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Vodcast Impact on Students’ Attitudes     and Behavioral Intentions            BELA FLORENTHAL      WILLIAM PATERSON UNIVE...
Research Questions Are Vodcasts (video podcasts) effective as part of universities’ IMC strategy for recruitment? Can Vo...
Theoretical Background Vodcasts   Video podcasts   Interactive   Capture attention, raise interest, increase involveme...
Theoretical Background Ducoffe’s (1996) model and extensions   4 Motivations/benefits:        Entertainment, Informativ...
Theoretical Background Ducoffe’s (1996) model and extensions   Attitude toward advertising      Advertising outcomes th...
Theoretical Model•    Informativeness•    Entertainment                      Attitude                         Advertising ...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Entertainment:    Refers to consumers’ experience of fun, pleasure, and enjoyment   ...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Informativeness:    The degree to which consumers can receive resourceful and helpfu...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Irritation:   Advertising with unwanted outcomes   Results in reduced advertising e...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Credibility:    Extension to Ducoffe’s model by Brackett and Carr (2001)    Percept...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Relevant Demographics:    Research to support that people react to the web different...
Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Behavioral Intention:    Luo (2001) modified and extended Ducoffe’s (1996) model add...
Methodology Study design and execution   A private Midwestern university was sampled   Vodcasts      Were created in t...
Methodology Study design and execution    Sampling method:      924 questionnaires were sent out      63 questionnaire...
Methodology Study design and execution   Measures:    All were 5-point scales    Ducoffe’s (1996) measures of Entertai...
Analysis and Results Structural Model 1 based on Ducoffe (1996)     RSMEA = 0.10, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.90, NFI = 0.99   ...
Analysis and Results Structural Model 2 based on Brackett and Carr (2001) and  Luo (2002)      RSMEA = 0.20, GFI = 0.91,...
Analysis and Results Final Structural Model 3      RSMEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.99                    ...
Conclusions The final model validates most of Ducoffe’s (1996)  and Brackett and Carr’s (2001) hypothesized  relationship...
Conclusions The type of college in which a student was enrolled was a relevant demographic for the vodcast context    St...
Managerial Implications Vodcasts used by universities to attract students    Make sure they convey relevant and credible...
Limitations The sampled students already verbally committed to  come to the university     A more balanced sample with n...
DMEF Conference  Vodcast Paper Fall 2011
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DMEF Conference Vodcast Paper Fall 2011

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Purpose: This paper uses structural equation modeling to assess the effectiveness of Vodcasts (video podcasts) as part of a university’s communication strategy with prospective students.
Design/methodology/approach: Three theoretical models were tested using a structural equation model.
Findings: We find that perceived informativeness, credibility, and irritation of the advertising are directly related to the value of the Vodcast advertising. However of those three factors, only the informativeness is directly related to the intent to take further action toward enrollment. In addition, while prior work has suggested that perceived entertainment of advertising positively influences its perceived value, we find that for these university Vodcasts, perceived entertainment is not a statistically significant factor.
Research limitations/implications: The results suggest that for Vodcasts used for these purposes, less attention should be given to entertainment value, and more attention should be focused on providing useful information in a manner that is credible and not irritating to students.
Originality/value: Vodcasts have become part of the Internet multimedia experience and have been integrated into universities’ web-based promotion strategies. While prior work has examined general advertising on the web, few studies have considered the impact of the interactive medium of Vodcasts on attitudes and behavioral intentions.

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DMEF Conference Vodcast Paper Fall 2011

  1. 1. Vodcast Impact on Students’ Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions BELA FLORENTHAL WILLIAM PATERSON UNIVERSITY PRISCILLA A. ARLING DEBORAH SKINNER KATHRYN W. KING BUTLER UNIVERSITY PATRICK J. RONDEAU SIX SIGMA ASSOCIATES, INC.
