Ch 4 greece_and_rome_in_summary


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AP World
Unit II
Classical Greece and Rome

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Ch 4 greece_and_rome_in_summary

  1. 1. AP WorldChapter 4: Greece and RomeGreece: 1750 BCE -133 BCE (Ancient andClassical)Rome: 509 BCE – 476 CE (Classical) The Classical Era is generally noted as spanning from 1000 BCE – 500 CE
  2. 2. Geography Matters
  3. 3. The Minoan Civilization Isle of Crete King Minos Knossos Palace Trading w/Egypt and Mesopotamia Poof! They’re Gone.
  4. 4. Mycenaeans Spread all over Greece – named after their largest city, Mycenae City-states with super thick fortresses Influenced by Egypt and Mesopotamia Linear B
  5. 5. The Trojan War  The Political Side: ◦ Went down ~1250 BCE ◦ Mycenae v. Troy (Troy was in Turkey) ◦ Troy controlled straits that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas ◦ Legend:  Trojan Paris kidnaps Helen of Mycenae, etc. ◦ Result?  Greeks burn Troy to the ground after 10 years of off and on fighting
  6. 6.  After the Trojan war, Mycenaean Civilization crumbles Greece’s dark age ◦ People actually got dumber…okay not quite  Priorities changed  Well, less skilled – they forgot how to write Epic Poems emerge ◦ Illiad and Odyssey (credited to you know who) (750 BCE ish) ◦ Was it all a Myth? No! Heinrich Schliemann
  7. 7. Homer
  8. 8. City-States Acropolis – the high city, that had a marble temple for the gods and goddesses Lower ground – walled main city containing a marketplace, theatre, public buildings, and homes
  9. 9. Athens’ Acropolis
  10. 10. Warfare!  Bronze out, Iron in  Iron is cheaper, so middle class can get armed  Iron helmets, shields, and swords  Phalanx formation – lots of practice
  11. 11. Sparta Spartan government had 2 kings + council of elders who advised them Assembly of “approved” citizens Citizens=male, native-born Spartans who were 30+ 5 ephors – elected officials who handled daily affairs Newborns examined Age 7: military training begins ◦ Move to military barracks ◦ Coarse diet, hard exercise, rigid discipline Age 20: may marry, but must remain in barracks until 30 and eat there until 60 Age 30: more special training, but allowed to join the Assembly
  12. 12. Women Should produce healthy sons Expected to exercise to strengthen Must obey fathers Could inherit property Often ran family estates (b/c men were off at war) Were educated
  13. 13.  Disliked trade and wealth No travel Didn’t bother with new ideas or the arts Other Greek’s perceptions of the Spartans: ◦ “Spartans are willing to die for their city, because they have no reason to live”
  14. 14. Welcome to Athens
  15. 15. Developing a Democracy Athenians continually Limited Rights demand better government system  Male citizens only Will evolve into a democracy  Citizenship Early beginnings restricted include  Slaves restricted Council of 500 ◦ All citizens eligible  BUT…Athenians ◦ Worked on laws had more say than Assembly ◦ Legislative body anywhere else
  16. 16. Women Secluded existence Aristotle: ◦ Women are imperfect beings who lacked the ability to reason as well as men Poorer women
  17. 17. Education(Raphael’s Renaissance Painting of the “School of Athens” – featured in the Vatican) Girls – little to no school Boys – school if families had enough $ ◦ Reading, writing, music, memorizing poetry, public speaking ◦ Military training ◦ Athens encouraged exploration of knowledge
  18. 18. Perception of Non-Greeks Greeks see non-Greeks as “barbaroi” Sense of prideful, defiant uniqueness among the Greek people Phoenicians and Egyptians seen as barbarians ◦ Despite the fact the Greeks borrowed many inventions from them…
  19. 19. Persian War King Darius I – demands gifts of earth and water from powerful Greek city-states Ionia and Athens “Master, remember Athens” Marathon and Themistocles Darius – Xerxes Thermopylae and K. Leonidas Salamis and Themosticles Athens emerges
  20. 20.  Athens and direct democracy ◦ Large number of citizens take direct part in the day-to-day affairs of government ◦ Organizes Delian League ◦ Transfers treasury from Delos to Athens  Uses other city-states’ $ to rebuild Athens
  21. 21. Pericles  Aristocrat who ruled through wisdom and negotiation ◦ Assembly (of 6,000+) met frequently ◦ All male citizens should take part in the government ◦ Stipend given to men in public office (enables poor men to hold public positions) ◦ Jury – male citizens over 30, chosen to serve for a year, receive stipend  Urged expansion of empire to bolster wealth and economy  Funeral Oration – Athenian power rests in the hands “not of a minority but of the whole people”  Hired architects to rebuild Acropolis (Persians had destroyed it)
