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# A Look Into 4th Grade Geometry

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### A Look Into 4th Grade Geometry

1. 1. A Look Into 4th Grade Geometry<br />By: Bev Netusil<br />
2. 2. Geometry Topics<br /><ul><li> Shapes
3. 3. Triangles
4. 4. Squares
5. 5. Rectangles
6. 6. Circles
7. 7. Polygons
8. 8. Triangles
10. 10. Pentagon
11. 11. Hexagon
12. 12. 3-Dimensional Shapes</li></li></ul><li>What You Will Accomplish This Unit<br />By the end of this unit you will be able to;<br />Name and create shapes<br />Label Parts of shapes (i.e. Radius of a circle, base of a triangle)<br />Name different triangles.<br />Understand 3-Dimensional objects<br />How you can use polygons to create 3-D objects<br />Name and create 3-dimensional objects<br />Let’s Get Started!!!<br />
13. 13. Triangles<br />Shapes<br />This diagram shows four main components of a triangle;<br /><ul><li> Vertex/Vertices: these are the points of the triangle. A triangle will always have three vertices.
14. 14. Leg or Side: these are the lines that connect the vertices. There are always three sides on a triangle
15. 15. Base: this is the bottom of the triangle.
16. 16. Angles: these help you determine which type of triangle it is; equilateral, isosceles, or scalene.</li></li></ul><li>Can You Classify Triangles?<br />This is an equilateral triangle. All of its sides are equal. It is also an acute triangle because all its angles are less than 90o<br />This is a right-angle triangle because it has a 90o angle<br />This is an isosceles triangle because two of its sides are the same. <br />This is an obtuse triangle because one of its angles is larger than 90o<br />
17. 17. Squares<br />Rectangles<br />Shapes Con’t<br />I have 2 sets of equal sides<br />All my sides are equal<br />It is important to recognize the differences between squares and rectangles.<br />
18. 18. Circles<br />Shapes Con’t<br />This diagram shows four major components of a circle;<br /><ul><li> Centre: this is the centre of the circle, and the distance from this point to any point on the circumference is the same.
19. 19. Radius: this is the distance from the centre point to any point on the circumference.
20. 20. Diameter: this is the entire distance from one side of the circle to the other. The diameter is twice the distance of the radius.
21. 21. Circumference: this is the distance around the entire circle.</li></li></ul><li> A polygon is;<br />A plane shape (two-dimensional) with straight sides that must connect.In a simple polygon none of the sides overlap. In a complex polygon the sides overlap.(Note: a circle is not a polygon because it has a curved side) <br />Polygons<br />
22. 22. Can you name and recognize different polygons?<br />Naming and Recognizing Polygons<br />Am I a simple or complex polygon?<br />What’s my name?<br />What’s my name, and what kind of polygon am I?<br />
23. 23. To name a polygon you must be able to count the number of sides it has. <br /><ul><li>3 sides – triangle
24. 24. 4 sides – quadrilateral
25. 25. 5 sides – pentagon
26. 26. 6 sides – hexagon
27. 27. 7 sides – heptagon
28. 28. 8 sides – octagon
29. 29. 10 sides - decagon</li></ul>Are these the only polygons? No!Polygons can have an infinite number of sides. Can you name them all?<br />Naming Polygons<br />I have 6 sides, therefore, I must be a hexagon!<br />I have 10 sides, therefore, I must be a decagon!<br />BONUS* The shapes above are known as simple polygons. Do you remember what a complex polygon looks like?<br />
30. 30. We are complex polygons! Did you remember how we looked?<br />How do you know these are complex polygons?<br />The easiest way to know if a polygon is complex is to ask yourself one simple question;<br />Do any of the lines cross?<br /><ul><li> Yes. Then this polygon is a complex polygon.
