Significant properties of e-learning objects (SPeLOs)

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Presentation to JISC/BL/DPC preservation workshop, BL, April 2008

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Significant properties of e-learning objects (SPeLOs)

  1. 1. SPeLOs: Significant Properties of E-learning Objects A report for the JISC Digital Preservation and Records Management Programme Kevin Ashley, Richard Davis, Ed Pinsent University of London Computer Centre
  2. 2. SPeLOs Aims and objectives Digital objects in the E-learning domain Developing a typology for Learning Objects An example Learning Object Observations and conclusions
  3. 3. Aims Complement InSPECT Expand the digital object type portfolio Understand the complexity and characteristics of Learning Objects Basis for more detailed work
  4. 4. Objectives SPs x LOs = ? SPs: Assess InSPECT Expression definition of SPs Metrics SPs + DC = ? Objective / Subjective LO classification Definition Future research?
  5. 5. What is a Learning Object? Photo by John McCullough on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/grytr/285072637
  6. 6. What is a Learning Object? quot;Any object can actually be exactly the right object to explain some concept or idea. Still they are not “learning objects”. They are only “potential learning objects”. They become learning objects only when they are brought in to learning context by an authority (teacher, publisher...)quot; Free Libre and Open Source Soft ware in Education (FLOSSE) Blog
  7. 7. What is a Learning Object? “ relatively small, reusable digital entity that can be a selectively applied – alone or in combination – by computer soft ware, learning facilitators or learners themselves, to meet individual needs for learning or performance support.” Clive Shepard (2000) “any digital resource that can be reused to support learning,” David Wiley (2001)
  8. 8. What is a Learning Object? File format The usual suspects (PPT, PDF, SWF etc) Proprietary/domain specific (e.g. Blackboard, QMark, QTI) Object type Assembly of objects, units, files Package, e.g. SCORM Context
  9. 9. SPs of LOs Learning Object -ness File Format -ness Digital Object -ness
  10. 10. Classifying Learning Objects By size: Course, Learning Episode, Learning Assembly, Information Object, Digital Asset (CETIS, 2001) By content type: multimedia, instructional, learning objectives, instructional soft ware/tools, persons/ organisations/events (IEEE) By purpose: instruction objects; collaborative objects; application objects; assessment objects (SmartForce Framework)
  11. 11. Learning Object Typology Groups A. Functional F. Reusability B. Learning Object G. Delivery Classification (IEEE LOM) H. Rights Management C. Learning Unit Classification J. Digital object type (DCMI) D. Contextual K. Look and feel E. People / roles
  12. 12. A Learning Object
  13. 13. X-RAY BEAM MANIPULATION BEHAVIOUR RENDERING CONTENT STRUCTURE CONTEXT A5 Interactive A5 Interactive J6 Multimedia A1 Instructional D Contextual resource F6 Applicable to C5 Video / A5 Interactive E1 Checked by other LEs Animation Validator B1 Activity G1 Software C9 Sound E4 Written by dependent B3 Simulation F5 Works in Author Model G3 Format other F2 Discoverable dependent applications B19 Demonstration F12 in JORUM G6 Delivered by K1 Fonts ZIP C5 Video / H2 DRM K2 Colours Animation G7 Delivered K3 Layout with XML C9 Sound Schema K5 English J6 Multimedia K6 Charset resource
  14. 14. X-RAY BEAM MANIPULATION BEHAVIOUR RENDERING CONTENT STRUCTURE CONTEXT A5 Interactive A5 Interactive J6 Multimedia A1 Instructional D Contextual resource F6 Applicable to C5 Video / A5 Interactive E1 Checked by other LEs Animation Validator B1 Activity G1 Software C9 Sound E4 Written by dependent B3 Simulation F5 Works in Author Model G3 Format other F2 Discoverable dependent applications B19 Demonstration F12 in JORUM G6 Delivered by K1 Fonts ZIP C5 Video / H2 DRM K2 Colours Animation G7 Delivered K3 Layout with XML C9 Sound Schema K5 English J6 Multimedia K6 Charset resource
  15. 15. Learning Object CONTEXT People/Roles E4 Written by Author Object has been written by a named individual
  16. 16. Learning Object CONTENT Learning Unit C5 Video / Movie / Animation
  17. 17. Learning Object STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR Digital object Digital object datatypes datatypes J6 Interactive J6 Interactive resource resource A resource requiring interaction from the user to be understood, executed or experienced. Examples include forms on Web pages, applets, multimedia learning objects, or virtual reality environments
  18. 18. Learning Object STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR Digital object Digital object datatypes datatypes J6 Interactive J6 Interactive resource resource A resource requiring interaction from the user to be understood, executed or experienced. Examples include forms on Web pages, applets, multimedia learning objects, or virtual reality environments
  19. 19. Assessment Learning Object RENDERING CONTENT STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR CONTEXT Look and feel Learning object Digital object datatype People / roles K9 Uses B6 Assessment J6 Interactive J6 Interactive E1 Checked embedded objects item Resource Resource by Validator An item (e.g. a question/answer pair) that is designed to measure student learning. A complex object, consisting of a question together with its associated data such as score, feedback and either any media files required or links to those files.
  20. 20. Conclusions Reusability: a strong theme Strong community drive for repurposing and reuse Rights management: leave for others (cp. PREMIS) SPs: some inherited - structured text, moving image, etc. others predominantly contextual - agents, objects, VLEs, individuals, organisations Assessment objects: rendering, behaviour, regulatory context

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