Interoperability, networking and standards


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Presentation given by Jane Stevenson and Bethan Ruddock of the Archives Hub, Mimas, to MMU Library & Information Management students, Nov 2012

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  • In hypertext web sites it is considered generally rather bad etiquette not to link to related external material.  The value of your own information is very much a function of what it links to, as well as the inherent value of the information within the web page.  So it is also in the Semantic Web.Remember, this is about machines linking – machines need identifiers; humans generally know when something is a place or when it is a person. BBC + DBPedia + GeoNames + Archives Hub + Copac + VIAF = the Web as an exploratory space
  • Interoperability, networking and standards

    1. 1. Archives @archiveshub
    2. 2.  Archives are reaching (should reach) global audiences People access information online What does this mean for cataloguing? The way we catalogue needs to change The web is ubiquitous Machines are our intermediaries..and allies
    3. 3. The original finding aid?An archivist!Advantages: Disadvantages:Expert knowledge & Limited lifespaninterpretation Not easily sharedHuman-readable No search function Not machine-readable
    4. 4. Handwritten, typedAdvantages: Disadvantages:Durable (maybe) Not machine-readableHuman-readable Not easily sharedCan be kept with the Have to read individuallymaterials it describes Not searchableDoesn’t require specialtechnology
    5. 5. Includes word processeddocuments, PDFs, HTMLdocuments...Advantages DisadvantagesHuman-readable Content not machine-Can exchange via readableemail, web Might be locked intoDurable (maybe!) proprietary formatsSearchable (individually) Mark-up is about presentation, not structure or content
    6. 6. Advantages: Disadvantages:Human-readable (depending Proprietaryon the system) Badly designedMachine-readable Not always flexibleCan be exchanged and shared Need mapping for dataSearchable integrationCross-searchableDurableCan be standards-based
    7. 7. Advantages:Human-readable (withpractice)Machine-readable Disadvantages:Easily exchanged and sharedSearchable Technical barriersCross-searchable UnderstandingDurable Permissive standardsStandards-based Lack of tools
    8. 8. We can’t share or exchange data meaningfullywithout standards – they facilitateinteroperability.EAD: encoding standard based on ISAD(G): cataloguing standardStandards can give us a common vocabulary fordata exchange
    9. 9. Index terms provide a route into descriptionsUse standard terms taken from source/thesaurus Significant topics Drawing topics together Internal links for navigation Consistency Aid to discoveryUKAD indexing tutorial:
    10. 10. Will your description make sense to users outof context? Do you need to add extrainformation?Will your description make sense without youthere to explain?Have you usedarchival jargon?
    11. 11. Your descriptions are there to connect peoplewith the information they need.Think about what people need to know, andwrite your descriptions with a people-focus.Don’t stick to the rules if they’re not helpful!ISAD (G) doesn’t include some informationthat’s vital for the online environment.
    12. 12. Linked Data / Linking Data Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Webb, 1858-1943, social reformer Martha Beatrice Webb, 1858-1943, social reformer or
    13. 13.
    14. 14. Triple statement CreatedBy Archival Person Resource Created Subject: Archival Resource Predicate: CreatedBy Object: Person Subject > Predicate > Object
    15. 15.  If something is identified, it can be linked to We can then take items from one dataset and link them to items from other datasets BBC Copac VIAF DBPedia Archives GeoNames Hub
    16. 16. ‘Our role in using technology is really all aboutpeople. I often think of myself as themiddleman, between the technology (thedevelopers) and the audience.’
    17. 17.  On an index card, write: The Stanley Kubrick Archive c.1945-2002 853 linear metres
    18. 18. ISAD(G) mandatory fields: 3.1.1 Reference code 3.1.3 Title 3.2.1 Name of Creator 3.1.3 Dates of Creation 3.1.5 Extent of the Unit of Description 3.1.4 Level of description
    19. 19. Look at your index card. What informationwould need to be added/changed for an onlineaudience?
    20. 20. The Archives Hub has these additionalmandatory fields: Repository name Reference for a global environment Language Conditions governing access Scope & content
    21. 21. University of the Arts, LondonThe Stanley Kubrick ArchiveGB 3184 SKStanley Kubrickc1945-2002853 linear metresFondsEnglishThis collection is open for consultationThe collection spans Kubricks entire career from his time as a photographer in the1940s and early 1950s until his last film in 1999 (Eyes Wide Shut). Kubrick diedduring the editing of Eyes Wide Shut and some items relating to the release/finishedversion were added by his staff. They have been included because they were heldwith the main collection, at the creators home, following the pattern of what he keptand were deposited with the Archive.The collection covers the film making process from pre until post production and includes:…
    22. 22. Repository University of the Arts, LondonTitle The Stanley Kubrick ArchiveReference GB 3184 SKCreator Stanley KubrickDates c1945-2002Extent 853 linear metresLevel FondsLanguage English
    23. 23. ‘Dublin Core is an independent international metadatastandard managed by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative(DCMI). The DCMI promotes interoperable metadatastandards for information discovery and in particularmaintains a core set of metadata elements. The standard hasbeen designed in consultation with informationprofessionals, including librarians, curators and archivists.Like all metadata standards, Dublin Core consists of a set ofmetadata elements that are designed to capture informationabout a resource, be it electronic or physical, and allow thatinformation to be shared. The building blocks of Dublin Coreare the 15 simple metadata elements available at The full set ofterms is at .’
    24. 24.  Contributor  Publisher Coverage  Relation Creator  Rights Date  Source Description  Subject Format  Title Identifier  Type Language
    25. 25. XML is a markup that facilitates data exchange.It is created from pairs of tags, eg:<books> <title>Alice in Wonderland</title> <author>Lewis Carroll</author> <extent>1 volume</extent> <format>hardback</format></books>Tags must be correctly nested and paired.
    26. 26. In pairs, agree tags for this data: University of the Arts, London The Stanley Kubrick Archive Stanley Kubrick c1945-2002
    27. 27. One answer:<repository>University of the Arts, London</repository> <title> The Stanley Kubrick Archive </title> <originator> Stanley Kubrick </originator> <unitdate>c1945-2002</unitdate>
    28. 28. EAD is XML for archives: it allows for themeaningful exchange of archivedescriptions, using an agreed-upon standard.Archivists all over the world have agreed whatthe EAD terms mean. Thus we can say that<origination> should always contain thename/s of the creating enitity/ies.XML is an international, interoperable formatfor data exchange.
    29. 29.