31. 31. No. Then this is not a complex polygon. It would be known as a simple polygon. </li></li></ul><li>I’m not sure how to recognize what is and what is not a polygon.<br />If you are not sure if it is a polygon there are simple questions you can ask yourself to identify them.<br />Is This A Polygon? Q&A.<br />
32. 32. Q&A Con’t<br />Is it on a plane? Or is it 2-Dimensional? In other words if you laid it in front of you would it lay flat?<br />If the answer is yes then you can move on to the next question!<br />YES<br />NO<br />
33. 33. 2. Do all the sides connect? In other words are there no holes within the shape?<br />If the answer is yes then you can move on to the next question!<br />Q&A Con’t<br />NO<br />YES<br />
34. 34. Does it have three or more sides?<br />If you answer yes again then this shape is a polygon! That’s all! 3 Simple questions and now you can identify a polygon!<br />Q&A Con’t<br />NO<br />YES<br />NO<br />
35. 35. What is a 3-Dimensional, or 3-D, object?<br /><ul><li>It is an object that exists in three dimensions. </li></ul>Now you ask, what does that even mean??<br />3-Dimensional Objects<br />
36. 36. So a 3-Dimensional object exists in three dimensions. Well that definition is not very helpful. What is three dimensions?<br />Well a 3-Dimensional object has depth. Refer back to polygons. These objects had a width and a length. 3-D objects will have width, length ANDdepth.<br />Use a box as an example!<br />*See how this box has a length, width and depth. <br />* A 3-D object will never lie flat. If you place it on a desk it will stand out from the desk.<br />
37. 37. Now that we know what 3-D objects are let’s try to name them!<br />3-Dimensional Objects Name (*Note: these are only some 3-D bjects)<br />Sphere<br />Cube<br />Rectangular Prism<br />Cone<br />Definitions<br /><ul><li>Perfectly round. Ex. Ball
38. 38. Has 6 square sides. Ex. Box</li></ul>*Remember all sides must be equal!<br /><ul><li>Has 6 rectangular sides. Ex. Fridge
39. 39. Has a circle base that extends up to a point. Ex. Ice Crem Cone</li></li></ul><li>Can You Match The 3-D Objects To Their Name?<br />Sphere<br />Cone<br />Cube<br />Rectangular Prism<br />
40. 40. What are Prisms?<br />A prism is a polyhedron with two congruent and parallel faces.<br />Basically if you take two of the same polygons and connect them so that they are parallel you will get a prism.<br />Here is an example,<br />
41. 41. Types of Prisms<br />Try to use your knowledge of polygons to identify these prisms...<br />Do you recognize this prism?<br />It’s a cylinder!<br />This is a pentagonal prism<br />This is a triangular prism<br />*BONUS: add ‘al’ to the end of polygon names plus ‘prism’ at the end to name the types of prisms. There are two exceptions and they are rectangular and triangular prisms.<br />
42. 42. Geometry Activities<br />Shapes<br /><ul><li> Have students identify and name shapes. What You Will Need: worksheet with different examples of shapes.
43. 43. Quiz: </li></ul>Name the 4 parts of a triangle.<br />What is the difference between a square and a rectangle?<br />Draw a circle and label the center, radius, diameter, and circumference.<br /><ul><li>Have students draw and label different shapes </li></li></ul><li>Geometry Activities Con’t<br />Polygons<br /><ul><li>Have students identify and name polygons. What You Will Need: worksheet with different examples of polygons. Be sure to include examples that are not polygons.
44. 44. Have students produce polygons and create a design using each polygon to create a new school flag.</li></ul>http://www.aaamath.com/g4_318x1.htm<br />http://www.aaamath.com/g4_318x2.htm<br />
45. 45. Geometry Activities Con’t<br />3-Dimensional Objects<br />Have students cut out this model and fold it into a cube! There are outlines like these all over the internet! Let your students explore which 3-D shapes they can make.<br />http://www.korthalsaltes.com/<br />
46. 46. Here’s Some Extra Bonus Help!<br />Get these books to help add to your geometry unit!!<br />Use this slideshow to aid your students with geometry shapes, polygons and 3-Dimensional objects, or for your own teaching reference!<br />