Effects of Great Depression European countries felt the effects after WWl and the Great Depression. Germany, Italy, Japan and Spain all fell under the control of Facists. Fascist believe that the government is more important than individual rights.
Germany Rises Treaty of Versaille, from WWI, left Germany struggling. After WWI, a democracy was established, but the economy fell in 1923. Inflation – a rapid rise in prices (income does not keep up)
Hitler and the Nazis National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI), led by Adolf Hitler, criticized the democratic government. Hitler was a good speaker and persuaded the people that he had the answers.
Hitler as Chancellor His first rise to power was as chancellor. A chief minister of Germany Won majority of seats in Germany’s parliament Called himself “der Fuhrer” meaning “Leader” Destroyed the democratic process in Germany Germany recovers economically
Hatred of Jews Hitler preaches that Jews were to blame for Germany’s problems He called them traitors Jews slowly lose their citizenships, jobs, eventually their homes and their lives.
Other Countries Italy – under the dictatorship of Japan gains Mussolini control of Asia Spain – Facist rule of Franco Leads to Spanish Civil War
America’s response America chooses to stay isolationist The Great Depression was enough to handle and they couldn’t afford war Neutrality laws prohibited the selling of weapons to other countries Roosevelt believed it was important to be aware and not turn a blind eye.
The German Empire (Third Reich) In 1938 Germany went into Austria and declared it part of the German Empire. Two times before Germany tried to build an empire (reich), hence, this was the “third reich.” No one tried to stop Hitler, though it went against the Treaty of Versailles.
As Hitler continues to advance, European leaders agree to a meeting. European leaders give in to Hitler’s demands.
Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass” Nazis set fire to Synagogues. Broke into Jewish homes Destroyed businesses. Set up death camps.
Holocaust Nearly six million Jews were killed in Concentration or Death Camps.
US joins war US doesn’t join war until Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941 “date that will live in infamy,” says Roosevelt.
How America Responds America steps up war supply production Gives jobs Women join the workforce as men fight. General Motors increases production People join together for the war effort Save money to fund the war Food and supplies are “rationed.”
Response continued Japanese Americans were put in detention camps. General Eisenhower commands Allied armies Decides to defeat Hitler first. Invades Italy and France. – D-Day June 6, 1944 – moves toward Germany
Yalta Agreement Roosevelt elected for 4th term in 1944. Allied leaders meet in 1945 Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agree on a plan for Germany’s surrender This is the Yalta Agreement.
Yalta Agreement cont. Russia agrees to fight Japan. Germany to be divided into four zones. Soviet Union to hold democratic elections in Eastern Europe. United Nations to be created.
End of War Roosevelt dies suddenly in 1945. Truman becomes president. Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders. Atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
Truman becomes president Truman demands a “total surrender” of Japan Japan does not surrender Truman drops bomb on Hiroshima Still no full surrender Another bomb is dropped on Nagaski