiversity loss„Well lose uncounted new benefits. Theseare what the economists call opportunitycosts, and they are enormous because wehavent even identified the vast majority ofspecies out there.“E.O. Wilson 1993: The Threatened Biosphere,Defenders Magazine, Summer 1993
  17. 17. 14The crucial role of tropical and subtropical ecosystems
  18. 18. 15Significance of tropical and subtropicalEcosystems
  19. 19. 16Carbon storage Deforestation is responsible for an estimated release of 5.8 billion tons of CO2 equivalents per year, of which 96% are emitted by developing countries of the tropics (Stern Report 2006, IPCC 2007)
  20. 20. 17Protection from natural hazards
  21. 21. 18(Sub)tropical countries prone to disasters Alliance Development Works (2012): World Risk Report 2012
  22. 22. 19Population growth, economic growth +1.2 +10.5 +7.7 +6.6 +3.6 +4.2 +5.9 +4.2 Numbers = Average growth rate of real GDP 2007-2011 Population data for 2011 (CIA fact book 2012) Economic data for 2011 (World Bank 2012)
  23. 23. 20Consequences FAO Global Forest Assessment 2010
  24. 24. 21Ecosystem Services for human well-being – TheMillennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Provisioning services Regulating services (food, fiber, genetic (climate, water, erosion, resources, biochemicals, pest, disease regulation, fresh water): demand of and others): protection of natural resources natural resources
  25. 25. 22Mechanismen:CDMREDD+Paying people for sustainable forestand land use management?PES
  26. 26. 23Climate Change Mitigationa) Reducing greenhouse gas emissionsb) Increasing their sinks: Optimizing forest and land use managementDeforestation and forest degradation in tropical rainforests: 12-20% of globalGHG emissions (IPCC, 2007, van der Werf et al. 2009)- Maintaining existing C pools- Restoring lost C pools Low-cost GHG emission- Creating new C pools reduction FAO 2010
  27. 27. 24 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)Idea of REDD in “Reducing Emissions Bali Action Plan: Copenhagen Cancúnthe context of from Deforestation in Accord: Agreements:LULUCF developing countries: Sustainable forest approaches to management, Mobilization of Provide countries stimulate action“ participation of financial resources with guidance on requested by local communities from developed REDD+ readiness “Coalition of and indigenous countries Rainforest Nations“ peoplesKyoto Protocol Montreal (COP-11) Bali (COP-13) Copenhagen (COP-15) Cancún (COP-16)1997 2005 2007 2009 2010 Concentration of REDD+ projects in rainforest countries of the Amazon Basin, Congo Basin, and South East Asia
  28. 28. 25REDD vs. PESREDD PESFinancial compensation for C storage or Payments for sustainable ecosystememission reduction through forest management to protect naturalmanagement and reforestation resourcesREDD+: sustainable use of forests and Usually four ecosystem services:benefits for local communities - Carbon sequestration - Water quality and availabilityMonetary value for stored C; included in - Biodiversity protectioninternational carbon trade system - Landscape beauty and tourismProjects financed by international fundsand grants, such as UN-REDD or FCPC Funding particularly for small farmers(Forest Carbon Partnership Fund) and land ownersCurrently: Developing methodologies Mainly governmental payments, noand implementation in national policies trading system
  29. 29. Case study I: Ecuador 26 Potentials and Risks of REDD+ implementation in indigenous community lands in the Ecuadorian AmazonToa Loaiza-Lange, Udo Nehren, Gerhard Gerold
  30. 30. 27 REDD+ project in the buffer zone of Yasuní NPHow can indigenousgroups participate in theREDD+ mechanism? Rio Napo
  31. 31. 28 Kichwas Shuar Peasants Pop 80,000 Pop 45,000 Agriculture, livestock production, forestryFishing, hunting, gathering forests products Extended families Clan arrangements Nuclear Family
  32. 32. 29Nearly 900 petroleum companies Road opening, expansion ofare active in NE Amazon (80% of agricultural & pasture lands, illegalthe surface) (Larrea et al. 2009) logging -> annual loss of virgin forest 2000-2010 = 1.8% (FAO, 2011)
  33. 33. Legal Framework Analysis Legal issues in Indigenous 30Local territories de facto vs de jure rights Benefit Sharing Oil Concessions Carbon Rights ownershipGlobal Laoiza Lange et al. 2012
  34. 34. 31• REDD+ is known in the indigenous communities• Unclear land tenure and overlapping of properties• Shape & Limits of properties changed to allow oil concessions• Actual territories do not match ancestral lands• Kichwas and Shuar also used legal mechanisms for land titling to gain properties in non-traditional territories• Land speculation, carbon rights - Who will benefit?
