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Lecture Week 3 Reseach Paper

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Bài giảng Writing (cô Hoa) week 3

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Lecture Week 3 Reseach Paper

  1. 1. KINDS OF RESEARCH : <ul><li>1. Library Research : </li></ul><ul><li>Find books and articles which can readily be found in the library, and on-line library </li></ul><ul><li>Find all sources that might exist dealing with the chosen topic </li></ul>
  2. 2. 2. Experimental Research : (Observation research or action research) <ul><li>+ The experimental paper focuses more on experimentation and/or observation. </li></ul><ul><li>The research must: </li></ul><ul><li>prepare a statement of problems </li></ul><ul><li>set up an experimental design: use of the questionnaire, interviews </li></ul><ul><li>record data </li></ul><ul><li>analyze data (statistically if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>draw conclusion to find the answers to the problem stated </li></ul>
  3. 3. Notecard Format : <ul><li>With the preliminary prepared, the student is now ready to begin his reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Armed with his working bibliography, the researcher is ready to approach his reading and note-taking in a systematic manner . </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher should supply himself with large – size index cards: 13 x 21 cm note cards. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher will carry note-cards with him whenever he is about to do any reading on his topic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The researcher should take his notes not by books, but in accordance with his preliminary outline. That is to say, from one source, he might have as many cards as there are topics in his outline. </li></ul><ul><li>As he reads and comes to some relevant information on one of the topics from his outline, he will take a card and enter the following: </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>(1). On the top line : the topic from the outline ( subject heading) </li></ul><ul><li>(2). In the upper right corner : the source number from the bibliography card </li></ul><ul><li>(3). The main part : The note taken </li></ul><ul><li>(4). In the lower right corner : the page number </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It will be noted that notes from more than one source may be entered on a single card . If the note from one source is rather brief, the notes from another source may be added. A line is drawn to separate the two sources and the second source number is placed in the right corners. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy in note-taking cannot be over – emphasized. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Don’t write on both sides of the card. (Have notes on one side only .) </li></ul><ul><li>All notes should be taken in ink since pencil will smudge. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t type your notes; it is impractical and a waste of time. </li></ul><ul><li>It is far better to take notes neatly and legibly once . As for taking notes to be typed later, this is nothing more than wasteful duplication. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>TYPES OF NOTES : </li></ul><ul><li>There are 5 basic types of notes that the student can take on his reading: </li></ul><ul><li>direct quotations, </li></ul><ul><li>paraphrase, </li></ul><ul><li>summary, </li></ul><ul><li>outline, and </li></ul><ul><li>personal reactions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1./ Direct Quotations : </li></ul><ul><li>a./ When to take notes in the form of direct quotations: </li></ul><ul><li>- When the researcher comes across ideas which are so effectively expressed that any changes in the phrasing would: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alter the author’s meaning or effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cause misunderstanding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>b./ While taking notes, the researcher : </li></ul><ul><li>- shouldn’t over-quote and use lengthy quotations. </li></ul><ul><li>- must exercise the greatest care to copy the original exactly, including any errors, and to place the entire statement in quotation marks. </li></ul><ul><li>- shouldn’t change the basic meaning, tone, or intent of the author. </li></ul><ul><li>- must indicate the page number or numbers from which he quoted since failure to acknowledge his source in his paper would be considered plagiarism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>c./ What should the researcher do when he finds that the source he is using is quoting from other source? </li></ul><ul><li>- Make use of this secondary source. </li></ul><ul><li>- Transcribe this quotation in single quotation marks and specifics, in addition to the page number, the original source. </li></ul><ul><li>d ./ Problems that the researcher might encounter when using quotations </li></ul><ul><li>- If there is some error in the quoted passage, [ sic ] is placed following the error to indicate that the error is in the original. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “Teaching adult learners require [ sic ] more advanced teaching skills than teaching traditional students.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>- If there is some information that the student wants to insert within the quoted matter, he must place it within brackets, and the insertion must conform grammatically and structurally to the quotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “They [adult learners] begin college classes with more fears and concerns than traditional younger students.