Ch 2 ppt early and classical china


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AP World, China, Unit 1, Unit 2, Stearns

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Ch 2 ppt early and classical china

  1. 1. China, China, China AP World Unit 1 and 2 Mrs. Hals
  2. 2. Geography of China Zhongguo – “Middle Kingdom” Extremely isolated Believed China was center of the Earth and the sole source of civilization W and SW – Tien Shan and Himalayas N – Gobi desert E – Pacific Ocean
  3. 3. Nomadic Invaders Provided contact with outside world “barbarians” who “lacked skills of a settled society”
  4. 4. Shang Civlization
  5. 5. China’s river valley civilization The valley along the Huang He (Yellow River) – Irrigation, fertile farming, transportation – “River of Sorrows” - **Controlling the flow of the river was such a large public works project it probably helped lead to the rise of a strong central government** – Loess – fine, windblown, yellow soil carried from Mongolia and Siberia  Loess settles and raises water level  Constant water control issues with dikes and levies – Flooding, bad crops, starvation – Symbol of Misfortune Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria Later Tibet (Xizang)
  6. 6. Shang ~1650 BCE – group called the Shang gain control of N. China Dominate until 1027 BCE Capital city at Anyang, (walled) Shang kings – controlled only a small area – Led noble warriors into battle Loyal princes and nobles governed most of the land – Probably head of “clans” – the groups of families who claim a common ancestor Probably similar to the city-states of Sumer instead of the centralized gvt of the Egyptian pharaohs
  7. 7.  Tombs of Shang rulers – Archaeologists found tomb of Fu Hao the wife of Wu Ding, a Shang king – Artifacts show Fu owned land and lead an army against invaders – **suggests noblewomen had considerable status during the Shang period
  8. 8. Social Classes Royal family and class of noble warriors – Leather armor, bronze weapons, horse-drawn chariots Early Chinese cities support a class of artisans and merchants – Artisans – produced goods for nobles  (bronze weapons, silk robes, jade jewelry) – Merchants – exchanged food and crafts made by local artisans  Salt, cowrie shells, and other goods not in NE China Peasants – majority of Shang China – Farming villages, grueling lives, stone tools, maintaining dikes – Men pledged allegiance to their noble lords
  9. 9. Religious Beliefs Complex religious beliefs Many gods and spirits of nature Shang Di (top god) + mother goddess who brought plants and animals to Earth – King is link between people and Shang Di – Shang Di wouldn’t respond to mortal pleas, only spirits of the greatest mortals would relay pleas to Shang Di (like ancestors’ spirits)  Prayers for victory in war, good harvests, etc.  Offer sacrifices of food to the ancestors Yin and Yang – – Yin = Earth, darkness, and female forces – Yang = Heaven, light, and male forces – Delicate balance must be maintained
  10. 10. Writing Oracle Bones – Heating of animal bones or turtle shells to interpret cracks, answers a question posed to an ancestor Chinese characters – Characters represent different word or idea – 10,000 characters – yikes!! – Calligraphy – Spoken languages vary, but written language is the same
  11. 11. Zhou Dynasty 1029 BCE people of Zhou overthrow the Shang 1029 BCE – 258 BCE – Zhou Dynasty – Peaked ~700 BCE Mandate of Heaven – idea that divine right to rule is decided by the gods – Zhou promote this idea, claiming the last Shang king had been so cruel that he enraged the gods, so the gods sent ruin to him and passed the Mandate of Heave to the Zhou – Mandate of Heaven will later be used to explain dynastic cycle – Floods, famine, and natural catastrophe are signs that a dynasty has lost favor
  12. 12. Feudalism Zhou reward supporters by giving them control of specific regions Local lords govern their own lands in return for military service and support to the ruler – Peasants that live on a lord’s land owe him military serce
  13. 13. Zhou Economics China’s economy grew Ironworking arrived ~500 BCE Iron axes and plows replace stone, wood, and bronze – Increases food production New crops - soybeans Feudal lords organize large-scale irrigation works – Increases food production Commerce expanded – Begin using money – copper coins (with holes so they could be strung) – make trade easier – New roads and canals increase trade
  14. 14. Increasing population and prosperity Economic expansion = increase in population Huang He people overflow into central China – head to the Yangzi basin Feudal nobles expand territories – Encourage peasants to settle the conquered lands
  15. 15. Accomplishments Develop a 365.25 day calendar Silkmaking – Silk thread is made from the cocoons of silk worms – Women did the laborious work – Wove threads into a smooth cloth – Dyed cloth with bright colors – Became China’s most valuable export – Silk Road link China and Middle East First Books – Book of Songs – poems about the lives of farming and harvests, praises of kings, descriptions of court ceremonies, tender and sad