  35. 35. 32Case study II: Atlantic Forest of Brazil Potential natural forest area ~1.0-1.5 million km² *) Percentage of original forest area ~ 8.0% *) / 11.4-16.0% **) Highly fragmented ~ 232,000 forest fragments *) One of 25 biodiversity hotspots ***) *) Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica / INPE 2009 **) Ribeiro et al. 2009 ***) Myers et al. 2000 Climate Change Scenarios
  36. 36. 33 Serra do Mar corridor Study Area of the German-Brazilian Research Project DINARIO Altlantic Ocean Climate Change ScenariosSOS Mata Atlântica 2010, modifiedby Heinrich, Nehren & Sattler 2010
  37. 37. 34Potentials for REDD+?4.04% 0.14% Close to megacity Rio de Janeiro: suburbanization processes, fragmented landscape, many small 45.45% 50.37% farmers Lack of information about EMBRAPA 2010 REDD+
  38. 38. 35Legal framework REDDy? Climate Change Scenarios Nehren et al. 2012
  39. 39. 36 Upper Guapi- Macacu watershedNo additionality PES for reforestation and management of small forest fragments: + biodiversity + carbon storage + water quantity and quality + tourism
  40. 40. Case study III: Deforestation and degradation of dry forests due for wood fuel extraction, Mutomo district, KenyaGeoffrey Ndegwa1, Dieter Anhuf2, Udo Nehren3, Sabine Schlüter4, Miyuki Iiyama51 University Passau2 Cologne University of Applied Sciences th3 ICRAF – 27 of September, 2012 Centre, Nairobi Date: World Agroforestry
  41. 41. 38 Key figures Mutomo District (GOK, 2011)Location Eastern province of KenyaPopulation / About 180,000 (2009),land area 33,000 households, 20,400 km2; high population growth rateMain sources Casual labour (41%),of income remittances (21%), petty trading (18%), formal employment (3%) charcoal production (9%)Rainfall 500-1,050mm (with 30% reliability)Population 65%below povertyline
  42. 42. 39 How can a PES scheme support sustainable land management and reduce deforestation and forest degradation?Household distribution by main cooking fuel + biodiversity firewood paraffin electricity charcoal + carbon storage + tourism ICRAF 2012
  43. 43. 40Case studies IV and V:Vietnam and Indonesia Hazards and environmental problems
  44. 44. 41Ecosystems under pressureSlash and burn Acacia and rubber plantations Climate Change ScenariosDam construction Illegal mining
  45. 45. 42Evolving technologies and Ecosystem and community-community-­‐based monitoring based adaptation to climatefor effective REDD+ related disastersimplementation Cologne University of Applied Sciences,University of Wageningen (The Hue University (Vietnam)Netherlands), Cologne University of AppliedSciences, Vietnam Academy for WaterResources, Hue University (Vietnam)
  46. 46. 43Indonesia, Karimunjawa IslandMangrove forest carbon stock mapping in small islands usingremote sensing: above and below ground carbon mapping onmedium resolution satellite imageGadjah Mada University (Indonesia), Cologne University of Applied SciencesFocus:Baseline for REDD+ implementation Climate Change ScenariosCommunity-based ecosystem management
  47. 47. 44 Lessons learned so far Much attention paid to economic approaches for land and ecosystem management, such as REDD+ and PES Success strongly depends on the political, socioeconomic, cultural and ecological circumstances PES successfully implemented in (sub)tropical countries;Can economic relatively low risksapproacheshelp to REDD+ bears risks of top-down governance, landprevent the speculation, violation of indigenous rights, apart from21st century technical challengesecologicalcollapse? REDD+ requires strong involvement of communities to improve knowledge and acceptance; safeguards for communities and ecosystems needed
  48. 48. Thank you very much for your attention And thanks to the PhD students: Toa Loaiza Lange (Ecuador) Vanesa Rodriguez (Bolivia, Brazil) Geoffrey Ndegwa (Kenya) Arun Pratihast (Nepal, Vietnam) Pramaditya Wicaksono (Indonesia)
  50. 50. Outline 1. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT RWANDA 1. Akagera National Park (East of Rwanda) 2. Nyungwe National Park (South of Rwanda) 3. Volcanoes National Park (North Rwanda) 2. SACOLA : THE COEXISTANCE OF NATURE, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY 1. The nature of SACOLA 2. Main achievements of SACOLA (socio-cultural, economic, tourism) 3. Conclusion: Overall impact2 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  51. 51. 1. Basic information about Rwanda Size: 26,338km2; Landscape: Hilly Pop: 11m (54% women, 46% men) Life: 85% agriculture Religion: 95 christians Languages: Kinyarwanda, English, French
