Successfully reported this slideshow.
CHAPTER 13European State Consolidationin the 17th and 18th Centuries
   What is a Stadholder?
DUTCH REPUBLIC   The Dutch government was a progressive    republic – rivaling the system used in the Swiss    cantons, V...
RELIGION IN THE NETHERLANDS   Dutch society was the most egalitarian in all of    Europe      What do you think influenc...
EXPANSION OF   Nationalism was at a peak, fostered by the    struggle for independence                COMMERCE   Dutch C...
THE BANK OF AMSTERDAM   The Netherlands remained the European    financial center – especially after 1609 when the    Dut...
FOREIGN POLICY 1651 Navigation Acts passed by the revolutionary  government in England.    restricted all imports into B...
MORE FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES   Louis XIV claimed the Spanish Netherlands in 1667.       Louis’s forces continued to attack...
DID YOU KNOW?! A typical carrot in the 17th century  was purple "In the 16th century, Dutch carrot  growers invented the...
 Newly orange, carrots traveled England with  Dutch travelers during the reign of Queen  Elizabeth I. The carrot soon ca...
AP EURO BELLRINGER Read p. 115 in the Ethel Wood book Define: Commercial Revolution Capitalism Mercantilism
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Looking ahead - William and Mary from the House of  Orange                                       htt...
AFTERDEFEATINGTHE SPANISHARMADA
JAMES I OF ENGLAND   When Elizabeth dies in 1603, no direct    heir   Stuarts – ruling family of Scotland,    closest re...
   Charles I – inherits throne in 1625   Behaved like an absolute monarch   Imprisoned forces without trial and squeeze...
THE LONG PARLIAMENT Met on and off from 1640-1653 Parliament tried and executed the King’s chief  ministers Declare Par...
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR   1642-1649   Cavaliers v. Roundheads   Charles I and supporters v.    Parliament and supporters –   ...
   Parliament puts King Charles on trial   Condemned to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy”   Janu...
 Shockwave through Europe Kings had been assassinated or killed in battle  but never tried and executed by their own peo...
IRELAND   Cromwell brutally crushes    revolts   Ulster (N Ireland) had    been settled by Scottish    Protestants   16...
PURITAN INFLUENCE of saints” – social revolution                 “rule                           Sunday set aside for re...
LORD PROTECTOR   Oliver can’t get along with the Rump Parliament    either     House of Commons wants to disband Cromwel...
4   Cromwell dies 1658   Puritans lose grip on England   1660 – Parliament invites Charles II to take his rightful plac...
CHARLES II   Clarendon Code – 1661-1665 – excludes Catholics, Presbyterians,    and Independents from religious and polit...
JAMES II   James II inherits throne 1685   Flaunts his Catholic faith –appoints    Catholics in high office positions  ...
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION   Bloodless overthrow of leadership called a “glorious    revolution”   Declared joint monarchs in 1...
ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701 Said if Anne died the successor of England would  come from the House of Hanover What? Anne = Ja...
RICHELIEU   Henry IV killed by an assassin   Louis XIII (his son) becomes king    and appoints Cardinal Armand    Richel...
LOUIS XIV,THE SUNKING   The Sun – becomes his symbol of    absolute power      Sun is the center of the universe        ...
COLBERT             Intendant system – royal              officials who collect taxes,              recruit soldiers, and...
   Built in the countryside near Paris                Spared no expense                 Became the king’s home and seat ...
 Rule lasted 72 years French culture, manners, and customs became  the European standard (replaced Renaissance  Italy)
   Continual struggle for power with England and the    Netherlands   1685 – Revoked the Edict of Nantes      Persecute...
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries

2,538 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries

  1. 1. CHAPTER 13European State Consolidationin the 17th and 18th Centuries
  2. 2.  What is a Stadholder?
