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Crime Rates And Gathering Intelligence Information
In an attempt to reduce crime rates and gather intelligence information in a specific area, and due in
part to the continuing advancements in surveillance technologies, the law enforcement community
has opted to employ these systems. Overwhelmingly, a consensus amongst the population agrees
police officers should be held accountable for their action through continuous monitoring during
their on duty hours (CBS News New York 2015). Furthermore, demand from the public to become
knowledgeable in all events, public or private, has added pressure in the suggestion of increased
intelligence based technologies. With final regard to the judicial system itself, an increased push for
the release of information that may not have been previously available to the public, like testimony
presented before the Grand Jury, is being seen from attorneys. Additionally, violent and shocking
acts like domestic abuse or shootings are being released and made public through a number of media
sources. The continued release of sensitive information adds to public scrutiny regarding their safety
and security, which may serve to change not only the entire criminal and judicial systems, but once
the implications of continued surveillance become realized, human behavior.
The expansion of surveillance technologies has forced police departments to consider which
measures to deploy. The application of the measures must be weighed carefully against what the
public desires, the legality of the measure, and what
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Boots On The Ground Analysis
Actually Jeffery, the colorful and expressive idiom "boots on the ground" was coined by U.S. Army
General Volney F. Warner (circa 1980) in which to designed ground forces in close physical contact
with the land operation and actions at hand (i.e., security defense maneuvers, surveillance
intelligences functions, or combat operations), to distinguish from detached military actions as
interval air and naval support utilizing their long–range intervention capability. However, as many
terms often interchangeably cross–over into other profession with a slightly different contextual
meaning to them, this also applies in this case where civilian law enforcement will typically
amongst themselves use this same term, "boots on the ground", to mean actually ... Show more
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First, one has to remember that dissenter rancher, Cliven Bundy, raised an important statehood
question during the hair–raising show–down between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and
the armed citizen militia supporting the cattle rancher. Originally Bundy was legitimately and
faithfully paying grazing fees to Clark County, but that the county stopped accepting his payments.
Bundy's legal claim is that Nevada State, not the U.S. government, owns the land where his cattle
where grazing next to his family's homesteaded ranch property for nearly a century even before
BLM was ever created. The legal argument before the courts, and presently fully accepted by
Nevada's own State Government, is that federal government was legally in control of every territory
before it became a state, but once statehood was reached, the majority of land rightly becomes the
property of the new state. Presently, the federal government has not pursued any further legal issue
or any overture governmental response concerning the Bundy's standing, and quietly in the
background is a state movement to ensure the Federal Government's monopolizing 85 percent
control of Nevada is fairly proportionally diminished and given to the state as rightfully due. Some
could say that the Bundy standoff incident was the historical and productive apex needed to get the
ball rolling in
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Theories Of Crime Analysis Spring
Marshawn Walker
Theories of Crime Analysis Spring
August 30, 2015
Types of Policing
Policing is to regulate, control, or keep in order with a law enforcement agency or other official
group. It is a job done every minute of every hour of everyday by men and women willing to risk
their health and life. To make the job easier different styles or types of policing methods have been
developed. Some of the most influential types of policing include community oriented policing,
problem oriented policing and intelligence led policing. Community oriented policing or community
policing, is a policing strategy that focuses on working closely with and building ties with members
of the community. Community policing involves the use of partnerships between municipal
agencies, businesses, individual citizens, non–profit groups and the media in order to develop
methods to police the community. It requires police to take a proactive approach to address public
safety concerns. Community policing covers a variety of philosophical and practical approaches and
is still evolving rapidly. Community policing strategies vary depending on the needs and responses
of the communities involved; however, certain basic principles and considerations are common to
all community policing efforts. Today 's community policing has its origins in the 1960s. The 1960s
saw its fair share of urban riots and gang activity. Police often responded to these criminal actions
with brute force, and the
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Diversity In Law Enforcement
Diversity in the police and sheriff's department is key to good community policing. A diverse police
force could help to decrease the sense that individuals or being stopped or question primarily based
on their sex, race, religion, or many other factors. The Diversity of the department is to reflect the
population in the community the officer took an oath to protect and serve. This diversely includes
Minority groups, background, ethnicity, race, and sex.
Racial assortment in law–enforcement is important part in starting a positive reform against race
wars. While trying to attract certain minorities it is essential to understand they might be reluctant
because of the recent police brutality against minorities.
Community policing is focusing
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Trends And Aspects Of Policing Models
Trends in Policing Models Due to the ever–changing political climate and needs of the community,
policing models frequently change (McElvain, Kposowa, & Gray 2012, 1). During the periods of
enactment, numerous policing models served specific purposes but would quickly become outdated
due to research or differing approaches to problem solving. Researchers McElvan, Kposowa, and
Gray introduce a number of past policing models that have become outdated. Introduced around the
mid–1900s the Professional model sought to fight corruption within the police culture and asked
officers to gather facts and nothing more. The effectiveness of the strategy was based upon crime
statistics and response times to calls (Ibid, 1). Over the years, policing models have gone through
periods of evolution and reform, leading to the establishment of numerous modes by either law
enforcement agencies or universities. In time, the Professional model was transformed by public
criticism of the police being out of touch with the public they were serving. The new model required
a different approach–one that humanized police officers. Beginning in the 1980's, Community
Policing, heavily relying upon a partnership from law enforcement agencies and public partnership,
grew in popularity. The researchers theorize the policing initiative was developed to strengthen
community relations, specifically those with underprivileged minority communities. The idea was to
re–humanize the police force from the
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Law Enforcement Intelligence Paper
The field of law enforcement all retain a common purpose: to protect citizens and enforce the laws
passed at the local, state and federal level of government. In order to achieve this common goal, law
enforcement agencies, regardless of size, must have the capacity to understand the importance of
intelligence collection, analysis, and intelligence sharing. Each agency, from the lowest to the
highest level, must establish a systematic mechanism to receive and process intelligence as well as
to report and share critical information with other law enforcement agencies. In this paper, we will
discuss some of the similarities and differences of federal, state and local law enforcement
intelligence activities and why these deviations exist, as well as why it is important that law
enforcement agencies develop lines of communication at all levels. Many of the current differences
we see today between the federal, state and local law enforcement intelligence stemmed from prior
to the September 11 attack. Prior to this attack many states lacked a robust intelligence capability, as
it was the primary role of federal agencies to protect the United States from both foreign and
domestic terrorist threats. In an attempt to mitigate future attacks of this nature state, local, and ...
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It is very important that each echelon understands one another limitations and roles and
responsibilities in the greater scheme of domestic and national intelligence. Despite increased
communication between local law enforcement and federal intelligence agencies, problems can arise
relating to coordination and cooperation because the two communities possess different rules,
objectives, different sources and methods, and different standards regarding the quality of
intelligence they
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What Is Predictive Technology In Law Enforcement
Over the course of the last two decades, intelligence led policing has made a major impact on law
enforcement. As its usage has emerged, two sides have formed regarding the implementation of this
controversial technology. Proponents of this strategy, including law enforcement agencies and
technology companies, have backed the efficient and effective nature of predictive policing. Critics
of the technology claim that policing tactics such as predictive algorithms and hotspot monitoring
have created more problems than they have solved, and that they have placed a wall between law
enforcement and the public. As high–tech crime and cyber–terrorism efforts in the United States
continue to rise, questions are being raised over what public transparency ... Show more content on
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In an article by Sidney Perkowitz, titled "Should we trust predictive policing software to cut
crime?", Perkowitz questions the integrity of predictive technology and its effect on crime. She
mentions that PredPol is one of the only software companies that currently reports comprehensive
statistics regarding their effect on crime. Nevertheless, while the numbers reported by the company
present its software as a success in cities like Los Angeles, the information is generated by the
company itself and is therefore unreliable. In cities like Chicago, where independent studies have
been conducted, the results were not as promising. The results showed that the software did not
reduce the number of homicides committed, nor did it lower the chances of shooting victimization.
Additionally, similar studies in Shreveport, Louisiana have concluded that the software currently
being used is not having a significant effect on the property crime rate (Perkowitz, 2016). Perkowitz
is insisting that there is not enough evidence to back the effectiveness of predictive software in
reducing crime rates. In addition, because of the cases in which predictive software did not affect
crime, positive trends in cities like Los Angeles are not representative of the rest of the
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Intelligence Led Policing
The new aged concept of intelligence–led policing seems to be the ultimate answer for advancing
criminal activity leading the United States. Everything new though, comes with its fair share of
disadvantages and challenges. Some of the disadvantages argued against using this predicative
method of policing includes the argument of limited resources, political pressure, information
management, data overload, data quality, and adaptation (Casady, 2011 p. 10). Reporting indicates
that there is a growing public need for information. The increasing fragmentation of the community,
fear and insecurity and the growth of the risk society have generated a massive requirement for
increased security and knowledge contributing to political pressure, along ... Show more content on
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5). Intelligence is not the information collected; it is the finished production of the collected data
after it has been evaluated and analyzed. More often than not, predictive policing is misunderstood.
The misunderstanding lies on both over emphasizing its capabilities and under estimating how
predictive policing can help make the community a safer place. In addition to the misunderstanding
of this practice of policing, it is often a challenge for law enforcement to stay parallel to the crime
trend, and patterns. It is argued that instead of working with information collected to anticipate new
crimes, policing officers' preference locations where known crimes have already been committed
(Casady, 2011, p. 2). Although effective, this is not an accurate practice of intelligence–led policing,
as it does not fully account for future crimes and activities.
In addition, to the assessed challenges already listed, is the concern with potential ethical issues that
surround intelligence–led policing. A valid argument is that the predictive nature of intelligence–led
policing mirrors an awful lot of the police profiling aspect and may lead to the violations of civil
liberties. As new technology is developed and utilized it is important to discuss the ethical
implications of utilizing
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Community Oriented Policing Case Study
After carefully evaluating research relating to some of the issues within the Lancaster County
Sheriff's Office, I choose community oriented policing because I believe this is a more achievable
top short–term goal. I selected this particular topic because I believe by implementing an effective
strategic plan for community oriented policing, the citizens as well as the Lancaster County Sheriff's
Office will come together to identify and resolve issues that have been effecting the livelihood of the
entire community for decades now. In addition, other areas like diversity issues, public relations,
training and positive leadership by first–line supervisors.
In my opinion, recruiting, selecting and retaining law enforcement officers are the
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The Usa 's Act Of 2015
2012 (Donahue, 2014, pp. 180–181). These changes and others to the USA PATRIOT Act were
made in the USA Freedom Act of 2015.
Perhaps the most important change in how the federal government was reorganized after September
11th is the creation of both the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) position and the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) in 2004 with the passage of the same IRTPA that created
TSA. This concept had been first suggested in 1955 after a study by Congress then and was
recommended time and again but only became a reality after the September 11th attacks drove the
need for major intelligence reform home and the 9/11 Commission continued the push for the
creation of such a position (ODNI, n.d., paras. 1–5). As one can see from the mission and vision of
the ODNI, the importance cannot be overstated. The mission includes leading intelligence
integration while having the IC produce the most insightful intelligence products possible and the
vision is fully integrating the IC thus making the nation more secure (ODNI, n.d., paras. 1–2).
