Successfully reported this slideshow.

The feasts


Published on


  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The feasts

  1. 1. THE FEASTS by Steve and Terri White"That your trust may be in the Lord, I have made known to you this day, even to you.Have not I written to you excellent things in counsels and knowledge, that I mightmake you know the certainty of the words of truth; that you might answer the wordsof truth to those who send to you?" Prov. 22:19-21The word excellent, as used here, is the Hebrew word shalish meaning three-fold, orweighty. It is most interesting to note that Youngs literal translation renders it, "HaveI not written to you three times with counsels and knowledge?" A free translationwould run, Have I not written unto you three-fold things? Three-fold things are theexcellent things of God, things that have depth upon depth upon depth in theirmeaning. This three-fold principle is revealed again and again in scripture, unfoldingthe truth appointed for His overcoming Bride.God has promised to meet with man in three dimensions. As we will see in our studyof the Feasts, He has already met man in the first and second realms, and is preparingto meet with us yet a third time. The Old Covenant pattern is clear: "Three times in ayear shall all your males appear before the Lord your God in the place which He shallchoose; in the Feast of Unleavened Bread [Passover], and in the Feast of Weeks[Pentecost], and in the Feast of Tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lordempty" (Deut. 16:16). God says that He will meet with man three times in the threegreat Feasts of the Lord. To "appear before the Lord" designates not only an action onour part, but a reciprocal action on God’s part. Not only must we appear, but He mustappear! It is a joint-meeting in which we appear before Him, or as Paulexplained, "When Christ, who is our life shall appear, then shall you also appear withHim in glory" (Col. 3:4). The Feasts were but types and shadows of those things thatwere yet to come. They were a shadow (type/pattern) of God’s plan for this worldeven to the very end of the ages. An Old Testament type is literally a word picture oran object lesson that pre-figures that which is to come; it is an exact shadow of thatwhich does not yet exist. Paul spoke of those things which happened to Israel in theirwilderness journey, "Now all these things happened unto them for examples, and theyare written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the world [age] are come" (ICor. 10:11).Together, these three feasts foreshadow the New Covenant. The first two, Passoverand Pentecost, have been fulfilled and are still being fulfilled in the Body of Christtoday. The last Feast, Tabernacles, still waits a future fulfillment that will begin at thecompletion and maturity of the ‘Corporate Christ’ at the end of this age. Because of
  2. 2. their typical nature, the Feasts have many times been overlooked as to their greatsignificance in the proper interpretation of Bible prophecy.In order to understand the Feasts, it is helpful to trace the origin of the word itself.When we speak of a feast, we are prone to picture a banquet of rich foods and anevening of entertainment. That, however, is not the original concept of the word.Festival more accurately expresses the thought. It suggests gala attire, parades,singing, dancing – a holiday spent in celebrating some new event or incommemorating one in the past. From the earliest times it was the custom of heathenpeoples to observe certain festal days. Primarily these seasons were for the purpose ofworshiping or appeasing their idol gods. The occasion gave them an opportunity toopenly display their beliefs, by various forms of art and ceremony, and thus to instructall who witnessed the celebration in the tenets of their religion.The Hebrew word translated feast is chag, and it refers to a sacred feast, not anordinary meal given for entertainment. Its original meaning is a procession, a dance,or a public dramatization of some event accompanied by eating and drinking. It issignificant that the Israelites’ feasting began with their deliverance, and that the ideaoriginated with the Lord and not the Israelites. He desired to take His people into thewilderness so that they might worship Him and keep a Feast with Him. He revealedHis will through Moses: "And Moses said, We will go with our young and with ourold, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will wego; for we must hold a Feast unto the LORD" (Ex. 10:9). How precious it is that wehave a God who deeply desires to feast with His people – a God who from thebeginning has tried to show us that His greatest delight is not in showing Hisauthority, but in enjoying an intimate relationship with His children (koinonia). TheFeast means that God and man are brought together; the Lord appears to man toassociate intimately with him. Christ comes in three Feasts, three unique andwonderful relationships between Himself and His people.The Feasts have at least three aspects to them:Memorial: They were done in memory of something; they pointed back to somethingGod had done. The Feast of Passover was kept in memory of Israels deliverance fromslavery and bondage in Egypt. The Feast of Pentecost was given in memory of thegiving of the Law at Mount Sinai as the children of Israel passed through the desert ontheir way to the land of promise. The Feast of Tabernacles was kept in memory oftheir entering into the land of promise and into their full inheritance and possession.So each of the Feasts were instituted as a memorial to something grand and gloriousthat God had done for His people.