  3. 3. DUTCH REPUBLIC The Dutch government was a progressive republic – rivaling the system used in the Swiss cantons, Venice, Genoa, and even England at the time  its official name was “Their High Mightinesses the Estates General of the United Provinces.” (the “Hooge Moogende”)  each province had an elected Stadholder as its chief executive  Most provinces usually elected the same man (the head of the House of Orange) as Stadholder to provide for a de facto national executive  the Burghers became increasingly powerful at the expense of the nobles
  4. 4. RELIGION IN THE NETHERLANDS Dutch society was the most egalitarian in all of Europe  What do you think influenced this trend? Society was extremely tolerant for its era:  The Dutch Calvinists split:  one group favoring a modification of Calvinism with less unconditional predestination;  its main supporters were burghers  Arminian led by Jacobus Arminius  the more orthodox Calvinist Synod met in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: 1618 at Dordrecht in Holland to deal with James_Arminius_2.jpg this Arminian heresy By 1632, the Arminians were tolerated as were the large Catholic minority and the Jewish community haven for the Mennonites and the “Pilgrims” who would settle at Plymouth
  5. 5. EXPANSION OF Nationalism was at a peak, fostered by the struggle for independence COMMERCE Dutch Commercial Expansion Includes:  Bordeaux  Arctic waters for whaling  Sailing around (and named) Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean  Trade with India and colonizing the city of Jakarta, Java  Founding the Dutch East India Company in 1602  competing with the English in the Spice Islands  Opened Japan to trade in the early 1600’s; all other Europeans were expelled by the Japanese in 1641 for fear of further Western and Christian influence;  Dutch limited to the port city of Nagasaki  settlements throughout the New World – including Curacao, Caracas, Guiana, & New Netherland (NY); Dutch West India Company  Gain the Cape of Good Hope from the Portuguese and settle in South Africa;  Dutch settlers mixed with Huguenots to become the ancestors of the Afrikaners
  6. 6. THE BANK OF AMSTERDAM The Netherlands remained the European financial center – especially after 1609 when the Dutch founded the Bank of Amsterdam.  Coins and the general money supply was in chaos, and inflation was rampant  helped to standardize the European economy  Created consistent exchange rates  became an international measure of value  accepted everywhere - depositors could even write checks on their accounts  Dutch government guaranteed the safety of deposits
  7. 7. FOREIGN POLICY 1651 Navigation Acts passed by the revolutionary government in England.  restricted all imports into Britain and its colonies,  angered the Dutch more – esp. the demand to sovereignty over the “Narrow Seas” (the English Channel). Because of their relatively small population, the Dutch could not be major producers or exporters,  threatened their economic livelihood.  Three wars will erupt as a result  final one in 1674 ending with the British annexing New York
  8. 8. MORE FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES Louis XIV claimed the Spanish Netherlands in 1667.  Louis’s forces continued to attack; gain 3 of the 7 provinces by1672 Dutch want William III (of Orange) to become the new Stadholder after 22 years of vacancy.  elected in 1673  begins to centralize and consolidate his power, heading towards absolutism…  (doesn’t get that far) as the Netherlands would remain a decentralized republic until 1795 William managed to stave off Louis’s forces  Rely on alliances with Denmark and Brandenburg; also have help from the Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs. Louis eventually became weary of war, leading to the Treaty of Nimwegen in 1678, the Dutch kept their territory intact
  9. 9. DID YOU KNOW?! A typical carrot in the 17th century was purple "In the 16th century, Dutch carrot growers invented the orange carrot in honor of the House of Orange, the Dutch Royal Family. They did this by cross breeding pale yellow carrots with red carrots." http://www.healthdiaries.com/eatth is/25-facts-about-carrots.html
  10. 10.  Newly orange, carrots traveled England with Dutch travelers during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The carrot soon caught on in England as both a food and a fashion accessory. Ladies would often use carrot tops to decorate their hats. The settlers at Jamestown in 1607 introduced carrots to North America.
