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The Middle Ages in Europe - World History


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Middle Ages, Europe, World History

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The Middle Ages in Europe - World History

  1. 1. The Middle Ages in Europe World History Hals
  2. 2. The “Middle” Ages What terms have you heard that refer to the Middle Ages?  The Dark Ages  Middle Ages  Medieval Era  Early versus High Middle Ages Timespan? c.500-1300 CE; “High” Middle Ages start from 1000 CE What event prompts the “middle ages”
  3. 3. The Early Middle Ages Sparsely populated, dense forests, rich soil,  Think of an untamed Europe From 400-700 Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms Franks – strongest kingdom  Clovis, king of the Franks  Converted to Christianity (religion of people in Gaul)  Earns support AND gains the Christian Church of Rome as an ally
  4. 4. Painting of Clovis being baptized
  5. 5. Battle of Tours - 732  Islam appears in 622  Muslim armies overrun Christian lands from Palestine – N. Africa – Spain  When Muslim enter France, Charles Martel rallies Frankish warriors  Christians triumph – sign that “God is on their side”  Muslims are stopped and only overrun Spain  Christians view Muslim world with hostility
  6. 6. Charlemagne Grandson of Charles Martel Built an empire across France, Germany, and part of Italy Loved battle  Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the North, Avars and Slavs in the east, Lombards in Italy Conquests reunite much of the old Roman Empire
  7. 7.  Pope Leo III asks Charlemagne to help against rebellious nobles in Rome Frankish armies crush the rebellion Pope crowns Charlemagne on Christmas day, 800, to show his gratitude  Declares Charlemagne – Emperor of the Romans (why is this so significant?)  **Christian Pope crowns a German king successor to the Roman emperors  Also sets up conflicts between Roman Catholic popes and German emperors
  8. 8. •Eastern Empire is Furious•Ruler of the Eastern RomanEmpire saw himself as the Romanruler**Furthers division between theeastern and western regions ofthe old Roman empire
  9. 9. Other Dominant Groups Muslim forces threaten through 900s Vikings – stretch out from Scandinavia and attack England, Ireland, N. France, Russia, N. America, etc.
  10. 10. FeudalismPowerful local lords dividelandholdings amonglesser lordsVassals – pledge serviceand loyalty to greater lord
  11. 11. Feudalism Activity Part 1 Meet with your  Create a “day in fellow kings, lords, the life” cartoon or knights, or serfs a written schedule and use the that shows a day in information the life of your packets to write out character while your job demonstrating the description. different jobs your character must fulfill.
  12. 12. Your Kingdoms… Once in regrouped into a kingdom… Name your kingdom You will meet with your group and arrange yourselves within your social hierarchy Draw a diagram of how each person in your group fits into the hierarchy of feudalism Explain each of your jobs to each other and bring one sheet that shows the social structure and the main roles of each member of your kingdom
  13. 13.  Once you have created your diagram you will be given a scenario Discuss the scenario with your group and create a skit explaining how your feudalist society would handle your crisis (be realistic, but also creative)
  14. 14. The Medieval Church Village church and tithing Daily life – the Christian calendar and the holy days to honor saints
  15. 15. Views of Women  Daughters of Eve  Weak and easily susceptible to sin  Need guidance of men Ideal Women: pure and modest Mary prayed to Mary as an intercessor
  16. 16. Monks and Nuns Benedictine Rule – set of rules to regulate monastic life  Created by Benedict (a monk) ~530 In S. Italy  Three vows  Obedience to abbot or abbess  Poverty  Chastity  Believed in spiritual value of manual labor  Worked fields, cleared and drained land, experimented with crops Life of Service –  Poor and sick  School for children  Rest for pilgrimages  Missionaries (St. Patrick – set up Irish Church)
  17. 17. Learning! Preserved writings of the ancient world Copying texts serves as labor for monks and nuns Educated monks and nuns keep learning alive!!