As we have seen throughout the entire history of warfare, ancient world terrorism, political intrigue
and elitist terrorism of the middle ages, and into modern terrorism, intelligence is of vital
importance on both sides. Armed forces have always used intelligence of some form be it sneaking
up a hill and scouting what is on the other side to the use of modern platforms such as
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Counter-Terrorism And Intel-Led Policing
An important element of counter–terrorism is intel–led policing that focuses on gathering
intelligence. In the UK they have used community policing and intel–led policing together because
these strategies complement each other by helping gather more intelligence, than if they did just one
by itself (Hughes & Rowe, 2007). Intelligence is extremely important to gather about the Islamic
culture and community to have a productive relations, this intelligence includes any conflicts the
community may be having, the religious aspect of the community, the differences of Shia and Sunni,
how geographically present they are in certain neighborhoods and many other aspects of Islamic
communities need to be known. It is difficult it is to gain accurate intelligence from people who
don't trust you (Virta, 2008). Trust with the community can greatly help against counter–terrorism
(Demos, 2007). The police must be the ones who reach out and to the communities they have poor
relationships with. When there are communities that have no communication and or collaboration
with the police it makes it a safe zone for terrorist cells and recruitment. When there isn't
intelligence coming from the community the police don't have many other options than using ...
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These community partnerships have been with the leaders of the Muslim communities, which has
included leaders of Mosques. Allowing the police to get to know the Muslim community can reduce
suspicion and fear for both groups and support communication and support. Community policing
uses problem solving methods that can greatly support
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Technology And Law Enforcement Agencies
Both private and public law enforcement agencies use technologies to help them prevent, deter,
investigate, and imprison criminals. Technologies have helped law enforcement agencies to reduce
crime rates within their assigned sector. Without technologies, crime rate won't be as low as it is
now. All criminals have one similar fear, and that is getting caught and imprison by law enforcement
officers. FUTURETech are technologies that law enforcement agencies use nowadays to assist them
in fighting crime. As time goes by and the criminals become smarter by finding ways to not get
caught by law enforcement technologies, so as law enforcement technologies involve each time.
Crime is becoming more mobile and sophisticated. Criminals easily move around, both nationally
and internationally, use better equipment and technology, and are increasingly better at covering
their crimes. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
FUTURETech also are beneficial to the partnership of both private and public law enforcement
agencies. Nowadays there are a lot of different technologies law enforcement officials use to help
them solve crime and to share information. "Mobile technologies bring a new sense of immediacy
and accuracy to intelligence gathering that can further empower officers. Sharing information
interactively at the crime scene enables real–time analysis and investigation and, most importantly,
captures suspect information while it is fresh in the minds of victims and witnesses. Once a suspect
is identified, mobile devices can be used check photographic, voice or fingerprint biometric details,
as well as confirming the suspect's identity with the victims and witnesses" (n.d.,
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What Impact Did 9 / 11 Have On Policing Essay
1) What impact did 9/11 have on policing, and what relationship does it have with the four eras of
policing?
September 11, 2001 showed that there were weaknesses in communication and emergency response.
It also significantly changed the role police have with the prevention of terrorist acts. As Oliver
stated, "... policing in the post–September 11 environment is not only a response to the specific
events...but also an amalgam of change brought about by various political, economic, and social
factors in the United States..." (Homeland Security for Policing, 2007, p. 43).
Post September 11, Americans made the massive movement towards anti–terrorism. After the
attacks, President George W. Bush created the Department of Homeland Security to help protect the
citizens from terrorists. On that note as well, this counterterrorism move impacted law enforcement
as well. Their roles grew from community law enforcement to proactively mitigating terrorist
activities and intelligence gathering.
Of course, it took a while for the police to work themselves up to count terrorism agents. At the very
beginning of policing (Political Era), there were not standardized roles for law enforcement officers.
They became well rounded by helping with "...a broad array of services from dealing with criminals,
to keeping immigrant workers in line, and running soup kitchens..." (Oliver, 2007, p. 46). Which
may seem all good, but there was a major flaw in this system. It wasn't the officers who dictated
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Intelligence Agency : The Intelligence Bureau ( Ib ) And...
Intelligence philosophers such as Sun Tzu, Kautilya and Machiavelli have stressed on the
importance of strategic intelligence for the security of a nation and the history across the world is
evident with its prime examples. Such is also the case of India and in this presentation we will be
examining some key historic Indian events and their impact on the country's two foremost
intelligence agencies – the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).
Towards the end we will also consider the influence of such events on the future of Indian
intelligence.
Established in 1887, branded as the Central Special Branch up to 1903 and then as the Department
of Intelligence until 1920, the IB's primary function back then was to provide political and religious
intelligence across British India (Mahadevan, 2012, p. 28). The British assigned its British–Indian
military intelligence agencies with external intelligence but interestingly, post India's independence
in 1947, the IB was entrusted with this duty therefore making it the country's foreign and national
intelligence agency between 1947 and 1968 (Melson, 2006).
Unable to meet the inflated demands by policy makers back in the 1960's, IB was accused of
intelligence failure as India faced an awkward loss at the Sino–Indian War of 1962 against China
followed by Pakistan's surprise intrusion in 1965 over the disputed region of Kashmir. Given the
defensive personality of the country's national security system, the
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Community Oriented Policing Essay
Community oriented policing is a policing method in which officers engage with the members in
area they are assigned to patrol. Foot patrol is an essential component of community oriented
policing which allows for officers to overhear concerns or plans (Wetzel, 2012). Foot patrol also
allows an intimate approach with the neighborhood. This intimate interaction allows for a
connection to be formed which allows for intelligence gathering (Wetzel, 2012). With this increased
connection with the community, officers are more likely to learn about new member in the
community who are different. Community Oriented Policing is an effective tool readily available to
combat terrorism.
Community–oriented policing is effective ,but its implementation has been reduced. Community–
oriented policing funds were reduced because of September 11, 2001. "The events of September 11
and the subsequent concern for national security have justifiably shifted the priorities of policing"
(Murray, 2005, p247). The 'war on terror' would shift away from community–oriented policing and
would reignite traditional policing methods ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Counterterrorism method utilized are often aggressive, aggressive policing methods typically incite
additional violence on top of what law enforcement is attempting to combat (Brown, 2007).
Community–oriented policing in contrast is a gentler approach the focuses on crime reduction which
differs from that of standard policing methods which attempt to establish law and order.
Community–oriented policing promotes less violence which can lead to a collaborative
environment. Combative counterterrorism methods foster an uncooperative environment where
those who could be an assent develop a mistrust and establish roadblock to combat terrorism
(Brown 2007). These two methods conflict but each give out what is put in aggression promotes
aggression while collaboration yields
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Reflective Essay On Adult Education
Deputy Sheriff, training officer, instructor, adjunct faculty, these are but a few of the hats that I wear
in my daily interactions within the world of Adult Education. As a veteran law enforcement officer I
was first introduced to adult education, after several years I would find myself on the other side of
the podium. After serving as a field training officer for rookie's graduation from Basic Law
Enforcement Training (BLET) I would take on the additional role of teaching in the BLET program
itself. The route I have followed to adult education is unique and non–traditional compared to my
peers within the EdS program here at Appalachian State University. I have completed both my
Bachelors and Masters degrees as an adult within the past ten years while working full–time. I
currently teach several blocks of the BLET program as well as several sections of the Student
Success course on the campus of Davidson County Community College.
I believe that the purpose of adult education programs is to foster the growth of the non–traditional
student population. Students who have either been displaced or chosen to return to college for a
variety of reasons. It is critical that we, as instructors and administrators, realize that each of these
students may learn in a different manner. We must take into account known strategies such as
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences as we design and deliver courses within our chosen fields. I for one
am primarily a very kinesthetic learner, and learn
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Community Policing Approach
Police departments use Community Policing approach because it enables police officers to engage in
problem solving. In community policing, the police and the community work together to identify
issues, address the underlying causes, to choose the right solutions to the issues, then evaluate its
effectiveness (Ortmeier, 2006). Unlike traditional policing which is reactive and incident–driven,
community policing focus on problem solving in addressing disorder.
Throughout the years, community policing has evolved and created a new dimension called
Intelligence Led Policing. Ever since U.S. has shifted its focus on counterterrorism, there were
concerns how counterterrorism will be integrated with community policing. A close working
relationship between the police and the community was perhaps the solution because a good
relationship ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Both community policing and intelligence led policing rely on information management, two–way
communication with the public, scientific data analysis, and problem solving (Carter, 2004).
However, ILP operates in a different manner using intelligence analysis through the intelligence
process. ILP also gathers scientific data for threat management as well as problem–solve to
reconcile factors that are signs to potential targets and trafficking of illegal products (Carter, 2004).
ILP have been proven to be effective in either reducing or preventing crime. ILP enables law
enforcement agencies to gather raw information and transform it into useful intelligence to prevent
or reduce crimes. This showed in the 2008 report of Bureau of Justice Assistance report entitled
"Reducing Crime Through Intelligence–Led Policing". In the report, there were about ten police
departments; each had their own problems. These departments used ILP in order to improve and
address their problems. Two departments will be discussed
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Tactical Intelligence Research Paper
Intelligence can have many meanings depending on how you use it, but it is a common mistake to
mix up intelligence as synonymous with information. This is wrong as, information is not
intelligence, which has caused the misuse of the phrase "collecting intelligence" instead of
"collecting information." Intelligence is a structure, a process and a product. In most police services,
the intelligence unit or section is a recognized internal organization with people, skills, methods and
an organizational structure. Although intelligence may be collected by and shared with intelligence
agencies and bureaus, field operations generally collect information or data. The distinction between
tactical and strategic intelligence is often misconstrued. Tactical ... Show more content on
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It allows a supportive and informed command structure and it often is the heart of an organization‐
wide approach to policing. Also it allows integrated crime and criminal analysis with a focus on
prolific and serious offenders. Both strategic and tactical tasking meetings take place that allows
data to be sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence
decision‐making when used with prevention, disruption and enforcement. These benefits help
prevent crime by creating a police force that is more efficient with its resources. There is also a
growing recognition within policing that external agencies may hold the key to long–term crime
reduction. These agencies, such as local councils, housing authorities, and health and education
departments, are believed to have a greater potential to impact a wider range of causal factors.
(Ericson & Haggerty, 2001) As agencies share information amongst each other, a larger "network of
intelligence" is created, which proponents hope, when used effectively, will cause a substantial
decrease in crime. (Ratcliffe, 2003) Task Forces are a major way to benefit from intelligence. By
sharing intelligence between federal, state and local law enforcement. These group initiatives, give
the ability to target a particular criminal activity, and often in a particular geographical area.
Combining these resources, the intelligence and the manpower of multiple law enforcement
agencies to focus on a particular problem is an effective way to combat
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Community Policing: Cooperation Between Community And Law...
The community policing as the name indicates is an unofficial partnership based on trust, confidence
and cooperation between community and various law enforcement authorities, especially police to
fight, curb, and prevent crime and terrorism jointly. The citizens will report suspicious or unusual
activities to police and they will do the action. A number of crimes and terrorism plans were foiled
and tragedies on massive scale were averted, because of alertness of citizens, while reporting the
matters to the law enforcement agencies on time. This community and police partnership is based on
trust and mutual respect for each other. This much needed system in order to be effective and
successful needs to be implemented on a much broader scale,
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Process Essay: Impact Of Intelligence And Law Enforcement
Abigail Tovar
English 1302–46001
Professor R. W. Cooper
July 19, 2015
Essay 1– Impact of Intelligence While many consider knowledge as destructive in the wrong set of
hands, given Cyber terrorism as an example. Cyber terrorism, is an act of hacking into cell phones,
satellite phones, GPS navigation, faster modes of transport, and instantaneous wire transfers are just
few examples that illustrate the progress of technology. One might argue that intelligence has
influenced technology, medicine, communication and reliability law enforcement can use to
prosecute a suspect. Technology has influenced the rate at which the law enforcement can identify
and accuse a suspect. Law enforcement can use to prosecute a suspect by via satellite, internet,
phone and Google ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Today manufactures have produced computers, tablets that are light weight, efficient and reliable.
