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Ati flash cards 03, medications affecting immune system

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Ati flash cards 03, medications affecting immune system

  1. 1. Natural Immunity N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  2. 2. · Present at birth · Protection provided by physical barriers: · Skin, mucus membranes · Phagocytic cells · NK cells
  3. 3. Specific Acquired Immunity N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  4. 4. · Production of antibodies against antigens · Active: · Having the infection or a vaccine / toxoid · Takes weeks to months to take effect · Passive: · Administration of preformed antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  5. 5. Major Cells of the Immune System N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  6. 6. · B cells · Macrophages & Dendritic Cells · Produce antibodies · Phagocytosis · Helper T cells (CD4) · · Activate B cells · · Responsible for delayed hypersensitivity reaction · · Cytotoxic T cells (CD8) · · Directly destroy target cells ·
  7. 7. · MMR Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  8. 8. Therapeutic Uses: · Measles, Mumps, Rubella Adverse Effects: · Local reactions (rash, fever, swollen glands) · Anaphylaxis Contraindications/Precautions: · Allergies to eggs, gelatin, and neomycin · Hx of thrombocytopenia · Immunocompromised individuals · Recently received blood products or immunoglobulins Education: ·
  9. 9. DTaP Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  10. 10. Therapeutic Uses: · Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Adverse Effects: · Encephalopathy (fever, persistent crying) · Seizures · Local reaction at injection site Contraindications/Precautions: · Severe febrile illness · Hx of anaphylaxis · Hx of encephalopathy 7 days after DTaP vaccination · Occurrence of seizures with 3 days of vaccination · Inconsolable crying (>3 hrs) within 48 hrs of vaccination Education: ·
  11. 11. Hepatitis Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  12. 12. Therapeutic Uses: · Hepatitis A & B viruses Adverse Effects: · Local reaction · Anaphylaxis Contraindications/Precautions: · Hx of anaphylaxis · Allergy to Baker’s yeast Education: ·
  13. 13. Varicella Virus Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  14. 14. Therapeutic Uses: · Varicella zoster virus (chickenpox) Adverse Effects: · Varicella-like rash Contraindications/Precautions: · Pregnancy · Cancer · Hx of allergy to neomycin or gelatin · Immunocompromised patients Education: · Slight risk of virus being transmitted. If child develops rash after vaccination they should be presumed to be infected and appropriate precautions taken.
  15. 15. Inactivated Polio Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  16. 16. Therapeutic Uses: · Immune response to poliovirus Adverse Effects: · Vaccine-related paralytic poliomyelitis · Local reaction Contraindications/Precautions: · None Education: ·
  17. 17. Influenza Vaccine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  18. 18. Therapeutic Uses: · Immunity to influenza strains in the vaccine Adverse Effects: · Guillain-Barré syndrome (ascending paralysis, weakness of BLE, dyspnea) · Local reaction · Fever Contraindications/Precautions: · Acute febrile illness · Hypersensitivity to eggs Education: ·
  19. 19. Immune Globulin N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  20. 20. Expected Action: Proto: Gamma globulin (IgG) · Passive immunity Therapeutic Uses: · Immunodeficiency syndrome · Chronic lymphocytic leukemia · Bone marrow transplantation · Hep A, Hep B exposure · Measles, rubella, varicella exposure Adverse Effects: · Local reaction / hypersensitivity Contraindications/Precautions: · Interactions: · Live viruses can lead to disease – avoid live viruses for 3 months following IgG Education: · Administer in deep muscle / Date of exposure must be known (6 days measles, 7 days Hep B, 14 days Hep B)
  21. 21. Immunostimulants N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  22. 22. Expected Action: Proto: Interferon Alfa, Aldesleukin, Interleukin 2 · Enhance immune response / reduce proliferation of cancer cells Therapeutic Uses: · Leukemia / melanoma / Kaposi’s sarcoma Adverse Effects: · Flu-like symptoms / Marrow suppression, alopecia, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity · Hypotension Contraindications/Precautions: · Hypersensitivity / pregnancy and lactation (C) Interactions: · Theophylline (toxicity) · Zidovudine or retrovir ( neutropenia) · Antihypertensives (Å hypotensive effect) Education: · Refrigerate / Do not shake vial