  18. 18. Convents Abbess Hildegard of Bingen  Composed religious music  Wrote books
  19. 19.  Canon law – body of church laws, upheld by church courts  Religious teachings, clergy, marriages, morals Excommunication  Punishment, banned from receiving sacraments and Christian burial Interdict – official excommunication of an entire town, region or kingdom (used to weaken power of secular leaders)
  20. 20.  King Edward (Anglo-Sax) dies Harold (weak guy) put in charge William of Normandy (strong leader, of Viking descent)  Raises an army and gets pope’s support  William triumphs and defeats Harold  William the Conqueror!  Norman (French) influence  Battle of Hastings  Bayeux Tapestry
  21. 21. King William Required feudal allegiance Domesday Book – listed every castle, field and pigpen in England  Helped with efficient tax collection Royal exchequer – royal treasury
  22. 22. Unified Legal System King Henry II – 1154 – common law – legal system based on custom and court rulings and applied to all of England Created a jury – group of men sworn to speak the truth
  23. 23. King Henry and Thomas Becket King Henry – claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury, fiercely disagreed with the king “what a pack of fools and cowards I have nourished, that not one of them will avenge me of this turbulent priest” 4 knights kill Thomas Becket for King Henry Becket’s honored as a martyr and saint, pilgrimage destination
  24. 24. King John the Soft King John – clever, greedy, cruel, untrustworthy Not a people person War with Philip II – loses French lands Gives into Innocent III to avoid kingdom wide excommunication, has to recognize England as a fief to Rome.
  25. 25. Magna Carta 1215 at Runnymeade, 63 demands Magna Carta – Great Charter Due Process of Law  Free men are protected from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment Taxation  King can’t raise taxes without consulting the Great Council  No taxation without representation
  26. 26. MC’s significance  1. nobles now have certain rights (later extended to all citizens)  2. monarch must obey the law (and the charter)
  27. 27. Great Council House of Commons (2 knights from each county) House of Lords King summons this parliament for his own purpose Serve as a checks and balance
  28. 28. And Onto France… Philip IV  Louis’s grandson  Extends royal power (good), tries to tax the clergy (not so good)–  Pope Boniface VIII – not happy about tax  “God has set popes over kings and kingdoms”  Forbids Philip to tax the clergy without papal consent  Philip threatens arrest clergy who don’t pay their taxes  Philip sends troops and they seize the pope  Pope Boniface VIII – escapes, but was beaten badly and dies  French pope is appointed  New pope moves the church court to Avignon
  29. 29. Estates General Created in 1302 3 parts – clergy, nobles, townspeople Body of people that have a say in the government NOT AS POWERFUL as the English Parliament (Great Council) because Estates General has no control of taxation
  30. 30. Holy Roman Empire  Otto I of Saxony – King of Germany  Helps pope out  962 – crowned as Holy Roman Emperor  Holy – crowned by the pope  Roman – heir to the emperors of ancient Rome  Pope Gregory VII – banned lay investiture  Only Pope can appoint bishops  HRE Henry IV  Disagreement with GregoryVII because he thinks the HRE should appoint bishops to their royal fiefs  Concordat of Worms – 1122  Church has sole pwr to elect and invest bishops w/spiritual authority; emperor has right to invest them with fiefs
  31. 31. The official crown!!
  32. 32. HRE ~1200
  33. 33. The Crusades Byzantine emperor Alexius I asks Pope Urban II for Christian knights to help him fight the Turks Muslim groups were interfering with Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land Urban II  “an accursed race…has violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire”
  34. 34. God wills it!  1096 – armies of knights, and ordinary men and women all left for the Holy Land  Motivations  Religious zeal  Hopes of wealth and land  Adventure  Pope – hoped to heal the split between Roman and Byzantine churches  Hoped Christian knights would no longer waste time fighting each other  Many Crusades – Round 1, 2, 3, etc.
