Student use of the mother tongue in the task-based classroom David Carless   Course :   study method Professor:   徐筱彤 Stud...
Content <ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>study background </li></ul><ul><li>Problems finding </li></ul><ul><li>Study met...
Resource <ul><li>ELT journal Advanced Access Publish  </li></ul><ul><li>December 6, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>David Carless  ...
Study background <ul><li>Topic:  This topic draws on an interview study with teachers and teacher educators on the topic o...
Study background <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>a. The conclusion  calls for a balanced  </li></ul><ul><li>and flexi...
Problems Finding <ul><li>This paper, drawing on data collection in Hong Kong ,exam an important issue in the implementatio...
Study method <ul><li>The data for this article come from an interview study, witch sought to provided perspective on the f...
Study method <ul><li>Interview Subject (pre-service and in-service) </li></ul><ul><li>◎ Ten teachers- provide a direct vie...
Study method <ul><li>The remainder of the paper organized  findings under four main themes derived the interview data: </l...
Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>review </li></ul><ul><li>In the Hong Kong setting, an unwillingness ...
Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher identified the difficulty of g...
Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>In the following quotation however , a t...
Main body- B. perspective on mother tongue use  <ul><li>View </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the informants took pragmatic view ...
Main body- B. perspective on mother tongue use  <ul><li>Interview-1 </li></ul><ul><li>one teacher educator summed up the t...
Main body- C. Strategies to encourage TL use  <ul><li>review </li></ul><ul><li>teachers reported a number of strategies th...
Main body- C. Strategies to encourage TL use  <ul><li>Three strategies ,used for encouraging students to use the TL, provi...
Main body- C.  Implications for  teaching methodology   <ul><li>view </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously the way the teacher  pres...
Main body- C.  Implications for  teaching methodology   <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher educators pointed to t...
Main body- C.  Implications for  teaching methodology   <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>The second interview extract i...
Main body- C.  Implications for  teaching methodology   <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Another informat suggested tha...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Student Use Of The Mother Tongue In The

2,433 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,433
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Student Use Of The Mother Tongue In The

