Betul okcan

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Betul okcan

  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY Study of Word Parts
  2. 2. What Will We Cover? • What is Morphology ? • Parts of Speech • What is Morpheme? • Classification of Morphemes • Making New Words
  3. 3. What is Morphology ?• Morph (form) + ology (science of) Morphology = the science of wordforms• The study of the internal structure of words &• The rules by which words are formed
  4. 4. What is a Morpheme? A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaningParts Of Morphemes:RootRoot is the base form of a word which cannot be further analysed without total loss of identity. It is that part of theword when all the affixes are removed. Exp: tidyAffixAffix is a collective term for the types of morphemes that can only be used in combination with other morphemes prefix =>preceedes a base ……. untidy suffix =>follows a base……tidiness infix => an affix which is added within a base. speedometerStemStem is that part of a word to which grammatical affixes are added.Exp= housewives => stem: housewife / two root morphemes house + wifeBaseEvery form to which an affix can be added is a base. Every root and every stem is a thus a base. The set ofbases, however, is larger than than the union of all roots and stems, because the process of affixation appliesrecursively.• Untouchable = Un (Lexicalprefix) + touchable (Base)• touch + able
  5. 5. • Act• Activate• Deactivate• Deactivation
  6. 6. Classification Of Morphemes FREE MORPHEMES BOUND MORPHEMESOpen Class Closed Class Affixes ContractibleNouns Conjunctions Prefixes İnfixes Suffixes Forms«pen» «and»Verbs Determiners Rewrite speedometer Speaks ‘s«run» «this»Adjectives Comparatives Unhappy Sister-in-law Realize ‘ve«fat» «more»Adverbs Quantifiers Disagree Nowadays Editor ‘ll«fast» «many» Prepositions Prejudice Allophone Growth ‘d «on» Depart Semanticogram Portable matical
  7. 7. Free MorphemesMorphemes which can be used as a word on their own. Other means; morphemesthat can stand alone as words. • Open Class: • Try to produce new words using these ones ; run, walk, nice, happy, desire. The morphemes that we can add other morphemes are called «Open Class Morphemes» • Closed Class • Try to produce new words using these ones; and, this, many, on. • NO WAY ! The morphemes that we can not add new morphemes are called «Closed Class Morphemes»
  8. 8. Bound MorphemesThe morphemes that only appear as part of a larger word.Derivational Morphemes; Inflectional Morphemes;These morphemes derive one word from These morphemes do not affect the meaning ofanother.Affixes carry out this task. the morpheme they are attached to. They haveLike =>Dislike a grammatical function.They affect the meaning of the morpheme -s eats 3rd person sing. presentthat they attach. -ed talked past tenseLike => Likable -ing talking progressive They can change the grammatical category -s books pluralof the word they attach to. -‘s John’s possessiveBirthday => Unbirthday -er taller comparativeThey can be used to create new words. -est tallest superlative
  9. 9. Making New Words • Coining • Shortening process of a longer word . • Meaning Change • Changing meaning of a word different from original meaning. • Compounding • Creating new wods combining two morphemes.:
  10. 10. Making New Words 1 Category Example Derived form Generification Zipper Trademark of lightning fastener producer company Coke Soft drink (Coca-Cola) UFO A brand of Electric heater Abbrevations EU Europe Union UK United Kingdom TC Türkiye CumhuriyetiCOINING Ortographic ab. St. Saint Abbr. Abbreviation Sn. Sayın Acronyms Lazer Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission from Radiation Scuba Self – Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus Kib Kendine iyi bak Clippings Blog Web blog Flue Influenza Kayın Kayınbirader Blendigs Pixel Picture+Element Staycation Stay+vacation Kanka Kan kardeş
  11. 11. Making New Words 2 Category Exp. Derived formMEANING CHANGE Category change To Film Noun film To answer Noun answer Parlamak Parlak Metaphorical extention Cool Professional jargon of jazz Surf the internet Surfing(riding) on the waves Karalara bürünmek Kara yas, bürünmek şekline girmek. Backformation Automate Automation Brainwash Brain washing Motor Motorsiklet
  12. 12. Making New Words 3 COMPOUNDINGCompound Type EXAMPLE EXAMPLE Endocentric : The meaning of the newNoun+Noun Landlord Snailmail word is related to the compoundedNoun+Verb Proofread Breastfeed morphemes.Noun+PastParticiple Handheld Bed-ridden LandlordNoun+Adjective Sky-blue Skindeep Land=area +Lord=master,ownerNoun+Adverb Endmost Someone you rent apartment,room etcNoun+Gerund Bird-watching Zebracrossing Exocentric:The meaning of the newNoun+preposition Head-on Hard-up word is not related to the compoundedNoun+Prep.+Noun Face-to-face Man-to-man morphemes.Verb+Noun Pickpocket ScarecrowVerb+Verb Sleep-walk Wait-list Show-offVerb+Adverb Payback Buyback Show=Let sbd see sth+Off=not functioningVerb+Prep Turnover Sellout A person who tries to impress other people by showing his or her goods.Verb+Gerund Drink-driving Slip-slidingAdj.+Noun Black-board Wildfire
  13. 13. Phrase CompoundsVerb Type Sentences Phrases FormsTransitive Verbs This plant eats insects Insect-eating plant Vampires suck blood Blood-sucking vampires These people often go to movies Movie-goers She has skills in solving problems Her problem-solving skillsIntransitive Verbs It is mentioned above that… The above-mentioned Such words didn’t exist previously Previously non-existing words This plane can fly very high. High-flying plane.
  14. 14. Meanings of Suffix -able Moss prototypical < ================= > Least PrototypicalAble to be X’ed Should to be Possible to be Easy to be X’ed Is worthy X’ed X’edWritebale Washable Walkable Livable CredibleExcusable Payable Runnable Readeble Edible
  15. 15. THAT IS ALL
  16. 16. • UNIVERSITY of KOCAELI• ENGLISH TEACHING DEPARTMENT • EVENING CLASS • 100908026 • BETUL OKCAN • betulokcan@gmail.com

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