Ming Dynasty Ming Dynasty (led by Zhu) rids China of the Mongols and lasts from 1368 – 1644 Strong central gvt Confucian principles Reinstates civil service exam Energizes and emphasizes Chinese culture to erase Mongol influence
Zheng He Chinese navigator in the early 1400s Traveled to SE Asia, Indian Ocean and East Africa (100 yrs before Europeans do) Chinese govt suddenly bans the building of seagoing ships in 1433 (when Zheng He dies), Zheng He’s fleets rot away and China turns inward Confucian Scholars actually burn records of his journeys State considered the expeditions “silly” and a waste of resources
What might have happened if the Chinese spent the 15th and 16th centuries exploring?
Ming dynasty declines through the 16th century State still concerned about Mongols, revamping the Great Wall 1600’s – famines, plummeting economy, peasant revolts 1644 – Ming emperor invites Qing warriors from Manchuria to quell a peasant uprising, but oust the emperor instead. Qing (Manchu) Dynasty from 1644 - 1914
Manchus Obsessed with remaining ethnically elite (only 3% of the population) Ban marriage of Manchu’s and Chinese Chinese forbidden to learn Manchu language Need the best and brightest of the ethnic Chinese to help run the gvt – so competition on the civil service exam intensifies (the Manchu’s don’t care about class)
Qing Dynasty Will grow to include Taiwan and parts of Mongolia, central Asia and Tibet Tributary states – Burma, Nepal, and Vietnam
Isolationism Continue to focus inward Focus only stretches as far as tributary states Fierce protectors of culture – ban Christianity in 1724 Trade is restricted to only one city and is regulated by the government Silver streaming into Chinese economy
Japan 1542 – Portuguese established trade, missionaries poured in 300,000 or so Japanese converted to Christianity 1100s-1500s – era of feudalistic heirarchies Era of daimyos (territorial lords) pledging allegiance to the shogun (military overlord) 1500s Civil War breaks out, several warlords emerge and dominate the different Japanese Islands Toyotomi Hideyoshi – general, gains power, unifies Japan in 1590 Dreams of expanding the empire, attacks Korea
1592 and 1597: Korea vs.Japan Hideyoshi attacks Korea Korean Admiral Yi Sun-shin has his 70 foot “turtle boat” Iron covering, looks like a turtle, has holes for oars and cannons Sinks hundreds of Japanese vessels, even though the Japanese have the musket from the Portuguese Admiral Yi dies in the attacks, but the Japanese don’t attack again until the 1910s (Japanese invade Manchuria during this time too, but will have to withdraw after losing most of their navy)
After Hideyoshi’s death,Tokugawa Ieyasu daimyo’s meet under Tokugawa Ieyasu and create the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1603 1603-1867 Bakufu (tent gov’t, implied only temporary gov’t replacement of the emperor’s pwr) Claims personal ownership to all the lands Institutes rigid social class, (its Confucian met caste) Warrior Farmer Artisan merchant **No Social mobility
Edo Period Tokugawa moves capital from Heian (Kyoto) to Edo (Tokyo) Reversal in attitudes toward Western influence Christians are persecuted, missionaries expelled 1580s – missionaries voted off the island 1590s – persecution of converts/missionaries begins 1614 – banned the faith ○ Kicked off the island, hunted down and killed ○ Rebellions persist, Christianity becomes and underground faith National Seclusion Policy – Japanese prohibited from traveling abroad and from receiving visitors to Japan Only exceptions – Korea, China, and Netherlands (Dutch and Nagasaki)
Rationale for Isolation Spain in the Philippines England and Portuguese hassling China When Portuguese come into Japan to negotiate, Japanese kill them on the spot
Isolation is good for the Arts Buddhism and Shinto still influence culture Kabuki theatre Bunraku (puppet plays) Haiku Scrolls, wood-block prints and paintings
South and Southeast Asia Portuguese spearhead exploration, Dutch follow suit Port/Span are zealous missionaries, Brit/Dutch not nearly as zealous Conversions difficult in S and SE Asia… why? Islam has existed for 1000 years Hindu ideas and rituals have existed for over 2000 years Areas of success? ○ Philippines
Effects of Europe on Asia Set up some bases that are new, more powerful, wealthy port cities New trade routes Muslim Trade centers start to decline in value Introduce sea warfare Diffusion causes New food from Americas to enter Asia Silver from Americas pours into Asia Europeans get malaria and dysentary
Asian Reactions Some empires are just too strong and too populated Cultures are too established China and Japan just aren’t interested Missionaries contained Limited trading contacts China stopped trading and allowed Europe to take over “global” (and now actually global) trade Because of isolation… Asia does not keep up with Europeans After 4000 years of technological superiority, European technology surpass Asian technology Fateful, consequential, critical time in history But…does Europe still dominate?