  35. 35.  Over 200 years – roughly 1095- 1290s 1st Crusade – massacre of Muslim and Jewish residents of Jerusalem Saladin (Muslim) retook Jerusalem Results and effects of the Crusades:  Fail to conquer the Holy Land  Increased trade  Middle Eastern products introduced to Europe  Growth of a money economy  Increased power for monarchs and the Pope  Global awareness  1271 Marco Polo to China
  36. 36.  Venetian Merchants  Reached their pinnacle after the 4th Crusade  Sent a fleet of Venetian vessels to Constantinople during the Crusades (does this sound weird to you?)  Loot and pillage Constantinople  Rule the city for the next 50 years  End of Constantinople’s domination in Eurasian trade – they’ll never be the dominant one again  Become the center of trade in W. Europe (they will continue to increase and succeed into the Renaissance)
  37. 37. Reconquista in Spain Christian campaign to drive the Muslims out of Spain Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon  Unity of two pwrful kingdoms opens the way for a unified state  End of religious toleration for Christians, Jews, and Muslims  Initiate the Spanish Inquisition – Church court set up to try people accused of heresy  Brutal against Muslims and Jews – many burned at the stake when they refuse to convert to Christianity
  38. 38. Painting of the Reconquista
  39. 39. The Inquisition
  40. 40. Christopher Columbus
  41. 41. Medieval Architecture The Romanesque Church – fortresses with thick walls and towers  Barrel vault (long tunnel of stone covering most of the structure)  So heavy it required thick walls  No windows to keep walls strong  Dark and gloomy
  42. 42. Gothic Architecture  Flying buttresses – stone supports outside the church  Allow builders to construct higher walls and leave space for huge stained-glass windows  Could be very tall  Graceful spires, lofty ceilings, enormous windows – carry the eye upward to the heavens  Monuments are built to the “greater glory of God”  Make you feel very small, emphasize power and grandeur of God
  43. 43. Notre Dame
  44. 44. Flying butresses - Chartres
  45. 45. Dante’s Divine Comedy Vernacular Dante’s Divine Comedy  Abandon all hope, ye that enter here
  46. 46. Growth of Trade and Banking Agricultural advancements –  Cause population increase and surplus of food (allows for urbanization to occur)  Windmills, iron plow, horse replaced oxen, 3 field system Urban Growth – more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities
  47. 47. Growth of Trade and Banking Increases trade Creation of Guilds  Apprentice, journeyman, etc.  Prevents monopoly  Quality control Development of banking system  Lending money  Receipts and regional systems Joint business ventures  Invest in supplies and pool resources, limits risks since land and sea travel is dangerous
  48. 48. Troubled 1300’s Famine and crop failure already rampant  Makes everyone more susceptible to the plague
  49. 49. PLAGUE! 1347 – a Genoese trading ship brings the plague to Messina, Sicily Italy to Spain to France and Germany – one in three people died Originated in Asia and spread to the Middle East to Europe  India depopulated; Mesopotamia, Syria and Armenia covered with dead bodies  Cairo – 7,000 dead bodies a day
  50. 50.  Yersinia pestis Bacillus lives in bloodstream of an animal or in the stomach of a flea Ideal host? The Black Rat – traveled on ships Two forms – bubonic and pneumonic  Bubonic – flea is the vector  Pneumonic – direct human contact
  51. 51.  Streets were cesspools Mud, refuse, human excrement Personal hygiene – everyone had fleas and body lice so flea bites were perfectly normal Aristocratic families all slept in one room together Middle-class or poor households often slept in one bed
  52. 52. Symptoms 1st Stage  A growth the size of a nut or an apple emerged in the armpit, groin or neck (lymph nodes)  Boil “buba” – gave the disease its name  Caused agonizing pain  If lanced and drained victim has a chance 2nd Stage  black spots or blotches appear from bleeding under the skin 3rd and Final Stage  Victim begins to cough violently and spit blood  Death usually followed within two to three days
  53. 53.  Victims symptoms were so revolting that instead of earning compassion, care- givers were disgusted
  54. 54. Social Effects People didn’t understand the science behind how the disease spread…so, Terror and bewilderment spread Magic and witchcraft Profound pessimism Wild pleasures – we’ll die soon anyway Flagellants – scourged and whipped themselves as penance for their and society’s sins People fled from city centers
  55. 55. The Decameron Giovannia Boccaccio
  56. 56. Hundred Years War 1337-1453 (Actually 116 years) England v. France Edward III of England claimed the French crown in 1337 and war erupted English victories at first, France suffered greatly Thank you longbow (3 for 1)
  57. 57. Joan of Arc  1429 – 17 year old peasant woman appears in the court of Charles VII the uncrowned king of France  Tells Charles God sent her to save France  Persuades him to allow Joan to lead his armies against the English  Joan inspires the troops and leads them to several victories  English capture her, try her as a witch, burn her at the stake  Church later declares her as a saint  Joan’s execution rallies French troops  French have the cannon!
  58. 58. Effects? War created growing sense of nationalism Longbow and cannon Warfare changing  castles susceptible to gunpowder’s reach Why did this kind of warfare threaten feudalism?