Between the Wars


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Between the Wars

  1. 1. Between the Wars1920s and 1930sGermany, Italy, and Spain
  2. 2. Mussolini• Forms Fascist party in1919• “Il Duce” – the leader• Blackshirts terrorize andcontrol opposition• 1922 appointed PrimeMinister when hethreatens to march onRome• “The Country is NothingWithout Conquest”– Roman EmpireWannabe– Wants Mediterraneanto be Mare Nostrumagain– Wants lands on theAdriatic back fromYugoslavia(irredenta)• 1935 – gets Ethiopia(revenge at last)
  3. 3. Il Duce’s Italy• Suppressed rival parties, muzzled thepress, rigged elections and replacedelected officials with Fascist support• Critics thrown into prison, exiled ormurdered• Secret police and propaganda bolster theregime• Preserved capitalism, but workersforbidden to strike, wages very low• “Believe! Obey! Fight!”• Youth groups toughen kids and teach themstrict military discipline– Taught about glories of ancient Rome– March in parades, sing hymns and chants,“Mussolini is always right”• Women asked to “win the battle ofmotherhood”– 14 kids and you get a medal!
  4. 4. Fascism• An authoritarian (non-communism) government thatemphasizes extreme nationalism and glorifies violence,discipline and blind loyalty to the state• Bundle of sticks around an axe - “fasces”• Antidemocratic – democracy leads to corruption andweakness, allows individual or class interests to riseabove national goals• Aggressive foreign expansion– “survival of the fittest”, dominance and war are necessary forsurvival• Sworn enemies of communists– Fascism – support comes from business leaders, wealthylandowners, and lower middle class– Communism – support comes from urban and agriculturalworkers
  5. 5. Appeal of fascism?• Promises a strong, stable government andend to political feuding that had paralyzeddemocracy• National pride
  6. 6. Totalitarian Rule• Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin:– Single party dictatorship– State control of economy– Use of police spies and terror toenforce the will of the state– Strict censorship and governmentmonopoly of the media– Use of schools and media toindoctrinate and mobilize citizens– Unquestioning obedience to asingle leader
  7. 7. 1920’s Inflation in Germany• Weimar Republic• Print money tosolve economicproblems• Desire for strongerleaders
  8. 8. Hitler• Adolf• 1919 National Socialist GermanWorkers Party (aka Nazi Party)– Nazism – fascism shaped withfanatical German nationalismand racial superiority• Mein Kampf and Aryan race• 1932 – Nazi’s gain majority inReichstag• 1933 -- Hindenburg appoints Hitlerchancellor– Suspends freedom of speechand press– Brownshirts/stormtrooperssilence opposition• 1934 – Hindenburg dead, Hitler“Der Fuhrer”
  9. 9. Der Fuhrer• Begins rearming• Hires unemployed workers for public works projects– Massive public buildings– Autobahn• 1936 – Depression ends in Germany• Germany needs more living space– Militarize Rhineland in 1936• Axis powers agreed between Berlin and Rome• 1938 Anschluss realigned (most Austrians welcomethem) – Sound of Music!• Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain, and Appeasements“peace in our time!”
  10. 10. Facts about the Nazi Party inGermany• According to Joseph Goebbels in anofficial explanation of Nazism, thesynthesis of the words nationalism andsocialism was to "counter theInternationalism of Marxism with thenationalism of a German Socialism". –wikipedia• Heil Hitler + salute = borrowed from Italianfascists
  11. 11. The Nazi Party• Wermacht – German military (defend + power/force) –20 million from 1935-1945; 2.2 million in 1945– Army – Heer– Navy – Kriegsmarine– Airforce - Luftwaffe• SA – Sturmabteilung – Storm Division – Brownshirts – 3million men; superceded by SS after 1934’s LongKnives Night• SS – Stchutzstaffel - Protection Squad, formed in 1925,led by Heinrich Himmler– Numbered at about 1 million men; most loyal;headed up divisions of the military– Waffen-SS – group dedicated to racial superiority;Order of the Death’s Head– SS ran the security service (SD), secret state police(Gestapo), criminal investigative police (Kripo), andregular uniformed police (orpo)
  12. 12. On to war!• March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland ifinvaded• Aug 1939 – Hitler and Stalin agree to a ten yearNon-Aggression Pact (secret document attachedabout how to divide up E. Europe)• Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland– Blitzkrieg, Poland down in a month, Holocaust beginsin Poland– Stalin seizes E. half of Poland• Sept. 3, 1939, Br and Fr declare war onGermany
  13. 13. Spanish Civil War• Nationalism group rises topower led by Franco• Nationalists v. Republicans• Nationalists – supported byGermany and Italy• Republicans supported bySoviets and InternationalBrigade• Nationalists take Madrid,Franco rules from 1939-1975