Final 5 betty

1,343 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,343
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • SPSS 13 version will be used to process the quantitative data extracted from the close-ended questions. This study chose the reliability analysis, independent t- test, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient as statistical methods for data processing and analysis. With a view to adding the item reliability, I use the Cronbach A to examine the items. The independent t-test is to answer the research question 1 and 2 The descriptive analysis is to answer the research question 3 And the Pearson correlation is to answer the research question 4 and 5.
  • Final 5 betty

    1. 1. Presenter : Sing- Yu Hu Advisor: Dr. Chin-Ying Lin Date: May 18, 2010 Cross-Cultural Encounter in the EFL College Classroom- Taiwanese Students and Their Native English Teachers
    2. 2. Introduction Literature Review Methodology Findings & Discussion Conclusions
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Students from different cultures tend to exhibit different learning styles and might prefer different learning approaches due to distinct cultural influences and social effects. </li></ul><ul><li>(Park, 2000; Richardson, 1994) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Researchers argued that both teachers and students have their cultural expectations toward what is good learning and teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>(Chen, 2006; Cortazzi & Jin, 1998 & 1999; Lin, 2008) </li></ul>Motivation and Background
    5. 5. Motivation and Background Researchers also argued that teachers need to be aware their students’ learning preferences in order to facilitate both teaching and learning. (Barkhuizen, 1998; Rasekh & Valizadeh, 2004; Spratt, 1999)
    6. 6. <ul><li>Taiwanese students’ attitudes/beliefs about learning and teaching might not match their learning experiences in American classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>(Lin, 2008) </li></ul>Motivation and Background
    7. 7. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Many researchers have explored Asian students’ adjustments in the oversea academic setting. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kambutu1 & Nganga, 2008; Lin, 2008) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Statement of the Problem However, few studies focused on EFL Taiwanese students’ cultural barriers to language learning in the EFL classroom in Taiwan .
    9. 9. <ul><li>-to investigate the differences between Taiwanese students’ expectations toward the teaching content and what they were really taught in their native English teacher’s speaking course </li></ul>Purpose of the Study <ul><li>-to explore if the teaching approach Taiwanese students preferred matched their learning experiences in their native English teacher’s speaking course </li></ul><ul><li>-to examine how Taiwanese students adjusted themselves to </li></ul><ul><li>their NETs speaking classes </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Questions <ul><li>What are Taiwanese college students’ perceived differences between their expectations and experiences concerning their NETs’ teaching content in English speaking courses? </li></ul>What are Taiwanese college students’ perceived differences between their preferences and experiences concerning the way of their NETs’ teaching approach in English speaking courses? How do Taiwanese college students adjust themselves into their NET’s English speaking courses? Q1 Q2 Q3
    11. 11. II. Literature Review Western Teacher C Culture Learning A Academic Culture in Distances B Chinese Student D
    12. 12. Culture Learning <ul><li>Because learning a second language implies some degree of learning a second cultural , it is important to understand what we mean by the cultural learning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brown, 2007) </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>“ Cultural learning ” accounts for much behavior in language classroom which is set within common frameworks of expectations , attitudes , values and beliefs about what composes good learning , about how to teach and learn , and about how to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Martin and Lin, 1996) </li></ul>Culture Learning
    14. 14. <ul><li>Cultural obstacles might exist in the academic setting consisting of two main roles--- native English-speaking teachers and ESL/EFL students , both with different cultural backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>(Han, 2005; Lin, 2008; Palfreyman & Smith, 2003; Scollon,1999) </li></ul>Academic Cultural in Distances
    15. 15. <ul><li>Five issues related to cultures were identified as the key factors causing the academic cultures in distance between Taiwanese students and their American teachers: authority in power , learner autonomy , the power issue , the face issue , and group harmony . </li></ul><ul><li>(Lin, 2008) </li></ul>Academic Cultural in Distances
    16. 16. Westerner Teacher <ul><li>The Western teachers are affected by the Western culture of Socratic thinking that makes a virtue of thinking for oneself rather than following the tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>(Scollon, 1999) </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Teaching in a Western country is usually seen as facilitating individuals in constructing knowledge , and not as transmitting knowledge, as in China. </li></ul><ul><li>(Scollon, 1999) </li></ul>Westerner Teacher
