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Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers...
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Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers in Singapore to allow for play curriculum

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Research shows that play is important to children’s learning and teachers have important roles to play during children’s play. However, my anecdotal observations and experiences show that there are gaps between theories and practices among early childhood centers in Singapore with regards to allowing play in the curriculum. The purpose of this case evaluation study is to analyze the impact of early childhood principals’ leadership has on teachers’ implementation of play in early childhood education curriculum.

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Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers in Singapore to allow for play curriculum

  1. 1. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum. Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centers in Singapore to allow for play curriculum Betty S. G. Teo Faculty of Education, Language and Community Services RMIT University A Research Project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Education (Educational Management and Leadership) June 2002
  2. 2. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum. (ABSTRACT)Research shows that play is important to children’s learning and teachers have importantroles to play during children’s play. However, my anecdotal observations and experiencesshow that there are gaps between theories and practices among early childhood centers inSingapore with regards to allowing play in the curriculum. The purpose of this caseevaluation study is to analyze the impact of early childhood principals’ leadership has onteachers’ implementation of play in early childhood education curriculum. Four principalsand twelve teachers from four different early childhood education centres were studiedthrough non-probability sampling. Both qualitative and quantitative interview questionnaireswere used. Observations of teachers’ involvement during play sessions were conducted. Datawas analyzed through an Analysis of Variance. Results show that principals’ philosophy ofplay affect teachers’ implementation of play in the classrooms. Besides qualifications,attitudes and beliefs of principals and teachers also affect the implementation of play, even ifplay is included in the curriculum. Implications are presented along with suggested futureavenues for research, such as, how the effect of no-play will impact children over time, and toinvestigate how play will impact other measure of achievements.Key Words: early childhood, play, curriculum, management, leadership, Singapore
  3. 3. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum. BLIBIOGRAPHYAnning, A. (1994). Play and legislated curriculum - back to basics : an alternative view. InJ.R. Moyles (Ed.). The excellence of play (pp. 67-75). Buckingham, UK : Open UniversityPress.Australian Curriculum Studies Association Inc. Early Childhood Curriculum and Teaching,An ACSA Policy Statement, Published in Curriculum Perspectives, Vol 15 No 2, p. 53-54,June 1995.Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: a theory of play and fantasy. New York:Ballentine, 1955, 177-193.Berk, L. E. (1997). Child Development, 4th ed. USA: Allyn and Bacon. pp 247-256Boomer, G. (1991). Curriculum change and the implications for the deputy principal asinstructional leader. Address to the West Australian Primary Principals Association, Perth,August. In Arthur, L., Beecher, B., Dockett, S., Farmer, S. and Death, E. (1996, 2nd ed.).Program Planning in Early Childhood Settings. Australia: Harcourt Brace & Co. Ch 7-9.Bruner, J. S. (1972). The nature and uses of immaturity. American Psychologist, 27, 687-708.Connell (1975). In Wadsworth, Y. (1984) Victorian Council of Social Service. MelbouneFamily Care Organization. Ch 2, pp 5-12.Cromwell, E. S. (1994). Quality child care. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Chapter 2.Crotty, M. (1998). The foundation of social research: meaning and perspective in theresearch process. Australia: Allen & Unwin Pte Ltd.Deshler, D. and Hagan, N. (1990). In Merriam, S. and Cunningham, P. (eds.). Handbook ofAdult and Continuing Education. Ch 12. P 147-167.Dockett, S. & Fleer, M. (1999). Play and pedagogy in early childhood : Bending the rules.Marrickville, NSW: Harcourt Brace & Co.Dunn, L. and Kontos, S. (1997). Developmentally Appropriate Practice: What DoesResearch Tell Us? http://ericeece.org/pubs/digests/1997/dunn97.htmlElkind, D. (1990). Academic pressures - too much, too soon : The demise of play. In E.Klugman & S. Smilansky (Eds). Childrens play and learning : Perspectives and policyimplications (pp. 3-17). New York : Teachers College Press.Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.