Traffic is no longer halted as it usually is for a traffic ticket, police officers can print citations from a
portable device in seconds after entering the civilians information. The law enforcement has
benefited from the advanced communication system, they are currently using. State and local law
enforcement use portable multiband conventional radios and satellite radios to communicate with
one another. In addition, personal locators a new technology associated with portable radios is
needed, such as a "man down" alarm and two–way communications with a user without using the
push–to–talk button. NIJ program is exploring the need for consistent and improved in–building
radio coverage, use of handheld radio equipment, and methods of improving performance of
portable radio equipment within large commercial and public buildings. Personal locator technology
may also be able to visually display a location in 3–D to accurately depict, for example, the position
of a user by floor and room inside a multilevel
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Problems, Solutions, and Future of Law Enforcement...
PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS, AND FUTURE OF LAW ENFORMCEMENT INTELLIGENCE
The use of intelligence within law enforcement intelligence agencies is not always perfect. There
may be a way to safeguard against the misuse of intelligence processes to assure proper use it at all
times, but it has not yet been discovered. The only way that agencies can try and control the misuse
of intelligence is to study the historical failures of the past.
It is of most important to protect United States citizens' right to the freedom of speech. For the
average American it is hard to understand why the government does not viciously target extremist
groups like the Ku Klux Klan or the American Nazi Party; but it is necessary to ... Show more
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There is confusion over these topics which brings the necessity to revisit the basic elements of
intelligence that Intelligence is a specialization, is critical, is measurable, seldom seeks publicity,
targets organized crime problems that are often ignored by other, and require attention to detail.
Many times intelligence can be lost due to hasty deadlines or lack of analyst present. Valuable
information on police reports must be processed in order to maintain and file away for possible
future use, or many times information is passed over phone lines and then not recorded on paper are
only a couple of mistakes that can be made when trying to push to meet a deadline. The analyst must
have time to go over every detail in order to draw a final conclusion and build the best intelligence
product.
Another example of a loss of intelligence is most greatly seen in the drug wars. The cartels have a
great amount of money, which is sometimes overwhelming to some police officers that are willing
to look the other way for a price. There is no way to totally avoid the bait that the wealthy cartels
can use to try and find law enforcement officials that will help them out, but through education and
morality training the police officer has a chance.
When the wrong person gains intelligence information than many lives are put at risk. Covert
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Policing Issues In Law Enforcement
capacity to arrange these issues alone. Through association, participation and cooperation, the
reaction towards local readiness is strengthened. On the whole a community of law enforcement
agencies, combined with inclusive and concerned citizens can bring significant assets, subsidize and
intelligence. A survey of the standards and fundamentals of community policing ought to be taken to
search for the pertinent rule that can have applicability to the test before the country today. Other
government organizations have effectively received and adjusted the principles, for example,
community equity (Chappell & Gibson, 2009). Most residents are willing to work towards
enhancing the personal satisfaction in their communities. Most bolster police ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Individuals from the community might have knowledge of terrorist exercises however without the
solid relationship between the police and such a community, such knowledge and information won't
be presented to the police. Truth be told, picking up knowledge to avert future terrorist acts is one of
the most vital parts of homeland security. The part that cops could play in knowledge gathering, is
called "a potential wellspring of essential criminal insight." Using casual ties with the community,
proposed by community policing, officers can go about as insight gatherers to help in the
anticipation of terrorist attacks (Sparrow,
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Modern Policing Grew Out Of Private Security Concerns
Modern policing grew out of private security concerns. Crime prevention is a major issue in our
society. A greater burden is being placed on public law enforcement to respond to crisis situations.
As a result, the consumer is turning to the private security industry to help protect our communities
and businesses. Private security agencies are one of the fastest–growing entities in our country. The
demand for security services is growing at stellar 6% rate a year in our post 9/11 climate. This trend
shows no sign of abating. There are many different actors within a private security firm, license
private patrol officers, private investigators, alarm company's operators, bodyguards, and executive
protection agents.
Starting a security company requires specific state and federal laws to be followed. You must
possess experience in the field, take the necessary training courses, and be responsible for training
your employees. All owners or managers of security companies must meet and maintain certain
requirements. Managers in charge of the private–security–related businesses must be a DCA–
qualified manager. Security agencies are regularly required to complete numerous different financial
statements for a variety of reasons. Among the more common financial statements are a cash flow
statement, and a shareholder's equity statement.
In order to fully understand all concepts and strategies in starting a private security service, our
paper will touch on some of the basic points to
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
A Research Report On Rural Surveillance
Rural surveillance, although can be done in almost any settings, is usually conducted in rural,
farming, countryside or isolated areas where the use of an observation van is impractical. (Jenkins,
2010, p.205). The allegations and charges that were cited in both the Ruby Ridge and Waco
incidents were severe enough to warrant such surveillance and information gathering. The
allegations and charges in the case of the Waco siege and stand–off include firing of automatic
weapons from their compound, modifying legally purchased guns into illegal weapons, stock piling
illegal weapons, child abuse, advocating polygamy, fathering many children through a harem run by
the leader of the group. The location of the compound was in a rural area and for ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The government also had an informant infiltrate the target but unknown to him, his cover had
already been blown. The target must have fed him with wrong and misleading information as was
evidenced in his reply about what the target group were doing. He replied that they were praying
when in actuality they were arming themselves for the siege from the government.
If the government had taken the time to set up an OP, taking note to use all rural OP precautions,
they would have been able to overtime get in close, set up both surface and sub–surface OPs and
gather evidence or information about the illegal weapons production activities, observe automatic
gun fire activities, confirm daily routine of key target group members. The surveillance could have
produced information on child abuse issues as well as polygamous activities. Intelligence from the
surveillance could have been used to better coordinate efforts of all agencies involved with the
siege. An even better alternative would have been to arrest the main target when he was out of his
comfort zone as he often did by mingling with locals during gun shows.
Lack of coordination even among one government agency with some leaning towards aggression
while others opted for negotiations shows the level of unpreparedness to move forward with the
mission. The government knew that they had been compromised but instead of adopting less risky
options, they decided to move in with little or incorrect intelligence about the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Strengths And Weaknesses Of Intelligence Led Policing
1. What is intelligence–led policing (ILP)? What strengths and weaknesses have been identified
with this model of policing? Support your arguments with examples from police departments/forces
using ILP.
Intelligence–led Policing (IPL) in its simplest definition is a policing model for crime prevention
and reduction focussed on crime 'hot spots', recidivism amongst offenders and repeat victimization.
However, IPL is ever–changing and is not a clear–cut model and therefore requires a broader
definition. IPL models therefore act more as a framework for effective police work Although similar
models existed previously, IPL gained momentum in the UK, US, Canada and Australia during and
after the 1990s. Since crime is in a constant state of flux, so too is IPL, this in part is due to changes
in resources and technology and IPL is not without its strengths and weaknesses as evidenced
through examination of its increasingly widespread use throughout law enforcement.
IPL has little universal consensus of its definition. To fully and comprehensively define IPL there
are some considerations to account for as well as an understanding of its history. The core
component of IPL is 'intelligence and Warner claims 'intelligence' definitions are deficient because
they often do not consider the interchangeability of intelligence within the field, it is used because
'intelligence' not only covers what intelligence personnel do but also the product of their work.
'Intelligence' and
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Intelligence-Led Policing Case Study
Intelligence–led policing is one of the main global issues and important factor that the police service
are faced with in today's modern society in particular the Queensland Police Service. Intelligence–
led policing is explained through a various different sources in literature, which explain the
definition and issues surrounding intelligence–led policing, the main fundamental structures that
support and make up intelligence–led policing and the role it has played in information
communication technologies, organised crime and transnational organised crime. There is also a link
seen between the literature of intelligence–led policing and organisational documents such as annual
reports, legislation's and strategic plans which have been put forwards ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
While the literature tries to define intelligence–led policing the Queensland Police service makes no
attempt to define as it is assumed knowledge that every police offer knows what intelligence–led
practices are (Ratclifee 2008). This can then create misinterpretation of actions plans as there is no
universal definition by the Queensland police of what intelligence–led policing is. Another major
difference is that seen in the literature and the Queensland Police services is the interactions with
external partnerships as stated by Ratcliffe (2003, p.3). Within the documentations provided by the
Queensland Police Service very few mentioned working with external partnerships on the global
issue of intelligence–led policing. Most of the documents focused on inside the Queensland police
service while only the Queensland Police Service ICT Resources Strategic Plan 2009–2013 annual
report addressed the issue of working with external stakeholders and intergrading them into the
intelligence–led policing model (Queensland Police Service
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Law Enforcement Lessons Learned Essay
One of the the best "lessons learned" from history for today's practice of law enforcement
intelligence is the necessity of obeying the law and procedures as in addition to corruption and a
lack of incentive to do things by the book many officers lacked the wherewithal to make a difference
in their jurisdiction. After much public outcry we are now able rely more on today's law
enforcement as they are placed under strict management and are regularly evaluated to ensure
consistency and reduce bias from the system. This leads into another lesson with involves respecting
people's rights, with great power comes great responsibility as they say, officers are often tasked to
respond to calls for service, order maintenance, etc. which involves many ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Another reason is improving methods of data collection, processing, and reporting, as in the past law
enforcement were trained to react to crime, so even if a the idea of regularly documenting all
information is brought up many officers lack the experience and the guidance to gather and process
the information that they find. Unfortunately it takes a string of tragedies that could have been
prevented through threat–based intelligence prompt more security policies to be passed, but at least
now many law enforcement departments have more resources they use to guide them. Lastly is the
lesson about sharing intelligence, many law enforcement departments were hesitant to share
classified information as it would perhaps add likely so much more to their already stressful
workload and the possible repercussions of displaying evidence of misidentification and
mismanagement. However in the wake of past tragedies that resulted from the failure to provide the
intelligence it had become more apparent that it would be in everyone's best interest to open up
more channels of communication. While there are other lessons we can learn from history I feel that
these are the four main ideas that most people will agree that law enforcement should adhere
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Importance Of Intelligence-Led Policing
Intelligence–led policing is a growing concept shaping the way modern law enforcement agencies
function in both combating crime, and in performing investigations. As the dynamics of law
enforcement adapt to this concept, the need for intelligence analysts grows. What used to be a
minimal, even non–existent role in traditional policing, has grown into active participation at many
agencies. In order to perform effectively in these updated roles, intelligence analysts must be:
Capable of research and using analytical methodologies, to include those using technology. Analysts
must be critical thinkers and are capable of interpreting data. Finally, analysts must be effective in
communicating through product development and timely intelligence dissemination.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Different Elements That Compromise The Intelligence...
This paper will analyze the different elements that compromise the intelligence communities (IC)
from local law enforcement to national agencies and how each of those entities contributes to
security intelligence. Secondly, this paper will evaluate the lessons learned from the attacks of 9/11.
Lastly, the issues of domestic intelligence vs. foreign intelligence will be examined. Intelligence–led
policing along with other various initiatives is a newly developed style of investigation strategy.