    18. 18. Chinese Student <ul><li>Chinese students were diligent, persistent, thorough, friendly and very good at memorization . On the contrary, they are weak in communication and presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Jin and Martin, 1993) </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Flexibility, problem solving, critical thinking and independent learning are not considered important in the traditional Chinese academic setting. </li></ul><ul><li>(Wang, 2007) </li></ul>Chinese Student
    20. 20. C A B Methodology Instrument Research Design Participants Data Analysis D
    21. 21. Research Procedures Pilot study Formal study 617 questionnaire copies from six target schools Data analysis <ul><li>American teacher </li></ul><ul><li>37 College students </li></ul>Data collection Formal questionnaire English Teaching Content English Teaching Approach Students’ Adjustments
    22. 22. Taichung City Taichung County <ul><li>Ling Tung University of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (14.1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas Chinese University </li></ul><ul><li>of Technology (14.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>National Taichung Institute of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (13.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Chaoyang University of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (13.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Hungkuang University of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (23.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Hsiuping Institute of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (20.3%) </li></ul>English Majors Participants 617 College Students
    23. 23. Participants 617 College Students
    24. 24. Participants 617 College Students
    25. 25. Instrument Questionnaire Teaching Content Students’ Expectations Section 1 Students’ Experiences Section 2 Teaching Approach Students’ Preferences Section 3 Students’ Experiences Section4 Students’ Adjustments in class Section 5 Personal Information Section 6
    26. 26. Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domain(1956)—cognitive, affective and psychomotor Traditional teaching method Communicative teaching method Cooperative teaching method Teachers’ personality Instrument Questionnaire Construction Teaching Content Teaching Approach
    27. 27. Data Analysis 95% Q1, Q2 Q1, Q2 Item Reliability Reliability Analysis (Cronbach α) Confidence Interval Paired Sample - T test Descriptive Statistics SPSS13.0
    28. 28. Open-ended Questions <ul><li>searching for </li></ul><ul><li>alternative explanations </li></ul>Text 3 <ul><ul><li>testing emergent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>understandings </li></ul><ul><li>organizing the data </li></ul><ul><li>coding the data </li></ul><ul><li>generating categories </li></ul><ul><li>searching for </li></ul><ul><li>alternative explanations </li></ul><ul><li>writing the report </li></ul>Data Analysis
    29. 29. Findings & Discussion Analysis of Research Question 2 C Reliability and Validity A Analysis of Research Question 1 B Analysis of Research Question 3 D
    30. 30. Table 1 KMO and Bartlett's Test of the Questionnaire Validity Good for Research Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square df Sig. Teaching Content LE .906 5575.79 190 .00 EOC .916 6019.46 190 .00 Teaching Approach LP .908 5445.36 210 .00 EOI .916 5784.06 210 .00
    31. 31. Table 2 Reliability Statistics of the Questionnaire Reliability Good for Research M Mini Maxi SD Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Teaching Content LE 4.02 3.08 4.52 .45 .90 20 EOC 3.67 2.76 4.19 .50 .91 20 Instruction Way LP 3.87 2.52 4.42 .44 .87 21 EOI 3.65 2.68 4.25 .50 .89 21
    32. 32. Analysis of Research Question 1 What are Taiwanese college students’ perceived differences between their expectations and experiences concerning their NETs’ teaching content in English speaking courses? Q1
    33. 33. Table 3 Results of Paired Samples t-Test in Teaching Content Domain Note. * p <.05, two-tailed. ** p < .01, two-tailed; n=617. Analysis of Research Question 1 t Sig. M SD Teaching Content Students’ expectations 4.02 .45 Students’ experiences 3.67 .50 18.37 .00** There is significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning expectations (LE) and experiences (EOC ) concerning their native English teachers’ teaching content in the English speaking course.
    34. 34. Analysis of Research Question 1 Chen, 2006 Cortazzi & Jin, 1998 & 1999 Lin, 2008 There is significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning expectations (LE) and experiences (EOC ) concerning their native English teachers’ teaching content in the English speaking course.
    35. 35. Analysis of Research Question 2 What are Taiwanese college students’ perceived differences between their preferences and experiences concerning the way of their NETs’ teaching approach in English speaking courses? Q2
    36. 36. Table 9 Results of Paired Samples t-Test in Teaching Approach Domain Note. *P <.05, two-tailed. **P < .01, two-tailed; n=617. Hypothesis 2 : H0: LP=EOA ; H1: LP≠EOA Analysis of Research Question 2 M SD Sig. Teaching Approach Students’ preferences 3.87 .44 Students’ experiences 3.65 .50 .00** There is significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning preferences (LP) and experiences (EOI) concerning their native English teachers’ teaching approach in the English speaking course.