  22. 22. Peloponnesian War Delian League – Athens and democracy Peloponnesian League – Sparta and oligarchy 27 year battle Pericles – lets rural people retreat within city walls – plague and death of 1/3 Sparta allies with Persia to capture Athens – 404 BCE End of Athenian Domination
  23. 23. Socrates Athenian stonemason and philosopher ◦ Did not record his thoughts ◦ Challenged others with his Socratic Method  Patient examination is a way of seeking truth and knowledge  Methods of questioning seemed threatening to traditions of Athens ◦ Seen as a threat, “corrupting Athenian youth”, ◦ Trial at 70, death by hemlock ◦ Men surpass women in mental and physical tasks, but some talented women should be educated to serve the state
  24. 24. Plato  student of Socrates ◦ Socrates death makes Plato distrust democracy, flees city for 10 years ◦ Emphasized importance of reason ◦ The Republic – describes an ideal state  Gvt should regulate every aspect of its citizens’ lives to provide for their best interests  Society in three classes  Workers to produce necessities of life  Soldiers to defend the state  Philosophers to rule  The wisest of them all “Philosopher King” - ultimate authority ◦ Men surpass women in mental and physical tasks, but some talented women should be educated to serve the
  25. 25.  Plato’s most famous studentAristotle  Developed his own ideas about government  Suspicious of democracy – could lead to mob rule  Favored rule by single, strong, virtuous leader  People out to live with the “golden mean” ◦ Balance between extremes  Created the Lyceum ◦ Study of all branches of knowledge  Politics, ethics, logic, biology, literat ure, and more  The first European universities based courses mainly on Aristotle
  26. 26. Art and Architecture Greek works reflect balance, order, and beauty Architecture ◦ Perfect balance and harmony ◦ Parthenon – temple dedicated to Athena Sculpture and Painting ◦ Transition from rigid poses to natural poses in their most peaceful, graceful form
  27. 27. Historians Herodotus ◦ History should be researched and recorded ◦ Persian War Thucydides ◦ History should be written with as little bias as possible ◦ Peloponnesian War from Athenian perspective
  28. 28. Macedonia Backward, half-civilized region in the N People of Greek origin Philip II of Macedonia ◦ Throne in 359 BCE ◦ Dreamed of conquering prosperous city-states to the south ◦ Built superb army ◦ Threats, bribery, and diplomacy – formed alliances with many Grk city-states ◦ B. of Chaeronea in 338 – defeats Athens and Thebes ◦ Greece is under Philip’s control ◦ Intends to take over Persia ◦ Assassinated at his daughter’s wedding
  29. 29. Alexander the Great  Tutored by Aristotle  Took over at 20 years old  Already experienced and continues his father’s dream  Conquers Asia Minor, Palestine, Babylon, and Egypt  Crossed Hindu Kush into N. India  Soldiers refuse to continue  Returns to Babylon to continue campaign  Dies of a sudden fever  Asks commanders to give the empire “to the strongest” ◦ Macedonia and Greece ◦ Egypt ◦ Persia ◦ For 300 years, their descendants competed for power over the lands Alex had conquered
  30. 30. Legacy Spread Hellenistic Culture far and wide Alexandria, Alexandria, and hmm, Alexandria!! ◦ Alexandria, Egypt – sea lanes between Europe and Asia ◦ Greek architect constructed ◦ Center of learning ◦ Great Museum ◦ Library Blending of eastern and western cultures ◦ Persian wife and clothing Women ◦ Women no longer restricted to their homes ◦ Learned to read and write New Schools ◦ Stoicism – high moral standards, protecting the rights of fellow humans ◦ All people, including women and slaves, were morally equal because all had the power of reason
  31. 31. Don’t forget… Pythagoras Euclid – The Elements Aristarchus (Earth rotates on its axis and orbits the sun) Archimedes (lever and the world) Hippocrates
  32. 32. Rome! Geography Ancestors of Rome – “Latins” – arrived around 800 BCE People in Italy – Etruscans (Greek city-state) ◦ Adapt many things from the Etruscans including their alphabet, arches, and religion
  33. 33. Roman Republic Republic – “thing of the people” – keeps any one person from having too much power Patricians – landholding upper class Plebeians – farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders Consuls Senate Tribunes
