Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Theory and Practice: Foundations for Effective Technology Integration This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  2. 2. Ingredients for Successful Technology Integration 1. Foundation of learning theories 2. Technology pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) 3. Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP) 4. Essential conditions for integration M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.2
  3. 3. Learning Theories as Basis for Integration Models Integrated Directed M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Constructivist 2.3
  4. 4. Directed Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base  Behaviorist theory – Learning as a stimulus-response – B. F. Skinner – Mastery learning  Information-processing theory – The mind as a computer – Atkinson and Shiffrin – Sensory registers M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.4
  5. 5. Directed Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base (continued)  Cognitive-behavioral theory – Providing conditions for learning – Robert Gagné – Learning hierarchies and events of instruction  Systems theory and systematic instructional design – Managing the complexity of teaching M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.5
  6. 6. Inquiry-based Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base  Social activism theory – Learning as a social experience – John Dewey – Constructivism  Scaffolding theory – Learning as a cognitive building process – Lev Vygotsky – Zone of proximal development M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.6
  7. 7. Inquiry-based Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base (continued)  Child development theory – Stages of development – Jean Piaget  Discovery learning – Instructional support for child development – Jerome Bruner  Multiple Intelligences theories – Role of intelligence in learning – Howard Gardner M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.7
  8. 8. Technology Integration Strategies Based on Each Model Do ied rtdls ce e M Cse otto nvd sM tc ls ri u rene eidde mw dtek yi a en fs B o t h oe rild sft kic s pfe ron olur mo tc ey fserlm oao trte eip cb rve satco ono linm vdg geitn a n aru loltle w fm op i inc tlie ee g n s getnr emla note etan r iio avo t attoq ucpis tmu oyet afr e i ospe pcel tizrrn ims eo a e atrro niars dle mu as ec e pfcsc ridefa oinp v ted e,l-e beon undd ilms dlm te ala inkds cnee rswfr eotn ale eg r a isn no tc rt u i roitae elolht muo vsrs ecd gl i le a rg n i sredo ulfavf p-cie ope t ew sr cp o n c e t s M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E dinioc efrary von em lotlie p ta Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. auas nac ditry vek il s s il fsop oue trprio eca gon rt 2.8
  9. 9. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Model (TPACK) M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.9
  10. 10. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.10
  11. 11. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 1  Reflect on technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)  Self-assess knowledge domains – – – – What is my knowledge of technology (TK)? What is my knowledge of pedagogy (PK)? What is my knowledge of content (CK)? Where do I see myself in the TPACK model? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.11
  12. 12. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 2  Determine relative advantage  Why should I use a technology-based method? – What is the instructional problem I am addressing? – Do technology-based methods offer a solution with sufficient relative advantage? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.12
  13. 13. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 3  Decide on objectives and assessments  How will I know students have learned? – What outcomes do I expect from using new methods? – What are the best ways of assessing these outcomes? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.13
  14. 14. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 4  Design integration strategies  What teaching strategies and activities will work best? – What kinds of instructional methods are needed? – How can technology best support these methods? – How can I prepare students adequately to use technologies? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.14
  15. 15. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 5  Prepare the instructional environment  Are essential conditions in place to support technology integration? – What equipment, software, media, and materials will I need to carry out instructional strategies? – How should resources be arranged to support instruction and learning? – What planning is required to make sure technology resources work well? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.15
  16. 16. Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Phase 6  Evaluate and revise integration strategies  What worked well? What could be improved? – How well has the technology integration strategy worked? – What could be improved to make it work better? M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.16
  17. 17. Essential Conditions for Effective Technology Integration M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.17
  18. 18. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Shared Vision for Technology Integration  Coordinated school and district planning, and involve teachers and other personnel at all levels  Budget yearly amounts for technology purchases and make funding incremental  Emphasize teacher training  Match technology to curriculum needs  Keep current and build in flexibility M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.18
  19. 19. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Empowered Leaders  Systematic success with technology requires involvement of entire community  Stakeholders at all levels are informed about the goals of the community, district and school M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.19
  20. 20. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Standards and Curriculum Support  Technology and content-area standards support each other  NETS for Students situated to: – Support both subject-area content and technology skills – Align with a shared vision to achieve goals M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.20
  21. 21. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Required Policies  Internet use policies – Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)  Legal/ethical use policies  Policies to insure equity  Financial assistance, incentives, and accountability policies M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.21
  22. 22. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Access to Hardware, Software, & Other Resources     Finding funding Purchasing hardware and software Setting up and maintaining physical facilities Sustainability M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.22
  23. 23. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Skilled Personnel and Opportunities for PD  Hands-on, integration emphasis  Training over time  Modeling, mentoring, and coaching  Post-training access M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.23
  24. 24. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Technical Assistance  Teachers trained in troubleshooting procedures  Teachers not expected to address complicated diagnostic and maintenance problems  Schools must support teachers by replacing and repairing equipment M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.24
  25. 25. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Appropriate Teaching and Assessment Approaches  Teachers should be encouraged to use a variety of technology integration models  Teaching strategies must be matched with appropriate assessment strategies M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.25
  26. 26. Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Engaged Communities  Partnerships are encouraged between schools, business, corporations and individuals  Partnerships typically benefit all partners M. D. Roblyer & Aaron H. Doering Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 5/E Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2.26

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