  11. 11. AP EURO BELLRINGER Read p. 115 in the Ethel Wood book Define: Commercial Revolution Capitalism Mercantilism
  12. 12. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Looking ahead - William and Mary from the House of Orange http://www.google.com/imgr es? imgurl=http://media-2.web. britannica.com/eb- media/23/84823-004-4D1059 5E.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ww w.thepeacearch.com/forum/c ulture-heritage- history/8285-day- history-15.html&usg=__Yx0 ONh5DTho6xqlX6lw4zWDz kUI=&h=450&w=356&sz=6 6&hl=en&start=2&zoom=1 &um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=oVtI GYwZEiB2eM:&tbnh=127& tbnw=100&prev=/images %3Fq%3Dwilliam%2Band %2Bmary%26um %3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe %3Dactive%26client %3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN %26rlz
  13. 13. AFTERDEFEATINGTHE SPANISHARMADA
  14. 14. JAMES I OF ENGLAND When Elizabeth dies in 1603, no direct heir Stuarts – ruling family of Scotland, closest relative King James I  Butted heads with Parliament  Actually dissolves Parliament and collects the taxes he wants on his own  Dissenters – Puritans wanted to “purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices  Call for simpler services and a more democratic church (no bishops)  K. James tells them to leave or he’ll “do worse”  King James version of the Bible emerged in 1611
  15. 15.  Charles I – inherits throne in 1625 Behaved like an absolute monarch Imprisoned forces without trial and squeezed nation for money 1628 needed to raise taxes again and has to summon Parliament  Won’t approve taxation til K. Charles signs the Petition of Right (prohibits king from taxing without Parliament’s approval, and prohibits imprisonment for unjust cause) Signs it, but dissolved Parliament in 1629 Rules for 11 years without them Creates bitter enemies – especially the Puritans 1637 – tries to impose the Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Calvinists The revolt, Charles summons Parl. To pay for the army needed to take care of the revolt
  16. 16. THE LONG PARLIAMENT Met on and off from 1640-1653 Parliament tried and executed the King’s chief ministers Declare Parliament can’t be dissolved without their own consent The “Grand Remonstrance” Charles I lashes back Leads troops into the House of Commons to arrest its most radical leaders  They escape through the back door and flee to form their own armies  Parliament is shocked, issue “Militia Ordinance” allowing Parliament to construct their own government
  17. 17. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR 1642-1649 Cavaliers v. Roundheads Charles I and supporters v. Parliament and supporters – country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers, and Puritan clergy Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell  Skilled general  New Model Army  By 1647 the king was in the hands of Parliamentary forces
  18. 18.  Parliament puts King Charles on trial Condemned to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy” January 1649 “I am a martyr of the people” Says a prayer and then signals the executioner
  19. 19.  Shockwave through Europe Kings had been assassinated or killed in battle but never tried and executed by their own people In England – no ruler can claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law
  20. 20. IRELAND Cromwell brutally crushes revolts Ulster (N Ireland) had been settled by Scottish Protestants 1652 – Parliament exiles Catholics to barren land out past Ireland, disobeying Catholics can be killed on the spot 1641-1652 nearly half of Ireland’s population died from violence, famine, and plague http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Ireland_location_Ulste r.jpg
  21. 21. PURITAN INFLUENCE of saints” – social revolution  “rule  Sunday set aside for religious observance  Anyone 14 or older caught “profaning” the Lord’s Day could be fined  Theatres, lewd dancing, taverns, and gambling are all restricted/closed down  Education is highly encouraged so both boys and girls can read the Bible  Encourage marriage to be based on love to encourage fidelity  Cromwell allowed religious freedom to other Protestants, and even welcomed Jews back into England (after 350+ yrs of exile)
  22. 22. LORD PROTECTOR Oliver can’t get along with the Rump Parliament either  House of Commons wants to disband Cromwell’s 50,000 man army  So he disbands Parliament 1653 – Declares himself Lord Protector  Imposes Puritan prohibitions  Creates the first written constitution for his “republic”…de facto dictatorship  Dies 1658, son Richard succeeds him, but England has had enough