  16. 16. Accomplishments Territory expanded (when Huang He people overflowed and moved outward) – Huanghe to Yangtze – “Middle Kingdom” Rich agriculture with two different crops – Wheat (N) – Rice (S) Greater cultural unity – Promoted linguistic unity  Mandarin Chinese **largest group of people speaking the same language in the world at this time – Tried to limit primitive religious practices (human sacrifice) – Encourage more limited ceremonies to worship gods (less human sacrifice)
  17. 17. Decline of the Zhou Ruler was too weak to control feudal lords – System relied on loyalties and allegiance between the king and feudal lords – Regional disloyalties allows conflict to erupt, Zhou’s power is weakened – Regional groups unify to work against Zhou Frequently invaded by nomadic peoples A new leader will emerge
  18. 18. Era of the Warring States 402 BCE – 201 BCE – Zhou’s system falls apart – Regional ruler deposes the last Zhou emperor and makes himself the soul leader of China – Qin Shi Huangdi
  19. 19. Confucius  Born 551 BCE to a poor family  Buddha and Socrates  The Analects  Philosophy focused on worldly goals, how to emphasize social order and good government  Studied ancient text, explored the court, and taught
  20. 20.  Confucian Principles: Five Relationships – observing the five brings order and stability – Father to son – Elder brother to younger brother – Husband to wife – Ruler to subject – Friend to friend  Except for friendship, none of the relationships are equal  Inferiors owe loyalty and obedience to their superiors Filial Piety – Respect for parents above all other duties Honesty, hard work, and concern for others – “Do not do to others, what you do not wish yourself” Government – Ruler has responsibility to provide good government – Ruler should be virtuous and lead by good example – People owe respect and loyalty
  21. 21.  Confucius’ view of women: – Men were superior to women – Woman’s duty to ensure stability of the family and promote harmony in the home – Correct behavior brings order and stability
  22. 22. Long lasting effects During the centuries after Confucius’ death, his ideas influenced every area of Chinese life Rulers rely on Confucian ideas and select Confucian scholars as officials Emphasis on filial piety bolstered traditional customs (like reverence for ancestors) Chinese civilization spread out – Hundreds of millions of Koreans, Japanese, and Vietnamese adopt some of the Confucian philosophies
  23. 23. Legalism - Hanfeizi  Hanfeizi – died 233 BCE  “nature of man is evil. His goodness is acquired”  Greed motivates most actions  Strict laws and harsh punishments – Only way to achieve order  Strength, not goodness, is a leader’s greatest virtue – “the ruler alone possesses power, wielding it like lightning or thunder”  Many feudal rulers become legalist rulers
  24. 24. Daoism Founded by Laozi “Old Master” Credited for writing The Way of Virtue – This book greatly influenced Chinese life Daoism sought to live in harmony with nature – Instead of trying to bring order to human affairs How does one find the Dao? – Dao = “the way” of the universe – “Those who know the Dao do not speak of it, Those who speak of it do not know it” Rejected conflict and strife – End conflict between human desires and the simple ways of nature Be like water – Yielding, yet an unstoppable force Government – Unnatural and the cause of many problems – “If people are difficult to govern, it is because those in authority are too fond of action” – Best government governs the least
  25. 25. Daoism and the People Evolves into a popular religion with gods, goddesses, and magical practices Peasants turn to Daoist priests for charms to protect them from unseen forces Confucian and Daoist teachings blend – Confucianism shows how to behave – Daoism influences view of natural world
  26. 26. Buddhism in China By 100 CE Mahayana Buddhism had spread from India into China Chinese struggle with some aspects of Buddhism, but it steadily gains popularity – Chinese valued family loyalty, but Buddhism honored monks and nuns who gave up family life for solitary meditation Buddhism offered escape from suffering, hope of eternal happiness, Buddha’s image as a compassionate, merciful god Ability for anyone to pray, commit good works, and devotion and you could hope to gain salvation By 400 CE Buddhism spear throughout China and absorbed many Confucian and Daoist traditions Chinese Buddhist monks stressed filial piety and honored Confucius
  27. 27. Shi Huangdi ~221 BCE the Zhou’s were overthrown by Zheng who named himself “Shi Huangdi” or “First Emperor” Spent 20 years conquering most of the warring states Centralized power with the help of his Legalist advisers – Rewarded merit, punished failure Built a strong, authoritarian government for the Qin dynasty