  52. 52. 1.1. Akagera National Park (East of Rwanda) Is the largest in Rwanda with various wild animals (Zebra, Giraffes, hippos, lions, impala, Distance: 2hrs drive from Kigali Inside the Park: Akagera Game Lodge4 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  53. 53. 1.2. Nyungwe National Park (South of Rwanda) One the largest populations of endemic species in all of Africa. East Africas largest protected high- altitude rainforest. Distance: 3hrs drive from Kigali Species inside the Park: 86 mammals, 14 of primates, 280 of avian species, 43 species of reptiles, 1100 species of orchids What else? Canopy walkway: 90m long, 50m high Nyungwe forest Lodge SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society5
  54. 54. 1.3. Volcanoes National Park (North Rwanda) (the focus of this presentation) Home population of the remaining endangered Mountain Gorillas Distance: 2h30 from Kigali Inside and around the Park: Mountain Gorillas Many lodges Questions? How local communities benefit the volcanoes park? What do they do to protect it?6 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  55. 55. 2. SACOLA : THE COEXISTANCE OF NATURE, ECONOMYAND SOCIETY Created in 2004 by Kinigi District SACOLA means authorities in collaboration with the former Rwanda Office of Tourism and National Parks (Now: RDB) Objectives: Improve and promote the lives of population surrounding the park who were suffering heavily from the consequences of the guerilla war of 1997-1998 Sabyinyo (the mountain above) Protect the park against human Community Livelihood Association activities and disease transmission from humans to gorillas7 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  56. 56. 2.1. The nature of SACOLA1. Domains of Intervention: 3. Tools used: Socio- cultural Community cooperatives Economic born after . Tourism UNICOPAV (Ex-poachers, Amizero poters club, crafters,2. Means bee-keepers), Using, supporting and ANNICO (Producers of synchronizing services provided tourism products made in by local organizations and Bamboos) communities Muhisimbi (tourism guides) Profit sharing with surrounding communities.8 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  57. 57. 2.2. Main achievements of SACOLA 1. Socio-cultural Construction of full houses 31 for genocide survivors 20 for other vulnerables: 2,600 iron sheets + nails (16m Rwf) Cows donated in the program one cow per family: 150 cows from 2010 to 2012 SACOLA cultural center: (traditional dancers, healers, iron9 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  58. 58. Money inject locally from 2008 to 2011 (SACOLA in partnership with SSBL): 442,114 USD for: construction of schools, roads, rain harvest water tanks10 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  59. 59. 2. Economic achievements Investment: 750,000USD in Sabyinyo Silver Back Lodge (18 beds in total; 5 Revenue sharing: cottages, 2 suites and 1 family suite) 58USD per day &per head Management by Governors camps, a allocated to SACOLA, British Kenya-based group 30USD per visit to cultural center paid directly to SACOLA which also allocates a tip to the owners of the visited site 60% of employees must come from local community Basic food is supplied by locals Prices: From normal to high season NB: 300-500USD (Single) With this money SACOLA invests 700 to 1,000USD (Suite) back in the community11 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  60. 60. 3. Achievements in Tourism Gorilla naming ceremony (yearly) Introduced in 2005 to create awareness for safeguarding of the mountain Gorillas that are in danger of extinction Gorillas increased from 300 to 480 in 2012, 2005-2006-2007-2008: 30, 12, 23 and 20 respectively. Visit permit: from 500USD to 750USD There are 8 gorilla families that can be visited 10 people each every day Walls preventing other animals going out of the VNP12 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  61. 61. Conclusion:Overall impact 1. Social benefits: 2. Economic benefits: Improved education, health Hotel construction, care, Job creation and food market Community united around Revenue sharing one cause Problems, experiences and solutions sharing 3.Tourism benefits Openness toward the outside Environmental conservation world Increased number of Gorillas Increased cost of Gorilla visit permit13 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society
  62. 62. TtHhAaNnKk   YyOoUu!  
  63. 63. Sources Interview with Florence Secretary, Founder, One of Gorilla Naming Personalities in 2010 www.igcp.org15 SMEs: Coexistance of Nature, Economy and Society