This type of investigation has been a successful tool for agencies to utilize to reduce crime in
geographically remote locations throughout the United States. Local law enforcement employs
several respective types of subject matter expertise and individual personalities in their
organizations. Law enforcement organizations share some common characteristics, which help them
remain successful. Each agency offers command commitment, problem clarity, effective
intelligence, information sharing, clearly defines goals, results–oriented tactics and strategies,
holistic investigations, officer accountability, and continuous assessment (bja.gov Pg. 3). Local law
enforcement agencies share the same common goals as federal law enforcement agencies such as
protecting citizens of their towns and cities to safeguard the country from threats. Local law
enforcement organizations are referred to as fusion centers. Fusion centers are multiagency
intelligence information gathering networks. They are
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Issues Faced by Police Departments in Today's Society
Issues Facing Police Departments in Today's Society
Introduction
Over the last several years, most police departments have been facing numerous financial
challenges. The main reason is law enforcement agencies are expected to do more with less and the
stagnant economy. The combination of these factors has been placing pressure on many departments
to begin imposing budget cuts. Evidence of this can be seen with a survey that was conducted by the
University of North Carolina. They found that 67% of police departments made some kind of budget
cuts for 2011. The most severe reductions were occurring in large police departments such as Los
Angeles, Atlanta and Detroit. (Delfem, 2011, pp. 199 – 205) This is illustrating one of the most
pressing issues affecting a wide variety of police departments across the country. To fully
understand what is happening requires: examining the situation, how they are able to interact with
other agencies (i.e. state / federal) and recommending the way this relationship can be improved.
Together, these elements will offer specific insights about how police departments can effectively
address this problem.
The Current Situation Since the last recession began in 2008, many law enforcement agencies have
been dealing with budgetary cuts. This is because all levels of government have been seeing
shortfalls in tax revenues. In most cases, the situation is so severe that municipalities and states have
been forced to deal with large budget deficits.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Law Enforcement Intelligence Vs National Security...
Introduction
For most citizens there is some confusion in regards to what is the difference between law
enforcement intelligence and national security intelligence. While there are some similarities in their
responsibilities especially in regards to information sharing, overall law enforcement intelligence is
quite different from national security intelligence.
Differences
For law enforcement intelligence some of the unique factors are that agencies monitor crime in state,
local, and tribal regions and that open sourced information can only be retained as long as there is a
criminal element.
Unlike national security intelligence which primarily focuses on the collection and analysis of data
and information which benefits the country's security
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Security Enforcement And Intelligence Agencies Essay
Ever since the events of September 11, 2001, when terrorists used commercial airliners to attack the
homeland and kill nearly 3,000 people, Americans have been faced with a conundrum. How does a
nation of free people balance an individual's right to privacy with the transparency necessary to
secure the safety of the citizenry? Typically this debate has been waged regarding things such as
full–body security scanners, National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance programs, and increased
investigation powers granted to local police. However, recently the debate has struck far closer to
home; into the purses and back pockets of nearly every American. Consumers are demanding that
manufacturers and software developers do everything possible to provide the best communication
security possible. This has led to an explosion of encrypted communication methods and secure
devices which in turn poses an issue for law enforcement and intelligence agencies. How does the
nation reconcile these two needs; on one hand, Americans expect their communications to be
completely private, while the government requires a means to review the communications of
criminal and terrorist suspects for investigations. Do technology developers have an obligation to
build in backdoors for government exploitation or provide decryption keys to law enforcement?
Does the government have the right to hack those security measures if companies don't comply with
requests for assistance? How will these two differing
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Example Of Predictive Policing
The role of research within the criminal justice system is aimed towards reducing criminal activity
in a potentially popular crime area. law enforcement agencies do this is through a number of ways.
One of them is predictive policing. Predictive policing refers to the use of mathematical, predictive
and analytical techniques in law enforcement to identify potential criminal activity
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predictive_policing). Predictive policing works with situational
awareness and anticipation of human behavior, resulting in the development or strategies to prevent
criminal activity.
How does this work, we ask? well its simple, its starts with data collection, this comes from the
analyzation of repeat offenders, repeat victims, and locations or types of targets. This data is then
analyzed to obtain an understanding of criminal activity trends. The law enforcement agencies make
a prediction based on data provided more officers or specific task forces would be inserted into
designated high crime areas. The data is reevaluated to see if the methods used are effective, if not
they will gather more data and create a plan that works, crime can not be completely stopped but it
can be ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Using reports involving lesser crimes gathered from the immediate and surrounding coverage areas,
the agency forecasts the increase in short–term illegal activity and then intervenes by increasing law
enforcement presence in the predicted high–risk areas. Kansas City Police Department uses
predictive policing software to monitor and analyze criminal organizations, social media activity,
and drug consumption. Through an initiative called the Kansas City No Violence Alliance (KC
NoVA
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Quiz Reflection 1-1. Quiz One Measure The Students Readiness
Quiz Reflection 1–1
Quiz one measure the students readiness for a leadership role. The score I received on this quiz was
a 99.The scoring rubric indicates that scores between 90–100 is subjected to a high readiness for a
leadership role. I believe the reason why I scored high on this quiz is because of my outgoing
personality. I enjoy communicating and networking with others. I am always willing to help and
teach others in need. I believe that many of the statements on the quiz exemplify my natural
personality. I am a hard worker always ready to learn and help others.
Quiz Reflection 1–2
Quiz 1–2 wants the reader to reflect on any leadership roles held in their present and past. During
my 24 years of life I have had the honor of holding a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
After trial and error I became very comfortable speaking in front of large and small groups of
people. For the statement "I am a winner more than a loser" I circled strongly agree. I circled
strongly agree because life is a game. In all the situations where I failed or did not receive the
outcome I was aiming for I did not consider that as a lost. In those life experiences I evaluated my
areas of improvement and worked hard to conquer my goals. I believe that self–confidence is about
not giving up on yourself and fighting through trying circumstances.
Quiz Reflection 2–2
Quiz 2–2 measures the individual's behavior and attitude of a trustworthy leader. I know that I am a
trustworthy and reliable person. However, no human is perfect and I still have many areas of
improvements to mold myself into a great leader. I take pride in being a honest and trustworthy
person. It is important to look people in the eye while you're talking to them as a form of respect.
Many of my friends and family consider me as a reliable person. On a regular I try to collaborate
with other people to seek guidance and also invent creative ideas. Some of the areas of improvement
is accepting feedback on behaviors from others. This is a problem area for me I need to learn how to
accept constructive criticism. Another area of improvement is communicating information to people
at all organization levels digitally and in person. Since I recently began my new
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU)
Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) functions as a criminal intelligence clearinghouse and
exchanges confidential information with 240 agencies.
Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN) is a unclassified network for sensitive information
for operations, alerts, and notices.
International Justice and Public Safety Network is a provider for motor vehicle and driver
information for Canadian and INTERPOL databases.
Accelerated Information Sharing for Law Enforcement (AISLE) provides Web services for law
enforcement with messaging (XML) and information routing with (XMR).
International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) located in Lyon, France shares information
with 190 countries, each with a National Central Bureau, along with 7
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Essay on Intelligence Sharing: Intelligence and Law...
Intelligence versus Law Enforcement
Intelligence collection and apprehension of criminals have occurred for many years; however, with
the exception of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, these actions were performed by different
organizations. Nonetheless, roles and responsibilities have changed since the attacks on September
11, 2001. Intelligence–led policing and the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing program were
incorporated, and fusion centers were established to help gather intelligence from different levels of
the government. Although law enforcement at the local, state, and tribal levels aid in intelligence
collection, it is important to ensure that intelligence gathered to protect national security and law
enforcement ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Data can be collected through human sources, satellites, wiretapping, signals, and internet traffic.
However, intelligence organizations must be in compliance with the law to ensure that they are not
illegally collecting information (Chesney, 2012). Collection occurs because a threat is likely to
occur or agencies are trying to find out what information our foreign adversaries possess about the
nation's assets. Intelligence collection occurs in both domestic and foreign territories. Intelligence
agencies collect information about foreign adversaries in order to exploit their weaknesses or
vulnerabilities (Gentry, 2008). Furthermore, government agencies and political leaders want to
discover which of the nation's assets are seen as vulnerable to the enemy (Gentry, 2008).
Other intelligence operations also consist of covert, counterintelligence operations.
Counterintelligence is usually used to collect information about the adversary and weaken foreign
intelligence operations. Sabotage, spying, and infiltration are all characteristics of foreign
intelligence operations. Covert operations hide the identity of the agent(s) or officer(s) executing the
operations. If operations are compromised, this protects the agent(s) against retaliation from the
enemy.
The purpose of analysis is to evaluate the collected information and determine
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Different Styles And Strategies Of Policing
There are many different styles and strategies of policing. Some have been well established in
history and others have been developed more recently. One factor each method has in common is
the goal to improve law enforcement. Some of these styles include Community Policing, Predictive
Policing, Hot Spot Policing, Intelligence Led Policing, Problem Oriented Policing, and many more.
Each one has its own benefits and drawbacks that must be considered thoroughly in order to best
target crime.
Community style policing is often described as a "philosophy" in which law enforcement and their
officers work to build personal relationships with members of the community, according to The
Organization for Security and Co–operation in Europe. The goal ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Problem Oriented Policing involves analyzing problems that have arisen and determining whether or
not they are a risk to become a larger, more uncontrollable dilemma. Another strategy I have studied
is Reassurance Policing. This method involves investigating and then addressing the issues that the
public has voiced concern over in order to reduce fear and hopefully crime as well.
The varying strategies for policing can be confusing, but is necessary in order to best address crime
in a community. By establishing different methods, studying, applying, and then analyzing them,
officers are able to refine their activities in order to improve their performance. Also, many of these
strategies address different types of issues that may arise in a community. For example, some
methods are better for dealing with drunk driving, whereas others work well to prevent violent
crimes. My method, titled Neighborhood Focus Policing, combines Community, Hot Spot, and
Intelligence Led Policing in an effort to best target and reduce crime.
In order to fully understand each policing strategy, it is helpful to identify the benefits and
drawbacks to each individual method. For example, Community Policing is a strategy that focuses
on foot patrol within a neighborhood in order to build personal relationships with individuals. The
goal is to establish trust and work together towards reducing crime. Some goals of this strategy
include the trust that is built between citizens and officers.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Community Policing Research Paper
Different officers may have different ways to contribute to partnerships. For example, patrol officers
have a unique position to help monitor and supervise supervisees (Parent and Snyder, 1999).
Patrolling gives officers access to the supervisee and their social networks which can help provide
knowledge of their activity (La Vigne, N. G., Solomon, A. L., Beckman, K. A., Dedel, K., & Center,
J. P., 2006), this can be very valuable especially in cases which community corrections officers are
mostly in their office and not in the field (Thornton et al. 2006). This can help with intervening
before recidivism occurs due to being able to foresee issues that the supervisee may be having. This
may help law enforcement officers prevent certain crime ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
One way that partnerships help with public safety is that sharing information and resources can help
track down those supervisees with outstanding warrants, absconders, and can share intelligence
gathered about new crimes (Murphy, 2005). Community corrections officers can also help inform
law enforcement about specific supervisees personal issues such as drug addiction, mental health
problems, and more that can help law enforcement be more understanding and helpful to allow for
alternatives other than arresting an individual. When agencies perceive that there is more of a
benefit than a cost to partnerships they are more likely to join and participate in a collaboration
(Rosenbaum, 2002). Partnerships have also been motivated by financial incentives by federal grants
(Taxman et al.,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Community Policing Pros And Cons
mmigrant communities are not only a bastion of information on potential threats unfortunately, they
often stand as the victims of terrorism themselves. At the first sign of an attack, a two–fold fear
emerges that they will be directly victimized by the terrorists and that those in authority will target
them in response (Newman & Castle, 2010). Through a substantial language barrier and a prominent
clash of cultures, a heavy mistrust emerges between the police and these immigrant communities. As
such, it becomes ever more vital to reach out to these communities through the use of community
policing to ensure that all are properly supported and protected.
