Ming Dynasty   Ming Dynasty (led by Zhu) rids China of    the Mongols and lasts from 1368 – 1644   Strong central gvt  ...
Zheng He   Chinese navigator in the    early 1400s   Traveled to SE Asia, Indian    Ocean and East Africa (100    yrs be...
Columbus v. Zheng He
   What might have happened if the Chinese spent    the 15th and 16th centuries exploring?
   Ming dynasty declines through the 16th    century    State still concerned about Mongols,     revamping the Great Wal...
Manchus             Obsessed with remaining ethnically              elite (only 3% of the population)             Ban ma...
Qing Dynasty Will grow to  include  Taiwan and  parts of  Mongolia,  central Asia  and Tibet Tributary  states –  Burma,...
Isolationism   Continue to focus inward   Focus only stretches as far as tributary    states   Fierce protectors of cul...
Japan   1542 – Portuguese established trade, missionaries poured in   300,000 or so Japanese converted to Christianity ...
1592 and 1597: Korea vs.Japan   Hideyoshi attacks Korea   Korean Admiral Yi Sun-shin has his    70 foot “turtle boat”   ...
   After Hideyoshi’s death,Tokugawa Ieyasu       daimyo’s meet under                      Tokugawa Ieyasu and            ...
Edo Period   Tokugawa moves capital from Heian (Kyoto) to    Edo (Tokyo)   Reversal in attitudes toward Western influenc...
Rationale for Isolation Spain in the Philippines England and Portuguese hassling China When Portuguese come into Japan ...
Isolation is good for the Arts   Buddhism and Shinto still    influence culture   Kabuki theatre   Bunraku (puppet play...
South and Southeast Asia   Portuguese spearhead exploration, Dutch    follow suit   Port/Span are zealous missionaries, ...
Effects of Europe on Asia   Set up some bases that are new, more    powerful, wealthy port cities   New trade routes   ...
Asian Reactions   Some empires are just too strong and too    populated   Cultures are too established   China and Japa...
Chapter 22 – Transitions in Asia
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Chapter 22 – Transitions in Asia

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Chapter 22 – Transitions in Asia

  1. 1. Ming Dynasty Ming Dynasty (led by Zhu) rids China of the Mongols and lasts from 1368 – 1644 Strong central gvt Confucian principles Reinstates civil service exam Energizes and emphasizes Chinese culture to erase Mongol influence
  2. 2. Zheng He Chinese navigator in the early 1400s Traveled to SE Asia, Indian Ocean and East Africa (100 yrs before Europeans do) Chinese govt suddenly bans the building of seagoing ships in 1433 (when Zheng He dies), Zheng He’s fleets rot away and China turns inward Confucian Scholars actually burn records of his journeys  State considered the expeditions “silly” and a waste of resources
  3. 3. Columbus v. Zheng He
  4. 4.  What might have happened if the Chinese spent the 15th and 16th centuries exploring?
  5. 5.  Ming dynasty declines through the 16th century State still concerned about Mongols, revamping the Great Wall 1600’s – famines, plummeting economy, peasant revolts 1644 – Ming emperor invites Qing warriors from Manchuria to quell a peasant uprising, but oust the emperor instead. Qing (Manchu) Dynasty from 1644 - 1914
  6. 6. Manchus  Obsessed with remaining ethnically elite (only 3% of the population)  Ban marriage of Manchu’s and Chinese  Chinese forbidden to learn Manchu language  Need the best and brightest of the ethnic Chinese to help run the gvt – so competition on the civil service exam intensifies (the Manchu’s don’t care about class)
  7. 7. Qing Dynasty Will grow to include Taiwan and parts of Mongolia, central Asia and Tibet Tributary states – Burma, Nepal, and Vietnam
  8. 8. Isolationism Continue to focus inward Focus only stretches as far as tributary states Fierce protectors of culture – ban Christianity in 1724 Trade is restricted to only one city and is regulated by the government Silver streaming into Chinese economy
  9. 9. Japan 1542 – Portuguese established trade, missionaries poured in 300,000 or so Japanese converted to Christianity 1100s-1500s – era of feudalistic heirarchies Era of daimyos (territorial lords) pledging allegiance to the shogun (military overlord) 1500s Civil War breaks out, several warlords emerge and dominate the different Japanese Islands  Toyotomi Hideyoshi – general, gains power, unifies Japan in 1590  Dreams of expanding the empire, attacks Korea
  10. 10. 1592 and 1597: Korea vs.Japan Hideyoshi attacks Korea Korean Admiral Yi Sun-shin has his 70 foot “turtle boat”  Iron covering, looks like a turtle, has holes for oars and cannons  Sinks hundreds of Japanese vessels, even though the Japanese have the musket from the Portuguese Admiral Yi dies in the attacks, but the Japanese don’t attack again until the 1910s (Japanese invade Manchuria during this time too, but will have to withdraw after losing most of their navy)
  11. 11.  After Hideyoshi’s death,Tokugawa Ieyasu daimyo’s meet under Tokugawa Ieyasu and create the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1603  1603-1867  Bakufu (tent gov’t, implied only temporary gov’t replacement of the emperor’s pwr)  Claims personal ownership to all the lands  Institutes rigid social class, (its Confucian met caste)  Warrior  Farmer  Artisan  merchant  **No Social mobility
  12. 12. Edo Period Tokugawa moves capital from Heian (Kyoto) to Edo (Tokyo) Reversal in attitudes toward Western influence  Christians are persecuted, missionaries expelled  1580s – missionaries voted off the island  1590s – persecution of converts/missionaries begins  1614 – banned the faith ○ Kicked off the island, hunted down and killed ○ Rebellions persist, Christianity becomes and underground faith National Seclusion Policy – Japanese prohibited from traveling abroad and from receiving visitors to Japan  Only exceptions – Korea, China, and Netherlands (Dutch and Nagasaki)
  13. 13. Rationale for Isolation Spain in the Philippines England and Portuguese hassling China When Portuguese come into Japan to negotiate, Japanese kill them on the spot
  14. 14. Isolation is good for the Arts Buddhism and Shinto still influence culture Kabuki theatre Bunraku (puppet plays) Haiku Scrolls, wood-block prints and paintings
  15. 15. South and Southeast Asia Portuguese spearhead exploration, Dutch follow suit Port/Span are zealous missionaries, Brit/Dutch not nearly as zealous Conversions difficult in S and SE Asia… why? Islam has existed for 1000 years Hindu ideas and rituals have existed for over 2000 years Areas of success? ○ Philippines
  16. 16. Effects of Europe on Asia Set up some bases that are new, more powerful, wealthy port cities New trade routes Muslim Trade centers start to decline in value Introduce sea warfare Diffusion causes New food from Americas to enter Asia Silver from Americas pours into Asia Europeans get malaria and dysentary
  17. 17. Asian Reactions Some empires are just too strong and too populated Cultures are too established China and Japan just aren’t interested Missionaries contained Limited trading contacts China stopped trading and allowed Europe to take over “global” (and now actually global) trade Because of isolation… Asia does not keep up with Europeans After 4000 years of technological superiority, European technology surpass Asian technology Fateful, consequential, critical time in history But…does Europe still dominate?

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