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  1. 1. Urbanization<br />By Beth Darrow<br />
  2. 2. Clough Article<br />Mike Clough wrote an article that was titled “A Merger That Puts New York on Top”.<br />He explains that New York has had groups of companies joining together and this allows New York to have more power.<br />The merger he talks about is between the company America Online and Time Warner. <br />These are the leading Internet company and the leading media-entertainment company in the whole world. <br />If New York continues to have creative citizens who work hard for a better future, then New York will continue to be on top of her rivals: Southern California, the Bay Area, and Redmond, Washington.<br />
  3. 3. Joel kotkin’s articles<br />Kotkin, in his article titled “World Capitals for the Future” implies that the world is having an urban globalization going on.<br />Places like Moscow and Shanghai were once cheap and low places, now they are bustling with people and huge high-rises. They are more expensive cities than ever to be in.<br />In “Rome vs. Gotham” Kotkin writes about the explosion of government amid a decline in the private sector. <br />
  4. 4. America compared: Gridded lives<br />This article by Kate Brown talks about the similarities of Billings, Montana and Karaganda, Kazakhstan.<br />She shows that even though the settlers to move into Billings were not forced out of their homes, it was still the same abuse as those who really were physically forced out of their homes in Kazakhstan. <br />She shows how both settlements were built in a rectangular shape and how both settlements were built with a railroad at the center of the city.<br />She shows that if America is not careful, we too can become abusive just like the Soviet countries during the Cold War.<br />These are pictures of Kazakhstan (top) and Montana (bottom).<br />
  5. 5. The great transatlantic migrations<br />This article by Nugent from the book America Compared demonstrates the magnitude of foreigners who came from Europe between 1870 and 1914.<br />Tons of people came mainly from Europe during this time and a lot went to South American and Canada. But most went to the United States. <br />I like how the newcomers would meet up with their friends and relatives and would make little ethnic areas of their own culture within cities and communities. <br />All these people were starving or very poor, so they came for jobs above all else.<br />
  6. 6. The city in the land of the dollar<br />In WitoldRybcynski’s article in the book America Compared, he demonstrates how cities in the United States have a distinctive look.<br />We have cities that are shaped by rapid growth, the predominance of business rather than government, the cultural ideal of the private house, and the relentless rush of the car.<br />The new Chicago boasted a telephone system, electric streetcars, and steel-framed skyscrapers to the newcomers in the early 1870s.<br />Chicago was even tried to be built over like the great European capitols, but in reality, Chicago has a unique personality of its own.<br />
  7. 7. Foreign policy: global cities<br />The cities of the 21st century will be the source of where our government and societal bases are.<br />Cities are believed to be the next step in civilization and globalization.<br />Huge cities all around the world will be maintaining certain cultures within themselves and will proceed to influence their culture in surrounding communities.<br />Population growth all around the world has influenced foreign policy among the nations.<br />
  8. 8. Foreign Policy continued: Global cities<br />Cities are emerging with huge population growths from areas such as the Middle East and urbanized centers in China.<br />In our new culture of globalization, cities will be allowing their countries to interact with one another freely.<br />New policies in currencies have been established throughout the world to promote more spending and to expand globalization.<br />
  9. 9. Foreign policy continued: suburbs<br />Suburbs are also growing throughout the world, and they are growing especially within the United States.<br />Huge cities will be the main areas of international commerce and negotiation.<br />People will use all the technological advances that are available to them to connect themselves to other people and possible clients.<br />Joel Kotkin believes that little suburbs will be emerging throughout America and will be creating history for us among their own communities.<br />