  3. 3. Prophetic: Not only pointing to the past as a memorial, but they also pointed to thefuture. They foreshadowed something that God was going to do for His people. Theprophetic aspect of the Passover was that the slaying of the lamb foreshadowedChrist’s death on Calvary as the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world.The Feast of Pentecost was prophetic of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit by whichthe Law of God, written at Sinai upon tablets of stone, would be finally written by theSpirit of God upon our hearts. The Feast of Tabernacles points to that "perfect man . .. the fullness of Christ" (Ephesians 4:13) – Christ fully glorified in His Bride.Experiential: Each Feast finds its fulfillment in our personal, progressive walk inGod. In Passover we see a picture of our justification. In the Feast of Pentecost wehave a picture of our baptism with the Holy Spirit, the ‘firstfruits’ of our inheritance.In the Feast of Tabernacles we find a picture of our glorification, our entrance into thefullness of our inheritance and possession in God, even all the wisdom, knowledge,life, victory, nature, and power of the Almighty.A feast involves an appointed day, a public assembly at a fixed time or season. Thefeast days were occasions when Israel kept divine appointments, times when theyassembled before the Lord in great joy and festivity. All their worship centered aroundthese three major religious festivals. Our Redeemer has also set some appointmentsfor us, and He expects us to keep them. Only by keeping these divine appointmentscan we meet with Him or know and experience Him in His ‘comings and appearings’.The sublime truth is not merely that we are called to appear before Him in the Feast,but that He comes to the Feast. He appears in the Feast: in Passover we meet the Son;in Pentecost we meet the Spirit; and in Tabernacles we meet the Father. God in Christcomes to us in three dimensions in the Feasts. Furthermore, there is a completesalvation that God has ordained for man in spirit, soul and body, and these threeFeasts provide for it all."For the earth yields crops by itself: first the blade [Passover], thenthe head [Pentecost], after that the full grain [Tabernacles] in the head." (Mark 4:28)FEAST OF PASSOVERThis feast was instituted while the Hebrews were still in Egypt. Before the tenthplague brought death to every first born, God provided a means for the death angel topass over the home of those who obeyed Him, and to prepare them for a new life as aseparated and holy nation. The faithful observance of the rites and ceremoniesconnected to this event would mean the preservation of Israel in the hour of God’sjudgment upon the land of Egypt, and the beginning of a new era for the people ofGod. On the tenth day of the first month, they were to select a lamb without blemishfrom the flock, and they were to keep it until the evening of the fourteenth day. Then
  4. 4. it was to be killed and its flesh was to be eaten. Its blood was to be applied on thelintel and the two doorposts on all their houses. This was the means of their salvationin view of the coming judgment that night. The Lord’s promise to them was,". . .whenI see the blood, I will pass over you. . ." (Ex. 12:13)In the New Covenant, Jesus is our ‘Passover Lamb’. He laid down His life withoutcomplaint, was wounded for our transgressions, and was bruised for our iniquities.When a sinner repents and surrenders to the Lord, Jesus’ blood is applied to his heart,bringing forgiveness and birthing him into the Body of Christ. He is redeemed (Eph.1:7), justified (Rom.5:9), has peace with God (Col. 1:20), and experiences restoredfellowship with our heavenly Father (Eph. 2:13). Indeed, the Passover experience is abrand new beginning – a new life – for the child of God. Old things begin to passaway, and all things begin to become new. The bondage of the world and sin, the oldlifestyle of serving the lusts of the flesh is left behind, giving way to a new walk in theSpirit of God.Jesus died on Calvary long ago, but He appeared to you personally as your sinoffering in the here and now, and you beheld Him in spirit hanging upon a tree foryou. Historically He came as the Passover Lamb two milleniums ago, but by the HolySpirit, He appeared to you as that same Jesus, and brought His death into your present,in a manner more real and wonderful than it was to those who stood gazing in shockedanguish at the foot of the cross that day at Jerusalem. When He appeared to you asyour Passover Lamb, you beheld Him in the spirit. It was not the shadow of the Manof Galilee that you saw, but the One who was slain in the realm of the spirit from thefoundation of the world. He became manifested in power in your life in