  1. 1. Student use of the mother tongue in the task-based classroom David Carless Course : study method Professor: 徐筱彤 Student : 胡佳瑩 9722609
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>study background </li></ul><ul><li>Problems finding </li></ul><ul><li>Study method </li></ul><ul><li>Main body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection of the article </li></ul>
  3. 3. Resource <ul><li>ELT journal Advanced Access Publish </li></ul><ul><li>December 6, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>David Carless </li></ul><ul><li>8 pages </li></ul>
  4. 4. Study background <ul><li>Topic: This topic draws on an interview study with teachers and teacher educators on the topic of the feasibility of task-based teaching for implementation in school </li></ul><ul><li>Focus : </li></ul><ul><li>a. single theme – student use of the mother tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>b. A number of dimensions- </li></ul><ul><li>b-1.The extent of classroom interaction in </li></ul><ul><li>English in the context under review. </li></ul><ul><li>b-2. Informant’s perspectives of mother tongue use </li></ul><ul><li>b-3. strategies of for encouraging use of the target language </li></ul><ul><li>b-4. The relevant implications for teaching methodology . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Study background <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>a. The conclusion calls for a balanced </li></ul><ul><li>and flexible view of student use of </li></ul><ul><li>the mother tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Sketch some avenues for further </li></ul><ul><li>exploration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems Finding <ul><li>This paper, drawing on data collection in Hong Kong ,exam an important issue in the implementation of task-based approaches, namely student use of the mother tongue (MT). </li></ul><ul><li>MT use has potentially both positive and negative consequences. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Study method <ul><li>The data for this article come from an interview study, witch sought to provided perspective on the feasibility of task-based teaching for schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>It main focus was on identifying and analyzing key challenges facing successful implementation of task-based approaches in Hong Kong </li></ul>
  8. 8. Study method <ul><li>Interview Subject (pre-service and in-service) </li></ul><ul><li>◎ Ten teachers- provide a direct view point </li></ul><ul><li>from the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>◎ Ten teacher educators-provide wider </li></ul><ul><li>perspectives based on their experience of </li></ul><ul><li>working with and observing in the classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews lasted from around 45 minutes to one and a half hours </li></ul><ul><li>◎ the interviews were transcribed and analyzed inductively in order to identify themes and emerging insights </li></ul>
  9. 9. Study method <ul><li>The remainder of the paper organized findings under four main themes derived the interview data: </li></ul><ul><li>A. classroom interaction </li></ul><ul><li>B. perspective on MT use </li></ul><ul><li>C. strategies for teaching use of the TL </li></ul><ul><li>D. the relevant implications for teaching </li></ul><ul><li>methodology </li></ul>
  10. 10. Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>review </li></ul><ul><li>In the Hong Kong setting, an unwillingness to speak English may arise from a number of factors: lack of confidence or fear of making mistakes; limited opportunities, particularly in large teacher-centered class; or peer pressure and resistance to speak foreign tongue. (Tsui 1996) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher identified the difficulty of generating interaction during whole-class teaching as fellows: </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t think there is any interaction in English between teachers and students .When the students put up their hands, they will speak in Cantonese, if you force them to use English no-one will speak. It is very strange and weird to speak in English when every can speak in Chinese . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>As teacher reported difficulties in stimulating English language interaction through whole-class teaching, a worthwhile strategy might be to promote group work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Main body- A. classroom interaction in the TL <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>In the following quotation however , a teacher educator observers that group work was also not particularly successful in promoting English interaction : </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t often seen groups interaction in the second language for long period doing a large type of task in English witch is oriented towards output . Most of the class I have seen, there is a lot of non-lesson interaction going on in Cantonese in the groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>lack of interaction in English during group work seems to represent a challenge to the notion of task-based instruction promoting the development of learner’s interlanguage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Main body- B. perspective on mother tongue use <ul><li>View </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the informants took pragmatic view of MT use ,considering it to be inevitable. Teacher informants genetically expressed a preference for the TL use but acknowledged that in order to maintain students’ attention, interest or involvement, contributions in the MT need to be permitted. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Main body- B. perspective on mother tongue use <ul><li>Interview-1 </li></ul><ul><li>one teacher educator summed up the tension as fellows: </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t have a problem with students use of the MT but I do think there are dangers overuse, because the whole point of the class is for learners to be practicing their English . </li></ul><ul><li>Interview-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Another teacher educator voiced teachers’ frustration when carrying out communicative activities </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers feel frustrated that they can’t monitor performance on use of language adequately. It seems that they are helpless in monitoring mother tongue usage . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>These comments are illustrative of the negative emotions that teachers may experience if a task is being done in the MT. I speculate that this may even prompt teachers to revert to more whole-class teaching and so reduce their implementation of interactive task. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Main body- C. Strategies to encourage TL use <ul><li>review </li></ul><ul><li>teachers reported a number of strategies that they adopted to try to encourage students to use the TL. two representative comments from teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to stop them using MT.I try to force them through walking around and reminding them. When I stand next to them they use English but when I move away they go back to Cantonese. When they have to do discussion they lack vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>If the task is difficult and they don’t know all expression, they may use Cantonese, we encourage them do not be nervous in speaking English and try to use English. It depends on the groups, some are quite enthusiastic in speaking English and some are quite reluctant . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Main body- C. Strategies to encourage TL use <ul><li>Three strategies ,used for encouraging students to use the TL, provide by interviewed teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>1 .’language monitor’, individual students whose role was try to remind their classmates to use English. She believed that an advantage of such system was that it entrust some responsibility to students. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The second reported strategy involved incentive, such reward system through which students could be given stickers, tamps, or be involved in group competitions to show appreciation of TL use. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Third, to place recording devices next to groups to motivate the students or facilitate checking group use of TL </li></ul>
  17. 17. Main body- C. Implications for teaching methodology <ul><li>view </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously the way the teacher present the material, structure learning experiences and the kind of activity carried out in class impact on the extent to which students are likely to use the TL or MT. It is worth reiterating that task-based require a skillful, flexible, and knowledgeable practitioner (Sklehan:op.cit) and involve a more complex teacher role than in traditional Presentation-Practice- Production methods. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Main body- C. Implications for teaching methodology <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher educators pointed to tensions between task design and the likelihood of MT use: </li></ul><ul><li>In contextualized practice, control comes from the fairly detailed situation, the structure of the task. In the pure task it is much freer, so if it is free in term of communicating meaning, it is going to be free in terms of the language they might use. Some sort of incentive needs to be build into the task to keep it in English or through how the task is structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>This comment raises the doubt that the free communication of meaning, in other words what makes the activity a task rather than communicative practice, can lead to greater use of MT. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Main body- C. Implications for teaching methodology <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>The second interview extract is in similar vein: </li></ul><ul><li>A thing that is crucial is the wonderful paradox that if the task is a good task, students do it in Cantonese. So when the learner share an L1, you have to build into the methodology, ways of persuading the learners not to use MT. Learner s have to recognize the futility of using Cantonese earlier, because it doesn’t conditions for the post –task to work. . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>This seems like a useful strategy, particularly if student interest can be maintained over repetitions of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>◎ Seedhouse(1999) In task-based interaction, there is a danger that students complete the task but make sub-optimal use of the TL </li></ul>
  20. 20. Main body- C. Implications for teaching methodology <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Another informat suggested that task repetition (Bygate 2001)might be a strategy to promote increased use of the TL: </li></ul><ul><li>May be a lot of task can be rehearsed in the MT first. Martian Bygate’s work on task repetition might relevant here. So maybe the first time around 50%Cantonese and 50%English; then 75%English; then the third time 100%English . . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>This teacher educator highlights that the more absorbing the task, the greater is the risk of student use of MT . </li></ul>

×