  28. 28. To unify China… Shi Huangdi abolished feudalism Replaced feudal states with 36 military districts and appointed loyal officials to administer them Sent inspectors to spy on local officials and report back to him Forced noble families to live at Xianyang, the capital, so he could monitor them Distributed the lands (of the nobles he just forced to move to the capital) to the peasants Peasants had to pay high taxes to support the armies and building projects
  29. 29. Promoting unity  Standardized weights and measures  Unified coins with Qin coins  Scholars created uniformity in Chinese writing  Workers repaired and extended roads and canals (strengthened transportation sys.)  Law required cart axles to be the same width to help with rut issues
  30. 30. Don’t disagree! Jailed, tortured, and killed those opposing his rule Feudal nobles and Confucian scholars suffer Book burning campaign destroyed literature and philosophy pieces – Only medicine and agriculture accounts were spared
  31. 31. The Great Wall of China
  32. 32.  Most remarkable and costly achievement All the walls built by individual feudal states were ordered to be joined Hundreds of thousands of laborers worked years, creating an almost 25 foot high wall, with a road on top wide enough to serve as a road Wall extended and rebuilt over centuries, now snakes for thousands of miles across northern China Didn’t keep out all invaders, but did show the emperor’s ability to mobilize the vast resources of China Great Wall became a symbol of protection and division from the nomadic barbarians
  33. 33. A new era When Shi Huangdi died ~210 BCE revolts erupt Anger over heavy taxes, forced labor, and cruel policies Liu Bang emerges, claims Mandate of Heaven, take the title of Gao Zu – An illiterate peasant leader – Works to restore order and justice
  34. 34. Built mainly underground, carved out of low mountain top (according to legend), the construction itself took 700,000 prisoners of war and slaves over 36 years to constructand covers approximately four square miles. The as-yet-unearthed palace is reputedly of legendary grandeur.
  35. 35. Liu Bang  Continues efforts to unify China  Lowered taxes  Eased harsh policies  Appointed Confucian scholars as advisors  Creates a strong foundation for the Han dynasty ~206 BCE – 220 CE
  36. 36. Wudi Strengthened the government and economy by choosing Confucian advisors Improved canals and roads (helped economic growth) Built granaries to stabilize supply of grain – Gvt would buy grain when it was abundant and store it to sell at stable prices when it was scarce Imposed monopoly on salt and iron – The sale of these products gave gvt an income supplemental to taxes
  37. 37.  Expansionism – increased territory Fought battles to expand China’s borders Drove nomadic peoples back beyond the Great Wall Created Chinese outposts in Manchuria, Korea, N. Vietnam, Tibet, and Central Asia – Soldiers would slowly spread Chinese influence there
  38. 38. Silk Road Wudi opened up a trade route between China and the west Grapes, figs, cucumbers, and walnuts were new foods introduced to China Furs from Central Asia, muslin from India, glass from Rome 4,000 miles long, China to the Fertile Crescent Relayed trade in stages Persians monitored trade at the western end
  39. 39.  Han emperors made Confucianism the official belief system of the state Well educated scholars ran the bureaucratic government, scholars were sent to a university at Xian to prepare Scholar-officials were like gentlemen, – courteous, dignified, history, music, poetry, and Confucian teachings Civil Service Examination – Positions to be given based on merit and qualifications – Given on local, provincial, and national levels – Confucian classics, histories, poems, and handbooks on customs – Open to anyone, but really only to those who had time to study  Sometimes rich families would pay for brilliant peasant boys to study  Women’s place in the “5 relationships” kept them from being allowed to take the exams – Confucian influence continued for over 2,000 years
  40. 40. Collapse of the Han Empire Ability to control powerful warlords and local military leaders diminished Canals and roads fell into disrepair with weak emperors Heavy taxes and crushing debt = revolts “Red Eyebrows” and “Green Woodsmen” – Thousands of peasants became members of secret rebellion groups who fled their villages and hid in the mountains 220 CE warlords overthrew the last Han emperor – China broke up into several kingdoms Invaders poured over the Great Wall and set up their own states
  41. 41. Accomplishments Golden Age Achievements – Science  Invented a seismograph  Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology, botany, astronomy – Medicine  Herbal remedies and anesthetics  acupuncture – Technology  Made durable paper out of wood pulp (still used today)  Advanced methods of shipmaking w/ rudder for steering  Wheel barrows  Suspension bridges
  42. 42. The Arts Beautiful wooden temples Jade and ivory carvings Ceramic figures Bronzeworkers and silkmakers
  43. 43.  Han rulers created an empire about the size of the United States During the Han dynasty Chinese officials established the pattern of government that would survive until 1912