  4. 4. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum.Fox, J. E. Back-to-Basics: Play in Early Childhoodhttp://www.earlychildhood.com/Articles/index.cfm?FuseAction=Article&A=240Feeney, S., Christensen, D. and Moravcik, E. (1998, 5th ed.). Who am I in the Lives ofChildren?: an introduction to teaching young children. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. pp115-136.Freud, S. (1958). Remembering, repeating, and working-through. In J. Strachey (Ed.), Thestandard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 12, pp. 145-150). London: Hogarth Press. (Originally published in 1914)Glover, J. A., Bruning, R. H., & Filbeck, R. W. (1983). Educational psychology: principlesand applications. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, & Company.Hall, N. & Abbott, L. (Eds.) (1991). Play in the primary curriculum. Great Britain : Hodder& Stoughton Ltd.Hendrick, J. (1994). Total Learning: Developmental Curriculum for the Young Child (4th Ed).NY: Macmillan College Publishing Company.Isenberg, J. P. and Jalongo, M. R. (1993). Creative Expression and Play in Early ChildhoodCurriculum. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., pp. 31-48.Johnsen, E.P. & Christie, J.F. (1986). Pretend play and logical operations. In K. Blanchard(Ed.). The many faces of play (pp. 50-58). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Jones, E. & Reynolds, G.H. (1995). Enabling childrens play - The teachers role. In E.Klugman (Ed.). Play, policy and practice (pp. 37-46). St. Paul, Minnesota : Redleaf Press.Kelly, D. L. (1999). Measurement made accessible: a research approach using qualitative,quantitative, and quality improvement methods. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Klugman, E. (1990). Early childhood moves into the public schools. In E. Klugman & S.Smilansky (Eds). Childrens play and learning : Perspectives and policy implications (pp.188-209). New York : Teachers College Press.Michalovitz, R. (1990). Academic pressure and dramatic play in the Israeli early childhoodeducation system. In E. Klugman & S. Smilansky (Eds). Childrens play and learning :Perspectives and policy implications (pp. 86-94). New York : Teachers College Press.NAECS. Principles of child development and learning that inform developmentallyappropriate practice. http://www.naeyc.org/resources/position_statements/dap3.htmParlett, M. (1976). Evaluating Innovations in Teaching. In M. Golby, J. Greenwald, & R.West (Eds.). Curriculum Design. London: Croom Helm and the Open University Press.Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children. Journal of Abnormal andSocial Psychology, 27, 243-269.Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
  5. 5. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum.Queensland School Curriculum Council, Draft Preschool Curriculum Guidelines, Trialversion, 1997.Sapp, M.E. (1992). In the best interest of children : Returning play to its place. In V.J.Dimidjian (Ed.). Plays place in public education for young children (pp. 49-61).Washington, DC : National Education Association of the United States.Seefeldt, C. (1995). Playing with policy - A serious undertaking. In E. Klugman (Ed.). Play,policy and practice (pp. 185-194). St. Paul, Minnesota : Redleaf Press.Shoemaker, C. J. (1995). Administration and management of programs for young children.New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc, pp. 17, 34, 151.Smilansky, S. (1968). The effects of sociodramatic play on disadvantaged preschool children.New York: John Wiley & Sons.Sutton-Smith, B. (1986). Toys as Culture. NY: Gardner.Trawick-Smith, J. (1998). School-based play and social interactions. In D.P. Fromberg & D.Bergen (Eds.). Play from birth to twelve and beyond : Contexts, perspectives, and meanings(pp. 241-247). New York : Garland Publishing, Inc.Van Hoorn, J., Nourot, P., Scales, B. & Alward, K. (1993). Play at the center of thecurriculum: looking at play through teachers’ eyes. New Yoke: Macmillian Pub. Co. pp. 8-10.Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Vygotsky, L.S (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. SovietPsychology, 12, 62 ó76.Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thoughts and language (A. Kozulin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MITPress. (Original work published 1934)Wagner, B. J. (1976). Dorothy Heathcote: Drama as a learning medium. Washington,National Education Association.Wong, A. (14 March 2000). Committee of Supply Debate FY 2000: SMS Dr WongsResponse to Questions on Pre-School Education.http://www1.moe.edu.sg/speeches/2000/sp14032000a.htm
  6. 6. Teo, B. (2002). Early Childhood Educational Management: Managing change in curriculum in early childhood education centersin Singapore to allow for play curriculum. FURTHER READINGSBurns, R. B. (1997, 3rd ed.). Introduction to Research Methods. Australia: Addison WesleyLongman Ltd (U.K.).Kell, D. L.,(1999, 2nd ed.). Measurement made accessible: a research approach usingqualitative, quantitative, and qualitative methods. USA: SAGE Publications Ltd.Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. USA: SAGE Publications Ltd.Rea, L. M. and Parker, R. A. (1997). Designing and conducting survey research: acomprehensive guide (2nd Eds.). USA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

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