In the current environment, terrorism prevention frequently emerges in the training–regiment ...
Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
After 9–11 the police created partnerships to include leaders of Muslim communities to help prevent
alienation (Stainbrook, 2010). Studies have shown Muslims who had identified with being an
American, were the most likely to report suspicion of terrorism to authorities (Tyler, Schulhofer, &
Huq, 2010).These partnerships can help reduce fear and suspicion for the police and Muslims and
improve their relationship. William Bratton who was the Chief of the Los Angeles Police
Department, created a forum called the "Chief's Muslim Community Forum". The forum promoted
safety and brought police and Muslim leaders together to collaborate (Downing,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Reducing Crime Through Surveillance And Intelligence Gathering

  • 1. Crime Rates And Gathering Intelligence Information In an attempt to reduce crime rates and gather intelligence information in a specific area, and due in part to the continuing advancements in surveillance technologies, the law enforcement community has opted to employ these systems. Overwhelmingly, a consensus amongst the population agrees police officers should be held accountable for their action through continuous monitoring during their on duty hours (CBS News New York 2015). Furthermore, demand from the public to become knowledgeable in all events, public or private, has added pressure in the suggestion of increased intelligence based technologies. With final regard to the judicial system itself, an increased push for the release of information that may not have been previously available to the public, like testimony presented before the Grand Jury, is being seen from attorneys. Additionally, violent and shocking acts like domestic abuse or shootings are being released and made public through a number of media sources. The continued release of sensitive information adds to public scrutiny regarding their safety and security, which may serve to change not only the entire criminal and judicial systems, but once the implications of continued surveillance become realized, human behavior. The expansion of surveillance technologies has forced police departments to consider which measures to deploy. The application of the measures must be weighed carefully against what the public desires, the legality of the measure, and what ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Boots On The Ground Analysis Actually Jeffery, the colorful and expressive idiom "boots on the ground" was coined by U.S. Army General Volney F. Warner (circa 1980) in which to designed ground forces in close physical contact with the land operation and actions at hand (i.e., security defense maneuvers, surveillance intelligences functions, or combat operations), to distinguish from detached military actions as interval air and naval support utilizing their long–range intervention capability. However, as many terms often interchangeably cross–over into other profession with a slightly different contextual meaning to them, this also applies in this case where civilian law enforcement will typically amongst themselves use this same term, "boots on the ground", to mean actually ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... First, one has to remember that dissenter rancher, Cliven Bundy, raised an important statehood question during the hair–raising show–down between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the armed citizen militia supporting the cattle rancher. Originally Bundy was legitimately and faithfully paying grazing fees to Clark County, but that the county stopped accepting his payments. Bundy's legal claim is that Nevada State, not the U.S. government, owns the land where his cattle where grazing next to his family's homesteaded ranch property for nearly a century even before BLM was ever created. The legal argument before the courts, and presently fully accepted by Nevada's own State Government, is that federal government was legally in control of every territory before it became a state, but once statehood was reached, the majority of land rightly becomes the property of the new state. Presently, the federal government has not pursued any further legal issue or any overture governmental response concerning the Bundy's standing, and quietly in the background is a state movement to ensure the Federal Government's monopolizing 85 percent control of Nevada is fairly proportionally diminished and given to the state as rightfully due. Some could say that the Bundy standoff incident was the historical and productive apex needed to get the ball rolling in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Theories Of Crime Analysis Spring Marshawn Walker Theories of Crime Analysis Spring August 30, 2015 Types of Policing Policing is to regulate, control, or keep in order with a law enforcement agency or other official group. It is a job done every minute of every hour of everyday by men and women willing to risk their health and life. To make the job easier different styles or types of policing methods have been developed. Some of the most influential types of policing include community oriented policing, problem oriented policing and intelligence led policing. Community oriented policing or community policing, is a policing strategy that focuses on working closely with and building ties with members of the community. Community policing involves the use of partnerships between municipal agencies, businesses, individual citizens, non–profit groups and the media in order to develop methods to police the community. It requires police to take a proactive approach to address public safety concerns. Community policing covers a variety of philosophical and practical approaches and is still evolving rapidly. Community policing strategies vary depending on the needs and responses of the communities involved; however, certain basic principles and considerations are common to all community policing efforts. Today 's community policing has its origins in the 1960s. The 1960s saw its fair share of urban riots and gang activity. Police often responded to these criminal actions with brute force, and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Diversity In Law Enforcement Diversity in the police and sheriff's department is key to good community policing. A diverse police force could help to decrease the sense that individuals or being stopped or question primarily based on their sex, race, religion, or many other factors. The Diversity of the department is to reflect the population in the community the officer took an oath to protect and serve. This diversely includes Minority groups, background, ethnicity, race, and sex. Racial assortment in law–enforcement is important part in starting a positive reform against race wars. While trying to attract certain minorities it is essential to understand they might be reluctant because of the recent police brutality against minorities. Community policing is focusing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Trends And Aspects Of Policing Models Trends in Policing Models Due to the ever–changing political climate and needs of the community, policing models frequently change (McElvain, Kposowa, & Gray 2012, 1). During the periods of enactment, numerous policing models served specific purposes but would quickly become outdated due to research or differing approaches to problem solving. Researchers McElvan, Kposowa, and Gray introduce a number of past policing models that have become outdated. Introduced around the mid–1900s the Professional model sought to fight corruption within the police culture and asked officers to gather facts and nothing more. The effectiveness of the strategy was based upon crime statistics and response times to calls (Ibid, 1). Over the years, policing models have gone through periods of evolution and reform, leading to the establishment of numerous modes by either law enforcement agencies or universities. In time, the Professional model was transformed by public criticism of the police being out of touch with the public they were serving. The new model required a different approach–one that humanized police officers. Beginning in the 1980's, Community Policing, heavily relying upon a partnership from law enforcement agencies and public partnership, grew in popularity. The researchers theorize the policing initiative was developed to strengthen community relations, specifically those with underprivileged minority communities. The idea was to re–humanize the police force from the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Law Enforcement Intelligence Paper The field of law enforcement all retain a common purpose: to protect citizens and enforce the laws passed at the local, state and federal level of government. In order to achieve this common goal, law enforcement agencies, regardless of size, must have the capacity to understand the importance of intelligence collection, analysis, and intelligence sharing. Each agency, from the lowest to the highest level, must establish a systematic mechanism to receive and process intelligence as well as to report and share critical information with other law enforcement agencies. In this paper, we will discuss some of the similarities and differences of federal, state and local law enforcement intelligence activities and why these deviations exist, as well as why it is important that law enforcement agencies develop lines of communication at all levels. Many of the current differences we see today between the federal, state and local law enforcement intelligence stemmed from prior to the September 11 attack. Prior to this attack many states lacked a robust intelligence capability, as it was the primary role of federal agencies to protect the United States from both foreign and domestic terrorist threats. In an attempt to mitigate future attacks of this nature state, local, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is very important that each echelon understands one another limitations and roles and responsibilities in the greater scheme of domestic and national intelligence. Despite increased communication between local law enforcement and federal intelligence agencies, problems can arise relating to coordination and cooperation because the two communities possess different rules, objectives, different sources and methods, and different standards regarding the quality of intelligence they ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. What Is Predictive Technology In Law Enforcement Over the course of the last two decades, intelligence led policing has made a major impact on law enforcement. As its usage has emerged, two sides have formed regarding the implementation of this controversial technology. Proponents of this strategy, including law enforcement agencies and technology companies, have backed the efficient and effective nature of predictive policing. Critics of the technology claim that policing tactics such as predictive algorithms and hotspot monitoring have created more problems than they have solved, and that they have placed a wall between law enforcement and the public. As high–tech crime and cyber–terrorism efforts in the United States continue to rise, questions are being raised over what public transparency ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In an article by Sidney Perkowitz, titled "Should we trust predictive policing software to cut crime?", Perkowitz questions the integrity of predictive technology and its effect on crime. She mentions that PredPol is one of the only software companies that currently reports comprehensive statistics regarding their effect on crime. Nevertheless, while the numbers reported by the company present its software as a success in cities like Los Angeles, the information is generated by the company itself and is therefore unreliable. In cities like Chicago, where independent studies have been conducted, the results were not as promising. The results showed that the software did not reduce the number of homicides committed, nor did it lower the chances of shooting victimization. Additionally, similar studies in Shreveport, Louisiana have concluded that the software currently being used is not having a significant effect on the property crime rate (Perkowitz, 2016). Perkowitz is insisting that there is not enough evidence to back the effectiveness of predictive software in reducing crime rates. In addition, because of the cases in which predictive software did not affect crime, positive trends in cities like Los Angeles are not representative of the rest of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Intelligence Led Policing The new aged concept of intelligence–led policing seems to be the ultimate answer for advancing criminal activity leading the United States. Everything new though, comes with its fair share of disadvantages and challenges. Some of the disadvantages argued against using this predicative method of policing includes the argument of limited resources, political pressure, information management, data overload, data quality, and adaptation (Casady, 2011 p. 10). Reporting indicates that there is a growing public need for information. The increasing fragmentation of the community, fear and insecurity and the growth of the risk society have generated a massive requirement for increased security and knowledge contributing to political pressure, along ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 5). Intelligence is not the information collected; it is the finished production of the collected data after it has been evaluated and analyzed. More often than not, predictive policing is misunderstood. The misunderstanding lies on both over emphasizing its capabilities and under estimating how predictive policing can help make the community a safer place. In addition to the misunderstanding of this practice of policing, it is often a challenge for law enforcement to stay parallel to the crime trend, and patterns. It is argued that instead of working with information collected to anticipate new crimes, policing officers' preference locations where known crimes have already been committed (Casady, 2011, p. 2). Although effective, this is not an accurate practice of intelligence–led policing, as it does not fully account for future crimes and activities. In addition, to the assessed challenges already listed, is the concern with potential ethical issues that surround intelligence–led policing. A valid argument is that the predictive nature of intelligence–led policing mirrors an awful lot of the police profiling aspect and may lead to the violations of civil liberties. As new technology is developed and utilized it is important to discuss the ethical implications of utilizing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Community Oriented Policing Case Study After carefully evaluating research relating to some of the issues within the Lancaster County Sheriff's Office, I choose community oriented policing because I believe this is a more achievable top short–term goal. I selected this particular topic because I believe by implementing an effective strategic plan for community oriented policing, the citizens as well as the Lancaster County Sheriff's Office will come together to identify and resolve issues that have been effecting the livelihood of the entire community for decades now. In addition, other areas like diversity issues, public relations, training and positive leadership by first–line supervisors. In my opinion, recruiting, selecting and retaining law enforcement officers are the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. The Usa 's Act Of 2015 2012 (Donahue, 2014, pp. 180–181). These changes and others to the USA PATRIOT Act were made in the USA Freedom Act of 2015. Perhaps the most important change in how the federal government was reorganized after September 11th is the creation of both the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) position and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) in 2004 with the passage of the same IRTPA that created TSA. This concept had been first suggested in 1955 after a study by Congress then and was recommended time and again but only became a reality after the September 11th attacks drove the need for major intelligence reform home and the 9/11 Commission continued the push for the creation of such a position (ODNI, n.d., paras. 1–5). As one can see from the mission and vision of the ODNI, the importance cannot be overstated. The mission includes leading intelligence integration while having the IC produce the most insightful intelligence products possible and the vision is fully integrating the IC thus making the nation more secure (ODNI, n.d., paras. 