  34. 34. Roman Society Family was the basic unit “Pater familias” - Male head of the household had absolute power (was an actual Roman law) Wife was subject to his authority and was expected to be loving, dutiful, dignified, and strong
  35. 35. Women  Roman women had a greater role than Greek women  Ran businesses (small shops to major shipyards)  Most worked at home, raised families, spinning, and weaving  Gained freedom over centuries – patrician women went to public baths, dined out, attended theatre, and entertainment with husbands
  36. 36. Education Boys and girls were educated Most Romans learned to write ◦ Archaeologists even found graffiti on Roman walls Wealthy Romans often hired Greek tutors to supervise and educate their kids ◦ Memorize major events and developments in Roman history Rhetoric important (again the public speaking thing)
  37. 37. Expansion in Italy Romans conquered the Etruscans to the north and Grk city-states to the south By ~270 BCE Romans controlled Italian peninsula How? ◦ Skillful diplomacy + loyal, well-trained army ◦ Legion – military unit of about 5,000 men ◦ All Roman citizens-soldiers who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons ◦ System of rewards and punishments
  38. 38. Conquered Lands  Treated defeated enemies with justice  Those conquered had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for Roman army ◦ Sounds tough, but allowed to keep their own customs, money, and local government  Partial citizenship to some, full citizenship to very few **Generous policies kept conquered lands loyal**
  39. 39.  Soldiers were posted in each conquered area Network of military roads to link territories Latin spreads through trade, travel, etc. Italy slowly unites under Roman rule
  40. 40. WARS WITHCARTHAGERecap – Rome’s taken the Italian peninsulaAs Rome spreads they brush elbows with the Phoenician city of CarthageCarthage ruled trading in N. Africa and W. Mediterranean
  41. 41. PUNIC WARS•264 BCE – 146 BCE•Punic Wars b/c “Punic” is Latin forPhoenician•First Punic War • Rome defeats Carthage and wins Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia•Second Punic War – • Carthage seeks revenge • Hannibal is very sneaky • 218 BCE, Pyrenees, French Alps, and elephants • Results? • Hannibal loses half his army, all but one elephant • Nevertheless, SURPRISE! • 15 years of Hannibal and Carthaginian foolery • But, Rome isn’t captured • And then, Rome gets sneaky too
  42. 42.  Hannibal is tromping around Rome SO, Scipio Africanas and the Romans go tromp around N. Africa and Carthaginian territory Hannibal flees Italy and goes home to defend
  43. 43. So the Punic Wars areover, Right? Not quite. Romans Hold a Grudge Senator Cato “Carthage Must Be Destroyed” Third Punic War – ◦ Rome completely destroys Carthage  Survivors are killed or enslaved  Salt is plowed into the earth Romans now in charge of Western Mediterranean
  44. 44. Roman Imperialism Mare Nostrum “Our Sea” Romans continue imperializing – further establishing control over foreign lands and peoples Rome expanded into the eastern Mediterranean as well Romans fight to take over some of Alex the Great’s old holdings ◦ Macedonia ◦ Greece ◦ Asia Minor (Turkey) ◦ Egypt allies with Rome
  45. 45. Republic to Empire  Julius Caesar ◦ Crosses the Rubicon ◦ Becomes first dictator of Rome ◦ Killed 44 BCE  Octavian – 1st official emperor  33 CE – Crucifixion of Jesus  70 CE – Jewish temple destroyed, Jewish Diaspora begins  Pax Romana “Roman Peace” ◦ 96-180 CE (The 5 good emperors) ◦ Time of tremendous intellectual, technological, and architectural developments  Extensive Empire ◦ N Africa, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Fra nce, all the way up to Hadrian’s Wall (border for Scotland)
  46. 46. Once the Pax Romanaends… The next 100 yrs are full of turmoil and power struggles High taxes placed heavy burdens on the people Farmland was overused and lost its productivity
  47. 47. Diocletian  Divided empire into 2 to make it easier to govern  Wanted to increase emperor’s prestige (purple robes, gold, jewels, “kn eel and kiss”, etc.)  Fixed prices to slow inflation
  48. 48. Constantine Granted toleration to Christianity ◦ Ensured Christianity’s success Built a new capital – Constantinople on the Bosporus Strait (Black and Med. Sea) Rome in the West was declining, but Constantinople in the East was flourishing
  49. 49. Social Causes •Erosion of traditional values •Self-serving upper class •Bread and CircusesMilitary Causes Economic Causes The Decline and•Germanic Invasions •Heavy Taxes•Weakened Roman Legions Fall of Rome •Population Decline Political Causes •Oppressive Government •Corrupt Officials •Divided Empire