the true Feastof Passover, not in the shadow, but in the substance. He came to you as the Lamb, inthe eternal and infinite power of His blood, in the authority of His life, and a new andglorious day dawned for you, a new beginning.Historically and experientially the death of Jesus Christ was the first step in theprocess of producing a spiritual kingdom of people who would eventually rule andreign with the Lord over the earth and all things. Jesus spoke of the fruit of His deathin this manner: "The hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified. Verily,verily, I say to you, except a grain of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abidesalone: but if it dies, it brings forth much fruit" (Jn. 12:23-24). Jesus died that throughHis death He might become the firstfruit of a vast family of sons of God who wouldfollow Him.FEAST OF PENTECOSTThe Feast of Pentecost was the second of Israel’s three annual Feasts, celebrated inthe third month, and was called many names – the Feast of Harvest, the Feast of
  5. 5. Weeks, the Feast of Firstfruits of Israel’s Labor, and the Feast of Pentecost, meaning‘fiftieth’ (the Feast began on the fiftieth day after the Passover Sabbath, Lev. 23:15-16). This, of course, parallels exactly with the fulfillment of the type in the NewCovenant. When Christ arose from the dead, He continued with the disciples fortydays, "speaking of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God" (Acts 1:3). Then Hedeparted into heaven, and after ten days (at the time of Israels Feast of Pentecost), Hesent the Holy Spirit upon the waiting disciples.The Feast of Pentecost was a feast kept in remembrance of an historical event in Israelrecorded for us in Exodus 19 - 23. Fifty days after the Israelites had been deliveredfrom the bondage of Egypt by the blood of the Passover lamb, they came to MountSinai. It was at this moment that the presence of God came down in a way that God’speople had never known before. It was a new manifestation of God’s power and glory.The Bible says that Mount Sinai was shaking and on fire and the voice of God washeard out of the midst of the fire in an awesome way. The words God spoke on MountSinai were the Ten Commandments and various other commandments given to Mosesfor the people. God commanded the people of Israel to keep the Feast of Pentecost toremind them of their experience at Sinai.While all the details of the Feast of Pentecost pointed back to the power and glory ofGod when He met with His people at Mount Sinai and to the Law given to them atthat time and place, it also pointed forward in time. It was a shadow of something tocome – the New Covenant manifestation of God’s power and nature. In Acts 2 whilethe Jews were keeping the Feast of Pentecost fifty days after Passover, the disciples ofJesus were experiencing its fulfillment fifty days after the Passover Lamb had beenslain on Calvary. God spoke with His people in an altogether new way from MountSinai. Just as God’s presence came down in fire upon Mount Sinai and God spokeaudibly, "there appeared to them divided tongues as of fire, and one sat upon each ofthem" and the 120 "began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave themutterance" while receiving the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in their lives. God wroteHis Holy Law on tablets of stone on Mount Sinai, but at the spiritual Pentecost, Heinscribed His Law upon mens hearts by the transforming power of His indwellingSpirit (Ezek.36:26,27). "Behold, the days come, says the Lord, when I will make anew covenant with the house of Israel... not according to the covenant that I madewith their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the landof Egypt. For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after thosedays, says the Lord; I will put My Laws into their mind, and write them in theirhearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people" (Jer. 31:31-34;Heb. 8:8-10).It is important that the Feast of Pentecost occurred at a separate point in time from thePassover and was different from the previous Feast. This Feast, like the first, was also