1–2). As we have seen throughout the entire history of warfare, ancient world terrorism, political intrigue and elitist terrorism of the middle ages, and into modern terrorism, intelligence is of vital importance on both sides. Armed forces have always used intelligence of some form be it sneaking up a hill and scouting what is on the other side to the use of modern platforms such as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Counter-Terrorism And Intel-Led Policing An important element of counter–terrorism is intel–led policing that focuses on gathering intelligence. In the UK they have used community policing and intel–led policing together because these strategies complement each other by helping gather more intelligence, than if they did just one by itself (Hughes & Rowe, 2007). Intelligence is extremely important to gather about the Islamic culture and community to have a productive relations, this intelligence includes any conflicts the community may be having, the religious aspect of the community, the differences of Shia and Sunni, how geographically present they are in certain neighborhoods and many other aspects of Islamic communities need to be known. It is difficult it is to gain accurate intelligence from people who don't trust you (Virta, 2008). Trust with the community can greatly help against counter–terrorism (Demos, 2007). The police must be the ones who reach out and to the communities they have poor relationships with. When there are communities that have no communication and or collaboration with the police it makes it a safe zone for terrorist cells and recruitment. When there isn't intelligence coming from the community the police don't have many other options than using ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These community partnerships have been with the leaders of the Muslim communities, which has included leaders of Mosques. Allowing the police to get to know the Muslim community can reduce suspicion and fear for both groups and support communication and support. Community policing uses problem solving methods that can greatly support ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Technology And Law Enforcement Agencies Both private and public law enforcement agencies use technologies to help them prevent, deter, investigate, and imprison criminals. Technologies have helped law enforcement agencies to reduce crime rates within their assigned sector. Without technologies, crime rate won't be as low as it is now. All criminals have one similar fear, and that is getting caught and imprison by law enforcement officers. FUTURETech are technologies that law enforcement agencies use nowadays to assist them in fighting crime. As time goes by and the criminals become smarter by finding ways to not get caught by law enforcement technologies, so as law enforcement technologies involve each time. Crime is becoming more mobile and sophisticated. Criminals easily move around, both nationally and internationally, use better equipment and technology, and are increasingly better at covering their crimes. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... FUTURETech also are beneficial to the partnership of both private and public law enforcement agencies. Nowadays there are a lot of different technologies law enforcement officials use to help them solve crime and to share information. "Mobile technologies bring a new sense of immediacy and accuracy to intelligence gathering that can further empower officers. Sharing information interactively at the crime scene enables real–time analysis and investigation and, most importantly, captures suspect information while it is fresh in the minds of victims and witnesses. Once a suspect is identified, mobile devices can be used check photographic, voice or fingerprint biometric details, as well as confirming the suspect's identity with the victims and witnesses" (n.d., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. What Impact Did 9 / 11 Have On Policing Essay 1) What impact did 9/11 have on policing, and what relationship does it have with the four eras of policing? September 11, 2001 showed that there were weaknesses in communication and emergency response. It also significantly changed the role police have with the prevention of terrorist acts. As Oliver stated, "... policing in the post–September 11 environment is not only a response to the specific events...but also an amalgam of change brought about by various political, economic, and social factors in the United States..." (Homeland Security for Policing, 2007, p. 43). Post September 11, Americans made the massive movement towards anti–terrorism. After the attacks, President George W. Bush created the Department of Homeland Security to help protect the citizens from terrorists. On that note as well, this counterterrorism move impacted law enforcement as well. Their roles grew from community law enforcement to proactively mitigating terrorist activities and intelligence gathering. Of course, it took a while for the police to work themselves up to count terrorism agents. At the very beginning of policing (Political Era), there were not standardized roles for law enforcement officers. They became well rounded by helping with "...a broad array of services from dealing with criminals, to keeping immigrant workers in line, and running soup kitchens..." (Oliver, 2007, p. 46). Which may seem all good, but there was a major flaw in this system. It wasn't the officers who dictated ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Intelligence Agency : The Intelligence Bureau ( Ib ) And... Intelligence philosophers such as Sun Tzu, Kautilya and Machiavelli have stressed on the importance of strategic intelligence for the security of a nation and the history across the world is evident with its prime examples. Such is also the case of India and in this presentation we will be examining some key historic Indian events and their impact on the country's two foremost intelligence agencies – the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). Towards the end we will also consider the influence of such events on the future of Indian intelligence. Established in 1887, branded as the Central Special Branch up to 1903 and then as the Department of Intelligence until 1920, the IB's primary function back then was to provide political and religious intelligence across British India (Mahadevan, 2012, p. 28). The British assigned its British–Indian military intelligence agencies with external intelligence but interestingly, post India's independence in 1947, the IB was entrusted with this duty therefore making it the country's foreign and national intelligence agency between 1947 and 1968 (Melson, 2006). Unable to meet the inflated demands by policy makers back in the 1960's, IB was accused of intelligence failure as India faced an awkward loss at the Sino–Indian War of 1962 against China followed by Pakistan's surprise intrusion in 1965 over the disputed region of Kashmir. Given the defensive personality of the country's national security system, the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Community Oriented Policing Essay Community oriented policing is a policing method in which officers engage with the members in area they are assigned to patrol. Foot patrol is an essential component of community oriented policing which allows for officers to overhear concerns or plans (Wetzel, 2012). Foot patrol also allows an intimate approach with the neighborhood. This intimate interaction allows for a connection to be formed which allows for intelligence gathering (Wetzel, 2012). With this increased connection with the community, officers are more likely to learn about new member in the community who are different. Community Oriented Policing is an effective tool readily available to combat terrorism. Community–oriented policing is effective ,but its implementation has been reduced. Community– oriented policing funds were reduced because of September 11, 2001. "The events of September 11 and the subsequent concern for national security have justifiably shifted the priorities of policing" (Murray, 2005, p247). The 'war on terror' would shift away from community–oriented policing and would reignite traditional policing methods ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Counterterrorism method utilized are often aggressive, aggressive policing methods typically incite additional violence on top of what law enforcement is attempting to combat (Brown, 2007). Community–oriented policing in contrast is a gentler approach the focuses on crime reduction which differs from that of standard policing methods which attempt to establish law and order. Community–oriented policing promotes less violence which can lead to a collaborative environment. Combative counterterrorism methods foster an uncooperative environment where those who could be an assent develop a mistrust and establish roadblock to combat terrorism (Brown 2007). These two methods conflict but each give out what is put in aggression promotes aggression while collaboration yields ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Reflective Essay On Adult Education Deputy Sheriff, training officer, instructor, adjunct faculty, these are but a few of the hats that I wear in my daily interactions within the world of Adult Education. As a veteran law enforcement officer I was first introduced to adult education, after several years I would find myself on the other side of the podium. After serving as a field training officer for rookie's graduation from Basic Law Enforcement Training (BLET) I would take on the additional role of teaching in the BLET program itself. The route I have followed to adult education is unique and non–traditional compared to my peers within the EdS program here at Appalachian State University. I have completed both my Bachelors and Masters degrees as an adult within the past ten years while working full–time. I currently teach several blocks of the BLET program as well as several sections of the Student Success course on the campus of Davidson County Community College. I believe that the purpose of adult education programs is to foster the growth of the non–traditional student population. Students who have either been displaced or chosen to return to college for a variety of reasons. It is critical that we, as instructors and administrators, realize that each of these students may learn in a different manner. We must take into account known strategies such as Gardner's Multiple Intelligences as we design and deliver courses within our chosen fields. I for one am primarily a very kinesthetic learner, and learn ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Community Policing Approach Police departments use Community Policing approach because it enables police officers to engage in problem solving. In community policing, the police and the community work together to identify issues, address the underlying causes, to choose the right solutions to the issues, then evaluate its effectiveness (Ortmeier, 2006). Unlike traditional policing which is reactive and incident–driven, community policing focus on problem solving in addressing disorder. Throughout the years, community policing has evolved and created a new dimension called Intelligence Led Policing. Ever since U.S. has shifted its focus on counterterrorism, there were concerns how counterterrorism will be integrated with community policing. A close working relationship between the police and the community was perhaps the solution because a good relationship ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Both community policing and intelligence led policing rely on information management, two–way communication with the public, scientific data analysis, and problem solving (Carter, 2004). However, ILP operates in a different manner using intelligence analysis through the intelligence process. ILP also gathers scientific data for threat management as well as problem–solve to reconcile factors that are signs to potential targets and trafficking of illegal products (Carter, 2004). ILP have been proven to be effective in either reducing or preventing crime. ILP enables law enforcement agencies to gather raw information and transform it into useful intelligence to prevent or reduce crimes. This showed in the 2008 report of Bureau of Justice Assistance report entitled "Reducing Crime Through Intelligence–Led Policing". In the report, there were about ten police departments; each had their own problems. These departments used ILP in order to improve and address their problems. Two departments will be discussed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Tactical Intelligence Research Paper Intelligence can have many meanings depending on how you use it, but it is a common mistake to mix up intelligence as synonymous with information. This is wrong as, information is not intelligence, which has caused the misuse of the phrase "collecting intelligence" instead of "collecting information." Intelligence is a structure, a process and a product. In most police services, the intelligence unit or section is a recognized internal organization with people, skills, methods and an organizational structure. Although intelligence may be collected by and shared with intelligence agencies and bureaus, field operations generally collect information or data. The distinction between tactical and strategic intelligence is often misconstrued. Tactical ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It allows a supportive and informed command structure and it often is the heart of an organization‐ wide approach to policing. Also it allows integrated crime and criminal analysis with a focus on prolific and serious offenders. Both strategic and tactical tasking meetings take place that allows data to be sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence decision‐making when used with prevention, disruption and enforcement. These benefits help prevent crime by creating a police force that is more efficient with its resources. There is also a growing recognition within policing that external agencies may hold the key to long–term crime reduction. These agencies, such as local councils, housing authorities, and health and education departments, are believed to have a greater potential to impact a wider range of causal factors. (Ericson & Haggerty, 2001) As agencies share information amongst each other, a larger "network of intelligence" is created, which proponents hope, when used effectively, will cause a substantial decrease in crime. (Ratcliffe, 2003) Task Forces are a major way to benefit from intelligence. By sharing intelligence between federal, state and local law enforcement. These group initiatives, give the ability to target a particular criminal activity, and often in a particular geographical area. Combining these resources, the intelligence and the manpower of multiple law enforcement agencies to focus on a particular problem is an effective way to combat ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Community Policing: Cooperation Between Community And Law... The community policing as the name indicates is an unofficial partnership based on trust, confidence and cooperation between community and various law enforcement authorities, especially police to fight, curb, and prevent crime and terrorism jointly. The citizens will report suspicious or unusual activities to police and they will do the action. A number of crimes and terrorism plans were foiled and tragedies on massive scale were averted, because of alertness of citizens, while reporting the matters to the law enforcement agencies on time. This community and police partnership is based on trust and mutual respect for each other. This much needed system in order to be effective and successful needs to be implemented on a much broader scale, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Process Essay: Impact Of Intelligence And Law Enforcement Abigail Tovar English 1302–46001 Professor R. W. Cooper July 19, 2015 Essay 1– Impact of Intelligence While many consider knowledge as destructive in the wrong set of hands, given Cyber terrorism as an example. Cyber terrorism, is an act of hacking into cell phones, satellite phones, GPS navigation, faster modes of transport, and instantaneous wire transfers are just few examples that illustrate the progress of technology. One might argue that intelligence has influenced technology, medicine, communication and reliability law enforcement can use to prosecute a suspect. Technology has influenced the rate at which the law enforcement can identify and accuse a suspect. Law enforcement can use to prosecute a suspect by via satellite, internet, phone and Google ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Today manufactures have produced computers, tablets that are light weight, efficient and reliable. Traffic