    37. 37. Table 11 Results of Paired Sample T-test of Items of Teaching Approach Analysis of Research Question 2 Paired Differences (LP-EOA) Instruction way M SD t Sig(two-tailed) 1.Teachers’ teaching ways are humorous .50 .97 12.82 .00** 2. Teachers carry out syllabus consistently -.04 .98 -1.07 .286 3.Teachers have empathy for students .42 .91 11.37 .00** 4.Teachers use medias to teach (ex: projector) .21 .81 6.58 .00** 5.Teachers give students enough time to think and answer questions .24 .79 7.67 .00** There is no significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning preferences (LP) and experiences (EOI) concerning how the NETs carry out the syllabus.
    38. 38. Analysis of Research Question 2 Barkhuizen, 1998 Rasekh & Valizadeh, 2004 Spratt, 1999 There is significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning preferences (LP) and experiences (EOA) concerning their native English teachers’ teaching approach in the English speaking course.
    39. 39. Analysis of Research Question 2 There is no significant difference between Taiwanese college students’ learning preferences (LP) and experiences (EOA) concerning how the NETs carry out the syllabus. Lin, 2007
    40. 40. How do Taiwanese college students adjust themselves into their NET’s English speaking courses? Analysis of Research Question 3 Five Open-Ended Questions <ul><li>In your personal opinion, what’s the difference between Taiwanese teacher and </li></ul><ul><li>foreign teacher’s teaching way? </li></ul>3. According to question 2, how do you adjust yourself to the class? 2. In what aspect that you can’t well fit into the native English teachers’ class? How do you adjust yourself to the class? 4. Do the native English teachers’ way of teaching effect your learning attitude and strategies? If yes, please give a examples. 5. Do you have any suggestion for your foreign teachers? Q3
    41. 41. <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Q1 In your personal opinion, what’s the difference between Taiwanese teacher and foreign teacher’s teaching approach? Differences Taiwanese Teachers Native English Teachers 1 Thinking logical smooth and by order go stride 2 Personality serious humorous/emotional 3 Empathy more less 4 English proverb use less more 5 Misunderstanding few/ Chinese translation more/joke 6 Communication barrier less/ same learning background more/ different learning background Supported
    42. 42. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 In your personal opinion, what’s the difference between Taiwanese teacher and foreign teacher’s teaching approach? Differences Taiwanese Teachers Native English Teachers 1 Language usage English and Chinese English only 2 Pronunciation common better 3 Speaking speed slower faster 4 Body language few more Supported
    43. 43. <ul><li>Language Teaching </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 In your personal opinion, what’s the difference between Taiwanese teacher and foreign teacher’s teaching approach? Differences Taiwanese Teachers Native English Teachers 1 Teaching Method Traditional CLT 2 Language focus accuracy fluency 3 Grammar focus more less 4 Error correction more /direct less 5 Language practice opportunities more less 7 Media usage more less 8 Assessments have criteria and stander form variable and flexible Supported New
    44. 44. <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Q2 In what aspect that you can’t well fit into the native English teachers’ class? Unaccommodating Aspects 1 Need more time to get use to English only in the speaking class 2 NETs use some idiom that we don’t know 3 Certain accent interfere the communication 4 Don’t know how to response NET’s punctuate question. 5 Students need to ask questions actively. 6 The misunderstanding caused by fail communication 7 NET unconsciously tease at students 8 The go astride speaking way, sometimes makes students uncomfortable 9 Don’t understand NET’s joke/ American humorous 10 Feel shy to explain their own idea 11 Some NET have less empathy for us 12 Some NET don’t identify themselves with us Supported Supported New
    45. 45. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 In what aspect that you can’t well fit into the native English teachers’ class? Unaccommodating Aspects 1 Hard to communicate clearly and exactly 2 NETs don’t know what we want to explain 3 NETs use difficult words 4 NET can’t understand Chinese so that they are hard to realize teachers’ meaning and catch up the class. New
    46. 46. <ul><li>Language Teaching </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 In what aspect that you can’t well fit into the native English teachers’ class? Unaccommodating Aspects 1 Pay less attention on the language accuracy 2 Learning anxiety -fear to ask questions in English 3 Not use to speak English in front of classmate. 4 NET pouch on time 5 Too nervous to miss some important information Supported Supported
    47. 47. <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Q3 How do you adjust yourself to the class? Students adjustments in NET’ Speaking Class 1 Force ourselves to get use to NET’s teaching style 2 Adjust our way of thinking and attitude 3 Have more contact with NET after class 4 Forget it when they are offended by NET 5 Improve the cultural awareness by watching English movies 6 Regard it is a culture differences and don’t care to much 7 Avoiding to speak controversial questions 8 With times go by, we were get use to 9 Regard the NET as a friend 10 Open-mind to accept the differences Support New New