  6. 6. associated with the harvest. Whereas Passover was held at the time of barley harvest,Pentecost was held at the beginning of wheat harvest (Ex. 34:22). Therefore, as theFeasts were associated with a progression in harvest, in the New Covenant theyspeak of the ongoing process of spiritual maturity in the life of the believer. Thereis a continuous process of sowing and reaping throughout the believer’s walk with theLord. We do not receive the life of our Lord in full measure at the time of ourconversion at the Feast of Passover, but we continually "put on the Lord Jesus Christ"(Rom. 13:14; Eph. 4:24). We are to be progressively transformed into His imagefrom glory to glory until finally we arrive at the measure of the stature of the fullnessof the Christ (II Cor.3:18; Eph.3:19;4:13). That’s the heart-cry of God in this hour. Hewants to mature a people and fill them withall His fullness.In Israel of old the Feast of Pentecost was the feast of the harvest, the firstfruits oftheir labors (Deut. 16:9-12; Ex. 23:16; 34:22). Celebrated at the beginning of theharvest, each family brought a sheaf of the firstfruits of their harvest to the priest(Lev. 23:10). In the New Covenant it is fulfilled spiritually as "the firstfruits of theSpirit" (Rom. 8:23). As believers we experience Christ’s coming in the Feast ofPentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, receiving a guarantee [down payment]of the Spirit – a deposit or first installment (II Cor. 1:22; 5:5). The balance mustfollow. The fullness is guaranteed by the first installment. In other words, He iscoming again to pour out all His glorious and eternal fullness in great power andglory!The Spirit-filled believer anticipates the fullness of God on the basis of this humblebeginning. The firstfruits of the Spirit is at once a possession, a rich, blessed, andunquestionable reality – an initial endowment. As an initial gift, it stands in directline with the expectation. The baptism in the Holy Spirit is the guarantee of our fullinheritance (Eph. 1:14). "Who has also sealed us, and given the Spirit in our hearts asa deposit" (II Cor. 1:22). This scripture tells us that a down payment has been made tous by God. When we put something in lay-away at a store, we have to put down acertain percentage of money on the purchase. That money is the same thing as adeposit (guarantee/earnest). Partial payment is given in anticipation of the completefulfillment of the transaction. We have earnest expectations or foretastes of theKingdom as we see it now on its very smallest scale, but we are encouraged to "girdup the loins of your mind, and be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to bebrought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (I Pet. 1:13).FEAST OF TABERNACLESScripture predicts a time to come when the Lord will move mightily by His Spirit. Atthat time the Lord will restore that which was lost all through the ages past and thelong night of man’s rebellion against God. There is an event soon to take place which
  7. 7. will overshadow all former, lesser manifestations of God’s glory and power in theearth. The glories of this great event will bring to fulfillment the restitution of allthings. The grandeur, the splendor, the glory, and the great power of God to bemanifest at the time of this great event is impossible for us to comprehend presently,for we are still living and moving, for the most part, under the economy of thefirstfruits of God’s Spirit. The grand and glorious event to which we refer is thecoming of Christ in the Feast of Tabernacles (or Feast of Ingathering, Exodus 23:16).Passover has come, Pentecost has come, and Tabernacles must come, for each is apart of God’s great plan for His people (Ezek. 47:1-9). Sadly, however, men seek topostpone the last Feast to some future age, give it to the Jews, or relegate it to heaven,and consequently the real spiritual meaning of the Feast of Tabernacles is completelyobscured and lost. The grand truth is that like the others, the Feast of Tabernacles willbe fulfilled in the Body of Christ right here on earth. It will be fulfilled in the NewCovenant Age, it will be fulfilled in us individually, and it will be fulfilled in us as theCorporate Man – the Body of Christ. ". . . in the ages to come He might show theexceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us through Christ Jesus" (Eph.2:7; see also Eph. 1:10,21-23).The Feast of Tabernacles speaks to us of two things: abundance of fruit and rest fromour labors when the harvest is complete. What sets the Feast of Tabernacles apartfrom the others is the abundance enjoyed during the Feast. It’s the full harvest. At thecelebration of Tabernacles, not only had the barley and wheat been harvested, but alsoall other grains, fruit of trees, olives, grapes, all that could possibly serve as food ordrink. The harvest was complete. Spiritually, this reveals the beautiful unfolding ofGod’s purpose, the manifestation of Himself throughout the New Covenant, right upto the present time. There shall yet come, however, the ultimate, the total, and thecomplete revelation of Jesus Christ - not a narrow, limited thing, not just to get anumber of people saved, filled with the Spirit, healed, blessed, and used. TheKingdom of God will come as an expression and a manifestation of God in Histotal capacity with no limitations, with