Background <ul><li>Top 20 Largest earthquakes by magnitude in U.S. history vs. months they are most likely to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: The claim is that most earthquakes occur in the Fall </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Where and what year did these quakes happen? </li></ul><ul><li>Did any of these quakes result in Tsunamis? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any evidence that global warming has </li></ul><ul><li>an effect on earthquakes? </li></ul>
Data collection Sample: Top 20 recorded earthquakes in U.S. history Population: All earthquakes in U.S. history <ul><li>Types of research methods commonly used </li></ul><ul><li>to collect earthquake data </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Analysis: The object is to group either the data units or variables into clusters such that elements within a cluster have a high degree of natural association among themselves while the clusters are relatively distinct from one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Data-Mining: Is the principle of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional Visualization: Uses parallel coordinates which visualize multidimensional data using two dimensional presentations and allows identification of clusters and outliers, therefore, this method can be used to detect abnormal events. </li></ul>
Monthly Analysis Most major earthquakes do occur in the Fall
Magnitude Analysis The magnitude of the 4 most recent major earthquakes is between 7.8 -7.9
Tsunami Information 55% of top 20 Earthquakes in U.S. history resulted in Tsunamis no 7.8 1812 New Madrid, Missouri no 7.8 1892 Imperial Valley, California no 7.8 1906 San Francisco, California no 7.8 1996 Andreanof Islands, Alaska yes 7.8 2003 Rat Islands, Alaska no 7.9 1857 Fort Tejon, California yes 7.9 1898 Ka'u District, Islands, Hawaii no 7.9 1899 Near Cape Yakataga, Alaska yes 7.9 1986 Andreanof Islands, Alaska yes 7.9 1987 Gulf of Alaska, Alaska no 7.9 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska no 8 1812 New Madrid, Missouri yes 8 1899 Yakutat Bay, Alaska no 8.1 1811 New Madrid, Missouri yes 8.1 1946 Unimak Islands, Alaska yes 8.2 1938 East of Shumagin Islands, Alaska yes 8.6 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska yes 8.7 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska yes 9 1700 Cascadia Subduction Zone (West Coast) yes 9.2 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska Tsunamis Magnitude date Major Earthquakes
Tsunami vs. Magnitude scientists have found tsunami wave height is independent of earthquake magnitude and is instead linked to a rupture's vertical displacement.
Conclusion <ul><li>The decision is to support the claim and reject the null </li></ul><ul><li>Most major earthquakes do occur in the Fall </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence that global warming directly influences earthquakes, although when glaciers melt areas of rebounding crust could change the stresses acting on earthquake faults </li></ul>