  23. 23. 4 Cromwell dies 1658 Puritans lose grip on England 1660 – Parliament invites Charles II to take his rightful place as King Monarchy is restored and the people warmly welcome him Reopened taverns and theatres Restored Church of England, tolerated other Protestants
  24. 24. CHARLES II Clarendon Code – 1661-1665 – excludes Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents from religious and political life  All people in gov’t have to swear an oath of allegiance to the Church of England Navigation Acts – challenge Dutch Treaty of Dover 1670 – alliance with French against the Dutch  Secret provision? Declaration of Indulgences in 1672  Suspends laws against Catholics and non-Anglicans  Test Act – (Parliament’s reaction) – requires officials of the crown to swear an oath of allegiance against transubstantiation  More suspicious of Parliament than ever, avoids them from 1681-1685 by using Louis XIV for $  Converts to Catholicism on his deathbed - 1685
  25. 25. JAMES II James II inherits throne 1685 Flaunts his Catholic faith –appoints Catholics in high office positions English Protestants really worried James II will reinstate Catholicism Declaration of Indulgence1687  Suspends all religious tests, permits free worship Wife has boy; Parliament is done Parliamentary leaders ask James II’s daughter, Mary and her husband William to become the rulers of the throne William arrives with army November 1688,  James II flees to France
  26. 26. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Bloodless overthrow of leadership called a “glorious revolution” Declared joint monarchs in 1689 King William III and Queen Mary II are not crowned until they recognize SEVERAL of Parliament’s conditions  English Bill of Rights – requires monarch to summon Parliament regularly and gives the House of Commons “power of the purse”  Bars Catholic monarchs  Restates traditional rights of English citizens (trial by jury)  Abolishes excess fines, cruel or unjust punishment  Habeas corpus – no person can be held in prison without first being charged a specific crime  Toleration Act 1689 – limits religious freedom to Puritans, Quakers and other dissenters (not Catholics yet); but, only CofE can hold gvt positions
  27. 27. ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701 Said if Anne died the successor of England would come from the House of Hanover What? Anne = James II’s daughter William and Mary have no kids If Anne dies, who is next? Anne married into the Protestant House of Hanover So…King George I will become king
  28. 28. RICHELIEU Henry IV killed by an assassin Louis XIII (his son) becomes king and appoints Cardinal Armand Richeleiu as his chief minister Richelieu – cunning, capable leader, spends his time strengthening the central government  Tries to destroy nobles’ power  Smashes the walls of Huguenot cities and bans formation of Huguenot armies  Defeated private armies of nobles and destroyed their fortified castles  Handpicks his successor – Cardinal Jules Mazarin
  29. 29. LOUIS XIV,THE SUNKING The Sun – becomes his symbol of absolute power  Sun is the center of the universe and I am the center of the nation “I am the State”  Doesn’t call up the Estates General during his reign (so his power isn’t checked)  From 1614-1789 The Estates General isn’t called up
  30. 30. COLBERT  Intendant system – royal officials who collect taxes, recruit soldiers, and carry out king’s policies in each province  Army becomes Europe’s best – state paid, fed, trained and supplied up to 300,000 soldiers  Jean Baptiste Colbert – brilliant finance minister  High tariffs on imports, encouraged overseas colonies, export to colonies  Becomes wealthiest state in Europe
  31. 31.  Built in the countryside near Paris  Spared no expense Became the king’s home and seat of governmentVERSAILLES   Housed 10,000 people from nobles and officials to servants  Elaborate ceremonies and rituals “levee”  **Controlling the nobles by luring them to Versailles**
  32. 32.  Rule lasted 72 years French culture, manners, and customs became the European standard (replaced Renaissance Italy)
  33. 33.  Continual struggle for power with England and the Netherlands 1685 – Revoked the Edict of Nantes  Persecuted Huguenots  More than 100,000 fled from France  Probably King Louis XIV’s biggest mistake – the Huguenots were France’s hardest working and prosperous subjects  Hits France economy hard (what is this effect similar to?)  France does not decline just yet…but Louis XV is too weak a ruler to effectively handle problems

×