  2. 2. Research Questions Are Vodcasts (video podcasts) effective as part of universities’ IMC strategy for recruitment? Can Vodcasts be assessed using existing theoretical models of communication?  Ducoffe’s 1996 and extensions
  3. 3. Theoretical Background Vodcasts  Video podcasts  Interactive  Capture attention, raise interest, increase involvement, and lead to action-related commitment Millennials (Gen M)  Net Generation  Frequent users of the internet  More into visuals and kinetics  Multimedia taskers  On-line buying, socializing, and playing  Tend to learn on their own time
  4. 4. Theoretical Background Ducoffe’s (1996) model and extensions  4 Motivations/benefits:  Entertainment, Informativeness, Irritation, Credibility  Relevant demographics  Inclusion by Brackett and Carr (2001)  Advertising value  Consumers and advertisers exchange benefits and costs from web- based media  Consumers derive value based on an exchange via communication  Consumers’ perceived value of the web-based advertising medium
  5. 5. Theoretical Background Ducoffe’s (1996) model and extensions  Attitude toward advertising  Advertising outcomes that capture consumers’ gratification from interacting on-line with an advertisement Behavioral Intentions  Action Intent Developed to cater to desired university goals  Students’ intent to look for additional information based on the vodcasts
  6. 6. Theoretical Model• Informativeness• Entertainment Attitude Advertising Action• Irritation toward Value Intent Advertising• Credibility Relevant Demographics
  7. 7. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Entertainment:  Refers to consumers’ experience of fun, pleasure, and enjoyment during media usage  Ducoffe (1996) suggests:  Perceived entertainment of the ads impacts the value of the advertising  Included in the Web based Motivation Inventory (Rodgers et al. 2007)  It has been used to explain attitudes toward websites  Gen M are used to watching reality based television or playing video games  Vodcasts mimic that experience  H1: Perceived entertainment of the vodcast will be positively associated with the perceived advertising value of the vodcast and with attitude toward the vodcast.
  8. 8. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Informativeness:  The degree to which consumers can receive resourceful and helpful information on the Internet (Luo 2002; Ducoffe 1996).  Ducoffe (1994) suggests:  Perceived informativeness of the ads impacts the value of the advertising  Included in the Web based Motivation Inventory (Rodgers et al. 2007)  It has been used to explain attitudes toward websites  Vodcasts offer firsthand reviews of “typical” college coed experiences  H2: Perceived informativeness of the vodcast will be positively associated with the perceived advertising value of the vodcast.  H7: Perceived informativeness will be positively associated with the attitude toward the vodcast.
  9. 9. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Irritation:  Advertising with unwanted outcomes  Results in reduced advertising effectiveness and value (Luo 2002; Ducoffe 1996)  Gen M:  Their time is limited and the available website resources are numerous  Vodcasts may seem irritating if they are perceived to provide irrelevant information  H3: Perceived irritation of the vodcast will be negatively associated with the perceived advertising value of the vodcast.
  10. 10. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Credibility:  Extension to Ducoffe’s model by Brackett and Carr (2001)  Perception that the information provided in the advertisement is truthful and believable (MacKenzie and Lutz 1989)  Previous research has established that the perceived credibility of a website impacts both the value and the attitude toward the website (Chiagouris, Long, and Plank 2008; Greer 2003)  The vodcast used in this study represents the website as the context of interest  H5: Perceived credibility of the vodcast will be positively associated with the perceived advertising value of the vodcast.  H6: Perceived credibility of the vodcast will be positively associated with the attitude toward the vodcast.
  11. 11. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Relevant Demographics:  Research to support that people react to the web differently depending on variables such as gender and age  Students relate differently to the vodcast actors (male or female) and their characteristics (age, chosen major, field of study, etc.) Attitude toward Advertising  Brackett and Carr (2001) added this outcome construct  H8: Relevant demographics (e.g., gender, age, major of study, year in school and/or type of college) will have a direct relationship with the attitude toward the vodcast.  H4: The perceived advertising value of the vodcast will be positively associated with the attitude toward the vodcast.
  12. 12. Theoretical Background & Hypotheses Behavioral Intention:  Luo (2001) modified and extended Ducoffe’s (1996) model adding web usage as an outcome  Students will review the vodcasts and should be inclined to ask for or obtain further information to help in their university selection  H9: Attitude toward the vodcast will be positively associated with the intent to take actions toward the university.