    48. 48. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 How do you adjust yourself to the class? Students adjustments in NET’ Speaking Class 1 Pretending understand and then asking classmates 2 Asking classmates when don’t understand what NET mean 3 Asking classmates or Taiwanese English teachers after classes 4 Asking NETs to repeat again 5 Pay more attention when NET speak 6 Guessing the meaning by certain curls revealed in NET’s talk 7 Asking NET to write down the new/ difficult words 8 Giving more information to NET to improve the communication 9 Use body language to facilitate communication 10 Try again and again Supported New
    49. 49. <ul><li>Language Leaching </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 How do you adjust yourself to the class? Students adjustments in NET’ Speaking Class 1 Improve our English proficiency especially listening and speaking by listening to the radio or practicing with classmates 2 Checking the dictionary at times 3 Discuss with classmates when we don’t understand NET’s talk 4 Increase the quantity of our vocabulary 5 Asking NET after class 6 Come to class earlier 7 Try to catch up with teacher 8 Continuously to use English Supported
    50. 50. <ul><li>Culture </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Q4 Do the native English teachers’ way of teaching effect your learning attitude and strategies? If yes, please give a examples. NET’s Effect Toward Taiwanese Students 1 Our creativity and thinking ability were improved 2 NET often give us example that effect me to think more flexible 3 Learn to self-management 4 Punch on time 5 Become more active and have more interaction with teachers in the class 6 Learn to appreciate their strength 7 Like to watch English movies 8 Admire teacher and seldom absent 9 Learn to think more independently and become more willing to find answer by ourselves 10 Listen to the English radio more New New
    51. 51. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Do the native English teachers’ way of teaching effect your learning attitude and strategies? If yes, please give a examples. NET’s Effect Toward Taiwanese Students 1 Like to use English to communicate with others 2 Learning to use English to thinking 3 Have more confidence to speak English 4 Feel free to speak English 5 Feel free to use body language to communicate 6 Our English pronunciation improved 7 Put more attention on the conversation detail New New
    52. 52. <ul><li>Language Leaching </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Do the native English teachers’ way of teaching effect your learning attitude and strategies? If yes, please give a examples. NET’s Effect Toward Taiwanese Students 1 Perceive that leaning can be easy and relax 2 Preview the text book especially the vocabulary 3 Learn to pay attention in the class 4 Speak English more 5 Have higher motivation to learn English 6 Become more diligent 7 Get use to surf the English web side 8 Group study help me more understand the teaching content 9 Like to cheat in English New Supported
    53. 53. <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Q5 Do you have any suggestion for your foreign teachers? Taiwanese Students’ Suggestions for the NET 1 Share more about their living experiences in their country 2 Have more empathy for us 3 Let us know more about the culture difference 4 Need more patient to the students since we are more shy 5 Don’t be too much emotion and subjective 6 Teach us more practical and thoughtful material 7 To know more about our cultural 8 Don’t to be too direct because sometimes that make us feel hurt Supported New
    54. 54. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Do you have any suggestion for your foreign teachers? Taiwanese Students’ Suggestions for the NET 1 Hope NET can understand some Chinese 2 Use some Chinese to explain certain difficult words or idea 3 Learn some Chinese New
    55. 55. <ul><li>Language Leaching </li></ul>Analysis of Research Question 3 Do you have any suggestion for your foreign teachers? Taiwanese Students’ Suggestions for the NET 1 Need more understand our learning need 2 Use more practical and thoughtful teaching material 3 Use more challenge material 4 Pay attention to all the student’s participation in the class activities 5 Pay more attention to the students who seldom speak in the class 6 Pay attention to students grammar error Support
    56. 56. 4 Conclusion Pedagogical Implications A Limitations & Suggestions B
    57. 57. Pedagogical Implications <ul><li>Native English–speaking teachers should recognize ESL/EFL students’ expectations/preferences in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Both native English-speaking teachers and ESL/EFL students need to recognize the academic cultures in distance between them. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Limitations & Suggestions <ul><li>Specific departments located in Taichung </li></ul><ul><li>city and county </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper Explore Taiwanese Students’ </li></ul><ul><li>perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Further Explore NETs’ perspective </li></ul>
    59. 59. Thank You !

    ×