all the power, all the glory, all the might, allthe majesty, all the authority, so that nations will be swept into the Kingdom of God,creation delivered, and the last enemy, even death, destroyed from the face of theearth forever. What bright and glorious prospects loom before all who press on to theFeast of Tabernacles! (Zech. 14:16; Rev. 15:4; Eph. 1:10,23; 2:7; Rev. 21 & 22)Since the Church’s birth, almost every generation has known something of anoutpouring of the Holy Spirit. Most of these moves would have to be characterized assomething less than worldwide. They swept cities, states, even nations at times, butfew were global. But now, even beyond the strength and influence of the celebrationof the Feasts of Passover and Pentecost, there has been released from heaven in thelast several years an even greater sense of expectancy. It is the expectancy that all
  8. 8. heaven is about to break loose in the midst of the Lord’s elect on a worldwide basis.God is raising up voices everywhere to say that the earth is about to see the glory ofGod in a most remarkable way. "And the glory of the Lord will be revealed, and allmankind together will see it" (Isa. 40:5). What we are proclaiming is that there is athird experience in God. There is a visitation, an appearing, and a coming of the Lordcalled Tabernacles that is going to come to pass in the Church, right here on thisearth, and the implications of this Feast go far beyond anything we could possiblyimagine.God is speaking to His people today and saying to us as He said to Israel at MountSinai, "You have kept this Feast of Pentecost long enough . . . you have enjoyed thisrealm to the fullest. It is time to move. Pack up your tents and begin to move. Leavethis realm; embrace the experience and use it, but move on in Me." I think there aremore movements built around the Pentecostal mountain than any other experiencefrom God. We have the "tongues" group, the "prophecy" group, the "revival" group,the "Jesus’ Name" group, the "healing" group, the "deliverance" group, the "NewTestament Church" group, the "praise" group, the "Word" group, the "faith" group,the "shepherding" group, and many others. There is nothing wrong with each of theseexperiences and revelations when they are kept in balance. We need them working inour lives. But when we shift our bearings from God Himself and place them on any ofthese experiences and continue to go around and around them as though these werethe ultimate, we are in serious trouble. These various experiences are not ourinheritance, but merely a means by which we come into the Lord’s fullness. God willplead with us to move on, He will urge us onward for a season, but if the call is notheeded, He will move on. Those who will not heed His call will march around andaround their little mountain until they die in that terrible wilderness.Though we find deep satisfaction in the sweet communion that we have with Himnow as He journeys with us through the wilderness, how our hearts long for a closerrelationship with our precious Lord. No words can express the joy that is ours whenwe walk and talk with Him by the way, but we yearn for His fullness when all veilsand limitations of earth shall forever pass away. There are times when He makesHimself so real that our small capacity can hardly stand the strain of such revelations.It is as though we were bringing a pint cup to receive the waters of Niagara; even theearthen vessel is almost carried away. But the day is coming when our capacity shallbe so enlarged that we can receive the full unveiling of our Lord and the glories thatare His. He will give us such revelations of the Father that we shall indeed enter intoHis joy and glory. Then we shall see Him face to face, and shall behold all thingsclearly, with nothing between to obscure the vision. This mortal shall have put onimmortality, and this corruptible shall have put on the incorruptible I Cor. 13:12;
  9. 9. 15:53; I Jn. 3:2). The Father’s name will be written in our foreheads (Rev. 22:4) onthis earth.The Feast of Tabernacles took place on the 15th day of the 7th month (aroundOctober) and lasted seven days. (The number 7 means fullness, perfection.) Just asJesus fulfilled the Feast of Passover during Passover season, and the Holy Spirit waspoured out during the Feast of Pentecost, we expect that the Bride of Christ will bedramatically birthed on this earth in a blaze of earth-shaking supernatural power andglory during the Feast of Tabernacles time. They will be the firstfruits that will enterinto His fullness, the total incarnation of God upon earth. When the Lord comes ina mighty way at the Feast of Tabernacles, all flesh shall see the salvation and glory ofthe Lord. Whatever the year may be, the manifestation of the sons of God will takeplace when the Feast of Tabernacles is ‘fully come.’ The greatest of all spectacularsthe world has ever witnessed will be when He erupts from within His many-membered body in the fullness of which Pentecost has been only a foretaste. Theinhabitants of the earth will know that this is no natural phenomenon, no traditionalreligious service, and deep within the Voice shall witness: truly, this is the Son ofGod! The effulgence of His Person shall appear upon His chosen ones – the intensityof His brilliance – equating to that of seven suns, shining through the undulating‘garment’ composed of tens of thousands of glorified saints, a star-studded, super-spectacular, seven times the power of Pentecost. The likes of which has never beenwitnessed by man since the dawn of creation. (II Thes.1:7-11; I Cor. 15:44-57; Rom.8:17-23; I John 3:2; Ezek. 47:5-9)The spiritual Feast of Tabernacles is the full manifestation of God IN His sons (Eph.1:10; 4:13-16 Amplified Bible). There is coming a day, the glory of which isindescribable, when the Christ shall be manifested in an all glorious manner, andthe source of His highest triumphs will be what is seen in the saints. His mainhonor, when He comes in the Feast of Tabernacles, will not be the outward splendors,nor the angels which will accompany Him, nor the display of His power over theelements and all laws of nature, but His main honor will be the saints who have beenmade one in Him, and through whom He will be revealed ("His inheritance in thesaints" Eph. 1:18). He will then be admired and glorified in His true body – the Bodyof Christ – to a total and ultimate degree.There is a Church, His Body, "which is the fullness of Him that fills all in all" (Eph.1:23). The Church is the fullness of Christ. Fullness is a word not easily explained inour language; it is like a full blown rose with every petal seen. The Church – the rose– is here in a visible way upon earth, and in the Feast of Tabernacles, all that God iscomes out through His Body. Christ is the fullness of God, and the Church is thefullness of Christ. Nothing, therefore, can be clearer than the fact that the Body ofChrist, notwithstanding that it has manifested much carnality, weakness, blundering
  10. 10. and failure through this age, will come out in the end as the magnificent exhibition ofall the beauty of God’s Christ. The saints shall be the expression of the full glory ofthe incomparable Son of God, for they are His fullness.CONCLUSIONThe three Feasts are the New Covenant. They are a progressive revelation that leadsus to the fullness of God, the fulfillment of all things. "But we all, with unveiled face,beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the sameimage from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord" (II Cor. 3:18). God’spurpose in the first two Feasts has not been to deliver the whole creation, but to takeout a people for His name (II Cor. 6:16) in order that He might display in the ages tocome the transcendent riches of his grace (Eph. 2:7). Having accomplished Hispurpose in Passover/Pentecost, the Lord will then use the finished product fromTabernacles – a company of sons in His own image – to be the deliverers of creation(Rom. 8:19). Not only does God restore all that was lost in the Garden, but he farsurpasses that given to Adam in the Covenant of Creation. ". . . The first man Adambecame a living being. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. . . as we have bornethe image of the man of dust [Adam], we shall also bear the image of the heavenlyMan [Jesus]" (I Cor. 15:45-49). Through His Body, God will fill the earth withHis glory and He will be all in all (I Cor. 15:28; Numb. 14:21; Ps. 72:19; Is. 6:3).NOTE: It is the ‘koinonia cross’ that births the expression of the ‘corporate Christ’ --the collective Body of Christ. God’s vision is not centered so much on the individualas on the Church; nor are His mighty works done through a single member, butthrough the Body. The truth of the Vine-branch relationship, however, must first be anindividual experience before the believer can participate in the wider corporateimplications. It is in the Feast of Tabernacles that this glorious expression of the‘corporate Christ’ will be manifested, ushering in the full harvest.Once you begin to see this glorious revelation of Gods intention to fully manifestHimself in/through His Body, you will see it all throughout the Bible expressed inmany different ways. The following are just a few examples: Tabernacle in the wilderness First, second, & third day Harvest principles: [a] early rain, summer rain, latter rain; [b] blade, head, full grain Sonship process: child, tutoring/maturing, adoption (full inheritance)