is no longer halted as it usually is for a traffic ticket, police officers can print citations from a portable device in seconds after entering the civilians information. The law enforcement has benefited from the advanced communication system, they are currently using. State and local law enforcement use portable multiband conventional radios and satellite radios to communicate with one another. In addition, personal locators a new technology associated with portable radios is needed, such as a "man down" alarm and two–way communications with a user without using the push–to–talk button. NIJ program is exploring the need for consistent and improved in–building radio coverage, use of handheld radio equipment, and methods of improving performance of portable radio equipment within large commercial and public buildings. Personal locator technology may also be able to visually display a location in 3–D to accurately depict, for example, the position of a user by floor and room inside a multilevel ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Problems, Solutions, and Future of Law Enforcement... PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS, AND FUTURE OF LAW ENFORMCEMENT INTELLIGENCE The use of intelligence within law enforcement intelligence agencies is not always perfect. There may be a way to safeguard against the misuse of intelligence processes to assure proper use it at all times, but it has not yet been discovered. The only way that agencies can try and control the misuse of intelligence is to study the historical failures of the past. It is of most important to protect United States citizens' right to the freedom of speech. For the average American it is hard to understand why the government does not viciously target extremist groups like the Ku Klux Klan or the American Nazi Party; but it is necessary to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There is confusion over these topics which brings the necessity to revisit the basic elements of intelligence that Intelligence is a specialization, is critical, is measurable, seldom seeks publicity, targets organized crime problems that are often ignored by other, and require attention to detail. Many times intelligence can be lost due to hasty deadlines or lack of analyst present. Valuable information on police reports must be processed in order to maintain and file away for possible future use, or many times information is passed over phone lines and then not recorded on paper are only a couple of mistakes that can be made when trying to push to meet a deadline. The analyst must have time to go over every detail in order to draw a final conclusion and build the best intelligence product. Another example of a loss of intelligence is most greatly seen in the drug wars. The cartels have a great amount of money, which is sometimes overwhelming to some police officers that are willing to look the other way for a price. There is no way to totally avoid the bait that the wealthy cartels can use to try and find law enforcement officials that will help them out, but through education and morality training the police officer has a chance. When the wrong person gains intelligence information than many lives are put at risk. Covert ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Policing Issues In Law Enforcement capacity to arrange these issues alone. Through association, participation and cooperation, the reaction towards local readiness is strengthened. On the whole a community of law enforcement agencies, combined with inclusive and concerned citizens can bring significant assets, subsidize and intelligence. A survey of the standards and fundamentals of community policing ought to be taken to search for the pertinent rule that can have applicability to the test before the country today. Other government organizations have effectively received and adjusted the principles, for example, community equity (Chappell & Gibson, 2009). Most residents are willing to work towards enhancing the personal satisfaction in their communities. Most bolster police ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Individuals from the community might have knowledge of terrorist exercises however without the solid relationship between the police and such a community, such knowledge and information won't be presented to the police. Truth be told, picking up knowledge to avert future terrorist acts is one of the most vital parts of homeland security. The part that cops could play in knowledge gathering, is called "a potential wellspring of essential criminal insight." Using casual ties with the community, proposed by community policing, officers can go about as insight gatherers to help in the anticipation of terrorist attacks (Sparrow, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Modern Policing Grew Out Of Private Security Concerns Modern policing grew out of private security concerns. Crime prevention is a major issue in our society. A greater burden is being placed on public law enforcement to respond to crisis situations. As a result, the consumer is turning to the private security industry to help protect our communities and businesses. Private security agencies are one of the fastest–growing entities in our country. The demand for security services is growing at stellar 6% rate a year in our post 9/11 climate. This trend shows no sign of abating. There are many different actors within a private security firm, license private patrol officers, private investigators, alarm company's operators, bodyguards, and executive protection agents. Starting a security company requires specific state and federal laws to be followed. You must possess experience in the field, take the necessary training courses, and be responsible for training your employees. All owners or managers of security companies must meet and maintain certain requirements. Managers in charge of the private–security–related businesses must be a DCA– qualified manager. Security agencies are regularly required to complete numerous different financial statements for a variety of reasons. Among the more common financial statements are a cash flow statement, and a shareholder's equity statement. In order to fully understand all concepts and strategies in starting a private security service, our paper will touch on some of the basic points to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. A Research Report On Rural Surveillance Rural surveillance, although can be done in almost any settings, is usually conducted in rural, farming, countryside or isolated areas where the use of an observation van is impractical. (Jenkins, 2010, p.205). The allegations and charges that were cited in both the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents were severe enough to warrant such surveillance and information gathering. The allegations and charges in the case of the Waco siege and stand–off include firing of automatic weapons from their compound, modifying legally purchased guns into illegal weapons, stock piling illegal weapons, child abuse, advocating polygamy, fathering many children through a harem run by the leader of the group. The location of the compound was in a rural area and for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The government also had an informant infiltrate the target but unknown to him, his cover had already been blown. The target must have fed him with wrong and misleading information as was evidenced in his reply about what the target group were doing. He replied that they were praying when in actuality they were arming themselves for the siege from the government. If the government had taken the time to set up an OP, taking note to use all rural OP precautions, they would have been able to overtime get in close, set up both surface and sub–surface OPs and gather evidence or information about the illegal weapons production activities, observe automatic gun fire activities, confirm daily routine of key target group members. The surveillance could have produced information on child abuse issues as well as polygamous activities. Intelligence from the surveillance could have been used to better coordinate efforts of all agencies involved with the siege. An even better alternative would have been to arrest the main target when he was out of his comfort zone as he often did by mingling with locals during gun shows. Lack of coordination even among one government agency with some leaning towards aggression while others opted for negotiations shows the level of unpreparedness to move forward with the mission. The government knew that they had been compromised but instead of adopting less risky options, they decided to move in with little or incorrect intelligence about the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Intelligence Led Policing 1. What is intelligence–led policing (ILP)? What strengths and weaknesses have been identified with this model of policing? Support your arguments with examples from police departments/forces using ILP. Intelligence–led Policing (IPL) in its simplest definition is a policing model for crime prevention and reduction focussed on crime 'hot spots', recidivism amongst offenders and repeat victimization. However, IPL is ever–changing and is not a clear–cut model and therefore requires a broader definition. IPL models therefore act more as a framework for effective police work Although similar models existed previously, IPL gained momentum in the UK, US, Canada and Australia during and after the 1990s. Since crime is in a constant state of flux, so too is IPL, this in part is due to changes in resources and technology and IPL is not without its strengths and weaknesses as evidenced through examination of its increasingly widespread use throughout law enforcement. IPL has little universal consensus of its definition. To fully and comprehensively define IPL there are some considerations to account for as well as an understanding of its history. The core component of IPL is 'intelligence and Warner claims 'intelligence' definitions are deficient because they often do not consider the interchangeability of intelligence within the field, it is used because 'intelligence' not only covers what intelligence personnel do but also the product of their work. 'Intelligence' and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Intelligence-Led Policing Case Study Intelligence–led policing is one of the main global issues and important factor that the police service are faced with in today's modern society in particular the Queensland Police Service. Intelligence– led policing is explained through a various different sources in literature, which explain the definition and issues surrounding intelligence–led policing, the main fundamental structures that support and make up intelligence–led policing and the role it has played in information communication technologies, organised crime and transnational organised crime. There is also a link seen between the literature of intelligence–led policing and organisational documents such as annual reports, legislation's and strategic plans which have been put forwards ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While the literature tries to define intelligence–led policing the Queensland Police service makes no attempt to define as it is assumed knowledge that every police offer knows what intelligence–led practices are (Ratclifee 2008). This can then create misinterpretation of actions plans as there is no universal definition by the Queensland police of what intelligence–led policing is. Another major difference is that seen in the literature and the Queensland Police services is the interactions with external partnerships as stated by Ratcliffe (2003, p.3). Within the documentations provided by the Queensland Police Service very few mentioned working with external partnerships on the global issue of intelligence–led policing. Most of the documents focused on inside the Queensland police service while only the Queensland Police Service ICT Resources Strategic Plan 2009–2013 annual report addressed the issue of working with external stakeholders and intergrading them into the intelligence–led policing model (Queensland Police Service ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Law Enforcement Lessons Learned Essay One of the the best "lessons learned" from history for today's practice of law enforcement intelligence is the necessity of obeying the law and procedures as in addition to corruption and a lack of incentive to do things by the book many officers lacked the wherewithal to make a difference in their jurisdiction. After much public outcry we are now able rely more on today's law enforcement as they are placed under strict management and are regularly evaluated to ensure consistency and reduce bias from the system. This leads into another lesson with involves respecting people's rights, with great power comes great responsibility as they say, officers are often tasked to respond to calls for service, order maintenance, etc. which involves many ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Another reason is improving methods of data collection, processing, and reporting, as in the past law enforcement were trained to react to crime, so even if a the idea of regularly documenting all information is brought up many officers lack the experience and the guidance to gather and process the information that they find. Unfortunately it takes a string of tragedies that could have been prevented through threat–based intelligence prompt more security policies to be passed, but at least now many law enforcement departments have more resources they use to guide them. Lastly is the lesson about sharing intelligence, many law enforcement departments were hesitant to share classified information as it would perhaps add likely so much more to their already stressful workload and the possible repercussions of displaying evidence of misidentification and mismanagement. However in the wake of past tragedies that resulted from the failure to provide the intelligence it had become more apparent that it would be in everyone's best interest to open up more channels of communication. While there are other lessons we can learn from history I feel that these are the four main ideas that most people will agree that law enforcement should adhere ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. The Importance Of Intelligence-Led Policing Intelligence–led policing is a growing concept shaping the way modern law enforcement agencies function in both combating crime, and in performing investigations. As the dynamics of law enforcement adapt to this concept, the need for intelligence analysts grows. What used to be a minimal, even non–existent role in traditional policing, has grown into active participation at many agencies. In order to perform effectively in these updated roles, intelligence analysts must be: Capable of research and using analytical methodologies, to include those using technology. Analysts must be critical thinkers and are capable of interpreting data. Finally, analysts must be effective in communicating through product development and timely intelligence dissemination. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Different Elements That Compromise The Intelligence... This paper will analyze the different elements that compromise the intelligence communities (IC) from local law enforcement to national agencies and how each of those entities contributes to security intelligence. Secondly, this paper will evaluate the lessons learned from the attacks of 9/11. Lastly, the issues of domestic intelligence vs. foreign intelligence will be examined. Intelligence–led policing along with other various initiatives is a newly developed style of investigation strategy. This type of investigation has been a successful tool for agencies to utilize to reduce crime in geographically remote locations throughout the United States. Local law enforcement employs several respective types of subject matter expertise and individual personalities in their organizations. Law enforcement organizations share some common characteristics, which help them remain successful. Each agency offers command commitment, problem clarity, effective intelligence, information sharing, clearly defines goals, results–oriented tactics and strategies, holistic investigations, officer accountability, and continuous assessment (bja.gov Pg. 3). Local law enforcement agencies share the same common goals as federal law enforcement agencies such as protecting citizens of their towns and cities to safeguard the country from threats. Local law enforcement organizations are referred to as fusion centers. Fusion centers are multiagency intelligence information gathering networks. They are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Issues Faced by Police Departments in Today's Society Issues Facing Police Departments in Today's Society Introduction Over the last several years, most police departments have been facing numerous financial challenges. The main reason is law enforcement agencies are expected to do more with less and the stagnant economy. The combination of these factors has been placing pressure on many departments to begin imposing budget cuts. Evidence of this can be seen with a survey that was conducted by the University of North Carolina. They found that 67% of police departments made some kind of budget cuts for 2011. The most severe reductions were occurring in large police departments such as Los Angeles, Atlanta and Detroit. (Delfem, 2011, pp. 199 – 205) This is illustrating one of the most pressing issues affecting a wide variety of police departments across the country. To fully understand what is happening requires: examining the situation, how they are able to interact with other agencies (i.e. state / federal) and recommending the way this relationship can be improved. Together, these elements will offer specific insights about how police departments can effectively address this problem. The Current Situation Since the last recession began in 2008, many law enforcement agencies have been dealing with budgetary cuts. This is because all levels of government have been seeing shortfalls in tax revenues. In most cases, the situation is so severe that municipalities and states have been forced to deal with large budget deficits. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Law Enforcement Intelligence Vs National Security... Introduction For most citizens there is some confusion in regards to what is the difference between law enforcement intelligence and national security intelligence. While there are some similarities in their responsibilities especially in regards to information sharing, overall law enforcement intelligence is quite different from national security intelligence. Differences For law enforcement intelligence some of the unique factors are that agencies monitor crime in state, local, and tribal regions and that open sourced information can only be retained as long as there is a criminal element. Unlike national security intelligence which primarily focuses on the collection and analysis of data and information which benefits the country's security ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Security Enforcement And Intelligence Agencies Essay Ever since the events of September 11, 2001, when terrorists used commercial airliners to attack the homeland and kill nearly 3,000 people, Americans have been faced with a conundrum. How does a nation of free people balance an individual's right to privacy with the transparency necessary to secure the safety of the citizenry? Typically this debate has been waged regarding things such as full–body security scanners, National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance programs, and increased investigation powers granted to local police. However, recently the debate has struck far closer to home; into the purses and back pockets of nearly every American. Consumers are demanding that manufacturers and software developers do everything possible to provide the best communication security possible. This has led to an explosion of encrypted communication methods and secure devices which in turn poses an issue for law enforcement and intelligence agencies. How does the nation reconcile these two needs; on one hand, Americans expect their communications to be completely private, while the government requires a means to review the communications of criminal and terrorist suspects for investigations. Do technology developers have an obligation to build in backdoors for government exploitation or provide decryption keys to law enforcement? Does the government have the right to hack those security measures if companies don't comply with requests for assistance? How will these two differing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Example Of Predictive Policing The role of research within the criminal justice system is aimed towards reducing criminal activity in a potentially popular crime area. law enforcement agencies do this is through a number of ways. One of them is predictive policing. Predictive policing refers to the use of mathematical, predictive and analytical techniques in law enforcement to identify potential criminal activity (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predictive_policing). Predictive policing works with situational awareness and anticipation of human behavior, resulting in the development or strategies to prevent criminal activity. How does this work, we ask? well its simple, its starts with data collection, this comes from the analyzation of repeat offenders, repeat victims, and locations or types of targets. This data is then analyzed to obtain an understanding of criminal activity trends. The law enforcement agencies make a prediction based on data provided more officers or specific task forces would be inserted into designated high crime areas. The data is reevaluated to see if the methods used are effective, if not they will gather more data and create a plan that works, crime can not be completely stopped but it can be ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Using reports involving lesser crimes gathered from the immediate and surrounding coverage areas, the agency forecasts the increase in short–term illegal activity and then intervenes by increasing law enforcement presence in the predicted high–risk areas. Kansas City Police Department uses predictive policing software to monitor and analyze criminal organizations, social media activity, and drug consumption. Through an initiative called the Kansas City No Violence Alliance (KC NoVA ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Quiz Reflection 1-1. Quiz One Measure The Students Readiness Quiz Reflection 1–1 Quiz one measure the students readiness for a leadership role. The score I received on this quiz was a 99.The scoring rubric indicates that scores between 90–100 is subjected to a high readiness for a leadership role. I believe the reason why I scored high on this quiz is because of my outgoing personality. I enjoy communicating and networking with others. I am always willing to help and teach others in need. I believe that many of the statements on the quiz exemplify my natural personality. I am a hard worker always ready to learn and help others. Quiz Reflection 1–2 Quiz 1–2 wants the reader to reflect on any leadership roles held in their present and past. During my 24 years of life I have had the honor of holding a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... After trial and error I became very comfortable speaking in front of large and small groups of people. For the statement "I am a winner more than a loser" I circled strongly agree. I circled strongly agree because life is a game. In all the situations where I failed or did not receive the outcome I was aiming for I did not consider that as a lost. In those life experiences I evaluated my areas of improvement and worked hard to conquer my goals. I believe that self–confidence is about not giving up on yourself and fighting through trying circumstances. Quiz Reflection 2–2 Quiz 2–2 measures the individual's behavior and attitude of a trustworthy leader. I know that I am a trustworthy and reliable person. However, no human is perfect and I still have many areas of improvements to mold myself into a great leader. I take pride in being a honest and trustworthy person. It is important to look people in the eye while you're talking to them as a form of respect. Many of my friends and family consider me as a reliable person. On a regular I try to collaborate with other people to seek guidance and also invent creative ideas. Some of the areas of improvement is accepting feedback on behaviors from others. This is a problem area for me I need to learn how to accept constructive criticism. Another area of improvement is communicating information to people at all organization levels digitally and in person. Since I recently began my new ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) functions as a criminal intelligence clearinghouse and exchanges confidential information with 240 agencies. Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN) is a unclassified network for sensitive information for operations, alerts, and notices. International Justice and Public Safety Network is a provider for motor vehicle and driver information for Canadian and INTERPOL databases. Accelerated Information Sharing for Law Enforcement (AISLE) provides Web services for law enforcement with messaging (XML) and information routing with (XMR). International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) located in Lyon, France shares information with 190 countries, each with a National Central Bureau, along with 7 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Essay on Intelligence Sharing: Intelligence and Law... Intelligence versus Law Enforcement Intelligence collection and apprehension of criminals have occurred for many years; however, with the exception of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, these actions were performed by different organizations. Nonetheless, roles and responsibilities have changed since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Intelligence–led policing and the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing program were incorporated, and fusion centers were established to help gather intelligence from different levels of the government. Although law enforcement at the local, state, and tribal levels aid in intelligence collection, it is important to ensure that intelligence gathered to protect national security and law enforcement ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Data can be collected through human sources, satellites, wiretapping, signals, and internet traffic. However, intelligence organizations must be in compliance with the law to ensure that they are not illegally collecting information (Chesney, 2012). Collection occurs because a threat is likely to occur or agencies are trying to find out what information our foreign adversaries possess about the nation's assets. Intelligence collection occurs in both domestic and foreign territories. Intelligence agencies collect information about foreign adversaries in order to exploit their weaknesses or vulnerabilities (Gentry, 2008). Furthermore, government agencies and political leaders want to discover which of the nation's assets are seen as vulnerable to the enemy (Gentry, 2008). Other intelligence operations also consist of covert, counterintelligence operations. Counterintelligence is usually used to collect information about the adversary and weaken foreign intelligence operations. Sabotage, spying, and infiltration are all characteristics of foreign intelligence operations. Covert operations hide the identity of the agent(s) or officer(s) executing the operations. If operations are compromised, this protects the agent(s) against retaliation from the enemy. The purpose of analysis is to evaluate the collected information and determine ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Different Styles And Strategies Of Policing There are many different styles and strategies of policing. Some have been well established in history and others have been developed more recently. One factor each method has in common is the goal to improve law enforcement. Some of these styles include Community Policing, Predictive Policing, Hot Spot Policing, Intelligence Led Policing, Problem Oriented Policing, and many more. Each one has its own benefits and drawbacks that must be considered thoroughly in order to best target crime. Community style policing is often described as a "philosophy" in which law enforcement and their officers work to build personal relationships with members of the community, according to The Organization for Security and Co–operation in Europe. The goal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Problem Oriented Policing involves analyzing problems that have arisen and determining whether or not they are a risk to become a larger, more uncontrollable dilemma. Another strategy I have studied is Reassurance Policing. This method involves investigating and then addressing the issues that the public has voiced concern over in order to reduce fear and hopefully crime as well. The varying strategies for policing can be confusing, but is necessary in order to best address crime in a community. By establishing different methods, studying, applying, and then analyzing them, officers are able to refine their activities in order to improve their performance. Also, many of these strategies address different types of issues that may arise in a community. For example, some methods are better for dealing with drunk driving, whereas others work well to prevent violent crimes. My method, titled Neighborhood Focus Policing, combines Community, Hot Spot, and Intelligence Led Policing in an effort to best target and reduce crime. In order to fully understand each policing strategy, it is helpful to identify the benefits and drawbacks to each individual method. For example, Community Policing is a strategy that focuses on foot patrol within a neighborhood in order to build personal relationships with individuals. The goal is to establish trust and work together towards reducing crime. Some goals of this strategy include the trust that is built between citizens and officers. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Community Policing Research Paper Different officers may have different ways to contribute to partnerships. For example, patrol officers have a unique position to help monitor and supervise supervisees (Parent and Snyder, 1999). Patrolling gives officers access to the supervisee and their social networks which can help provide knowledge of their activity (La Vigne, N. G., Solomon, A. L., Beckman, K. A., Dedel, K., & Center, J. P., 2006), this can be very valuable especially in cases which community corrections officers are mostly in their office and not in the field (Thornton et al. 2006). This can help with intervening before recidivism occurs due to being able to foresee issues that the supervisee may be having. This may help law enforcement officers prevent certain crime ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One way that partnerships help with public safety is that sharing information and resources can help track down those supervisees with outstanding warrants, absconders, and can share intelligence gathered about new crimes (Murphy, 2005). Community corrections officers can also help inform law enforcement about specific supervisees personal issues such as drug addiction, mental health problems, and more that can help law enforcement be more understanding and helpful to allow for alternatives other than arresting an individual. When agencies perceive that there is more of a benefit than a cost to partnerships they are more likely to join and participate in a collaboration (Rosenbaum, 2002). Partnerships have also been motivated by financial incentives by federal grants (Taxman et al., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Community Policing Pros And Cons mmigrant communities are not only a bastion of information on potential threats unfortunately, they often stand as the victims of terrorism themselves. At the first sign of an attack, a two–fold fear emerges that they will be directly victimized by the terrorists and that those in authority will target them in response (Newman & Castle, 2010). Through a substantial language barrier and a prominent clash of cultures, a heavy mistrust emerges between the police and these immigrant communities. As such, it becomes ever more vital to reach out to these communities through the use of community policing to ensure that all are properly supported and protected. In the current environment, terrorism prevention frequently emerges in the training–regiment ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... After 9–11 the police created partnerships to include leaders of Muslim communities to help prevent alienation (Stainbrook, 2010). Studies have shown Muslims who had identified with being an American, were the most likely to report suspicion of terrorism to authorities (Tyler, Schulhofer, & Huq, 2010).These partnerships can help reduce fear and suspicion for the police and Muslims and improve their relationship. William Bratton who was the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department, created a forum called the "Chief's Muslim Community Forum". The forum promoted safety and brought police and Muslim leaders together to collaborate (Downing, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...