  13. 13. Methodology Study design and execution  A private Midwestern university was sampled  Vodcasts  Were created in the business school  Purpose:  Engage prospective business students with the college/university  Get into their “consideration set” earlier in the decision cycle (fall vs. spring)  Tell “the freshman story” through the eyes of two actual business students  Were placed on the university’s home page with links to iTunes and YouTube
  14. 14. Methodology Study design and execution  Sampling method:  924 questionnaires were sent out  63 questionnaires were collected in freshmen classes  Total of 157 usable questionnaires (16.99% response rate)  Sample characteristics:  57% were males  70% were ages 17-18  93% were freshmen  Enrolled:  48% into the College of Business  25% into college of Liberal Arts  15% into Pharmacy and Health Sciences  71% came from public schools
  15. 15. Methodology Study design and execution  Measures:  All were 5-point scales  Ducoffe’s (1996) measures of Entertainment and Advertising Value were used  Brackett and Carr’s (2001) measures of Informativeness, Irritation, and Credibility were used  Attitude toward the Vodcasts were adopted from Geissler, Zinkhan and Watson’s (2006) study  Action Intent was developed for this study using items such as:  The Vodcasts would prompt me to ask for additional information  I would use the information in the Vodcasts to help me decide about attending
  16. 16. Analysis and Results Structural Model 1 based on Ducoffe (1996)  RSMEA = 0.10, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.90, NFI = 0.99 Entertainment 0.18* (1.96) 0.12 (1.46) 0.24** (2.77) Atttitude Advertising Informativeness Toward Value Advertising -0.44** (5.30) Irritation
  17. 17. Analysis and Results Structural Model 2 based on Brackett and Carr (2001) and Luo (2002)  RSMEA = 0.20, GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.61, NFI = 0.94 0.12 Entertainment (1.20) 0.05 (0.57) 0.06 (0.61) Informativeness 0.18* (1.99) Advertising Atttitude Toward Irritation Action Intent Value 0.45** Advertising -0.42** 0.47** (-5.13) (5.13) (5.91) 0.12 (1.52) Credibility 0.05 (0.45) Business College Enrolled 0.15* (2.39)
  18. 18. Analysis and Results Final Structural Model 3  RSMEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.99 0.33** (4.24) Informativeness Action Intent 0.19* 0.43** (2.24) (5.65) 0.19* Credibility (2.25) Advertising 0.76** Value (4.48) -0.43** (-5.50) Atttitude Toward Irritation Advertising Business 0.15* College (2.38) Enrolled
  19. 19. Conclusions The final model validates most of Ducoffe’s (1996) and Brackett and Carr’s (2001) hypothesized relationships  Three out of four motives, namely Informativeness, Credibility, and Irritation, directly contribute to perceived Advertising Value which in turn contributes to Attitude toward Advertising In the vodacst context:  Perceived Entertainment does not significantly relate to either Advertising Value or Attitude toward Advertising
  20. 20. Conclusions The type of college in which a student was enrolled was a relevant demographic for the vodcast context  Students enrolled in the College of Business had a more positive attitude toward the vodcasts than students enrolled in other colleges. Action Intent was directly related to perceived Advertising Value and Informativeness  The more informative the vodcasts are, the more viewers are inclined to take university-related actions  The more the viewers see value in the vodcasts, the more they inclined to be action driven
  21. 21. Managerial Implications Vodcasts used by universities to attract students  Make sure they convey relevant and credible information  Make sure they are not irritating  Tracking viral marketing of vodcasts  Give incentives to students to watch the vodcasts (e.g., treasure hunt) Using feedback mechanism  Allowing students to rate vodcasts and make suggestions for improvement Focus on what drives Action Intent  Focus mostly on informative vodcasts that keep students interested  Entertaining vodcasts that lack relevant information may not result in enrollment-related actions
  22. 22. Limitations The sampled students already verbally committed to come to the university  A more balanced sample with non-committed students could be beneficial Almost half of the sample was students enrolled in the college of business  A more even distribution across colleges could be beneficial Action Intent  Was used in a small private university  Generalizability needs to be established for private and public universities

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