  23. 23. Immunosuppressants (General) N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  24. 24. · Act on helper T lymphocytes to suppress proliferation of B cells and cytotoxic T cells · For treatment of autoimmune disorders and to prevent organ rejection · Rheumatoid arthritis · Lupus · Early type 1 diabetes · Myasthenia gravis Adverse Effects · Teratogenesis ·  risk of infection Medications: · Cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral) · Tacrolimus · Glucocorticoids (prednisone) · Methotrexate · Cytotoxics (azathioprine) ·
  25. 25. Cyclosporine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  26. 26. Adverse Effects: · Hepatotoxicity · Nephrotoxicity (BUN, Creatinine, I&O) Contraindications/Precautions: · Pregnancy / Recent live virus vaccination / Recent contact ĉ chickenpox or herpes Interactions: · Phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, carbamazepine, TMP-SMZ ([cycl] ) · Ketoconazole, erythromycin, amphotericin ([cycl]   toxicity) · Amphotericin, aminoglycosides, NSAIDs (all nephrotoxic   renal damage) · Grapefruit juice ( [cycl] by 50%) Nursing · Mix oral dose ĉ milk or OJ to  palatability · Admin initial dose over 2-6 hours · Monitor for hypersensitivity, stay ĉ pt. for 30 mins
  27. 27. Glucocorticoids N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  28. 28. Adverse Effects: Proto: Prednisone, prednisolone · Osteoporosis (use Ca2+& vitamin D supplements · Renal insufficiency (stop drugs immediately) · Fluid retention Contraindications/Precautions: · Systemic fungal infections · Recurring live virus vaccines Interactions: · K+-depleting diuretics ( hypokalemia) · NSAIDs ( GI ulceration) · Glucocorticoids (Promote hyperglycemia) Education: ·
  29. 29. Azathioprine N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  30. 30. Adverse Effects: · Bone marrow depression  neutropenia & thrombocytopenia Contraindications/Precautions: · None listed in ATI Interactions: · Allopurinol (delays inactivation of azathioprine) Education: ·
  31. 31. Antihistamines (General) N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  32. 32. · Action is on H1 receptors which blocks histamine release Medications · 1 s t Generation: · Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) · Promethazine (Phenergan) · Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) · 2 nd Generation: · Loratadine (Claritin) · Cetirizine (Zyrtec) · Fexofenadine (Allegra) · Desloratadine (Clarinex) Therapeutic Uses: · Mild allergic reactions · Anaphylaxis · Motion sickness · Insomnia
  33. 33. Antihistamines (1st Generation) N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  34. 34. Chemotherapy Agents (Medications) N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  35. 35. · Nitrogen mustards.....................................................cyclophosphamide · Platinum compounds.................................................................cisplatin · Folic acid analog................................................................methotrexate · Pyrimidine analog...................................................................cytarabine · Purine analogs................................................................mercaptopurine · Antitumor antibiotics...........................................................doxorubicin · Mitotic inhibitors..................................................vincristine, paclitaxel · Topoisomerase inhibitors.......................................topotecan, irinotecan · Breast cancer....................................................tamoxifen (antiestrogen) · Prostate cancer........................................................................leuprolide · Progestins....................................................................megestrol acetate · Cytotoxic medications · Asparaginase · Hydroxyurea · Procarbazine
  36. 36. Chemotherapy Agents (Side Effects) N203 ATI (Unit 3) Immune System -
  37. 37. · Bone marrow suppression  Avoid crowds, check for bleeding gums · GI discomfort  Give antiemetic (ondansetron) with dexamethasone, metoclopramide or granisetron at outset · Alopecia  Occur 7-10 days after, persist max of 2 months after · Mucositis  Frequent oral care, soft toothbrush, EtOH mouthwash · Reproductive toxicity  Sperm banking, Avoid gravid on meds. · Hyperuricemia or uric acid   fluids, I&O  Give allopurinol if  uric acid · Extravasation of vesicants such as carmustine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, and vincristine

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