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>- If there is some information that the student wants to insert within the quoted matter, he must place it within brackets, and the insertion must conform grammatically and structurally to the quotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “They [adult learners] begin college classes with more fears and concerns than traditional younger students.” </li></ul><ul><li>- If there is some part of the quotation that the student wants to omit, he may do so as long as the omission does not affect the meaning or tone of the quotation – by indicating the ellipsis with three spaced dots (…). </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A skillful instructor ”…develops strong intrinsic interest in the course by connecting each student’s plans.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2 ./ Paraphrase : <ul><li>- A paraphrase is an expression in your own words of an idea or passage written by someone else’s. In a good paraphrase, you show that you understand what has been written by changing the language while remaining faithful to the original meaning. In short, to paraphrase is to restate the material in the researcher’s own words. </li></ul><ul><li>- A paraphrase is always documented. Although the words are yours, the ideas are those of the original author. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples of Paraphrasing: <ul><li>CSE Style </li></ul><ul><li>Original : However, although humans are comparatively poor sprinters, they also engage in a different type of running, endurance running (ER), defined as running many kilometres over extended time periods using aerobic metabolism. Bramble DM, Lieberman DE. 2004. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo . Nature 438:345-52. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase : Having limited success in sprinting compared to other mammals, humans perform better in endurance running, which is a form of aerobic running over extended distances and periods of time (Bramble and Lieberman 2004). </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>APA Style </li></ul><ul><li>Original : In the current paper we will be examining responses to a particular type of imposter; the vegetarian who eats meat. We chose this example because the core norm of the vegetarian is very clear (to not eat meat), and violation of the norm is easily recognized.Hornsey, M.J. & Jetten, J. (2003). Not being what you claim to be: impostors assources of group threat. [Electronic version] European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 639-657. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase : Hornsey and Jetten (2003) investigated group responses to impostors. For the purposes of their study, the impostors were defined as vegetarians who go against the norm by eating meat. The “violation of the norm” in this particular situation is easily noticed (Hornsey and Jetten, p. 641). </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>MLA Style </li></ul><ul><li>Original : In The Sopranos , the mob is besieged as much by inner infidelity as it is by the federal government. Early in the series, the greatest threat to Tony's Family is his own biological family. One of his closest associates turns witness for the FBI, his mother colludes with his uncle to contract a hit on Tony, and his kids click through Web sites that track the federal crackdown in Tony's gangland.Fields, Ingrid Walker. “Family Values and Feudal Codes: The Social Politics ofAmerica’s Twenty-First Century Gangster.” Journal of Popular Culture 37.4(2004). Expanded Academic ASAP . Gale Group. Duke U Lib., Durham. 8 Dec. 2004. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Paraphrase : In the first season of The Sopranos , Tony Soprano’s mobster activities are more threatened by members of his biological family than by agents of the federal government. This familial betrayal is multi-pronged. Tony’s closest friend and associate is an FBI informant, his mother and uncle are conspiring to have him killed, and his children are surfing the Web for information about his activities (Fields). </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3./ S ummary : <ul><li>- The quantity of the notes will be in summary form. </li></ul><ul><li>- The summary is the gist of the passage stated in the student’s own words with no attempt made to retain the original tone, style, or point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>- Summaries may be written as lists, as brief paragraphs, or both. </li></ul><ul><li>- Page numbered must be indicated. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 4./ Outline : <ul><li>- The outline which highlights major ideas of a longer passage may be used. However, this form should be used sparingly, and when used, should conform to correct outline format. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 5./ Personal reactions and comments : <ul><li>- Write down your personal comments and reactions to the information from the source while taking notes. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use a different color ink or box your comments to distinguish your comments from the notes on the source. </li></ul>
  22. 22. While doing your reading, remember: <ul><ul><li>To keep revising your preliminary outline, adding topics, deleting others, condensing some and expanding others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make corresponding changes in the topics on your note-cards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do so, your preliminary outline is the actual outline of your research paper. </li></ul></ul>

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