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Tourism And Sustainable Development 1


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Tourism And Sustainable Development 1

  1. 1. “ Assets to Action: Unmasking Africa's Diverse Resources in a Challenging Era” Besa Vormatu-Dzelumadzekpo Graduate Fellow, Sustainable Development and Climate Change Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), New York. “ Tourism in Africa: A Viable Revenue Source” Developing Africa’s Tourism Resources For Poverty Alleviation - A Strategic View
  2. 2. “ Knowledge Is Like A Baobab Tree, The Arms Cannot Encircle It Completely” – An African Adage
  3. 3. Contents <ul><ul><li>Overview of Global Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating A Sustainable Eco-Heritage Tourism Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing the Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview Of Global Tourism
  5. 5. Tourism Statistics by Region *Provisional estimates ** Projection Source: Source: Source: Region Share % (2008) International Arrivals (2008)* Receipts (billions) 2007 International Arrivals (2020)** Europe 52.9 488.5 million 433.4 45.9% Americas 16.0 147.6 million 171.1 18.1% Asia and the Pacific 20.4 188.3 million 188.9 26.6% Middle East 5.7 52.9 million 34.2 4.4% Africa 4.7 46.9 million 28.3 5.0 % World 100 924 million 856 1.2 billion
  6. 6. Creating A Sustainable Eco-Heritage Tourism Industry
  7. 7. Objectives of Tourism Development <ul><li>Offer Unique Experiences Of The Attractions To Visitors In Fulfillment Of Their Motivations (Meet and Exceed Tourist Expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Alternative/Additional Income For Communities , Revenue For Statutory Bodies, and Create Economic Opportunities In The Private Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Create Awareness And Appreciation Of The Value Of Natural and Cultural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Create A Constituency For Conservation Of Natural Resources and Preservation of Cultural Resources </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Subject To The Vagaries Of Donor And Philanthropy Support </li></ul>View of Practitioners Conservation View Development View Eco-Heritage Tourism <ul><li>As A Tool For Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>In Fulfillment Of Ideals </li></ul><ul><li>As A Tool For Development </li></ul><ul><li>In Fulfillment Of International </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions/Agreements </li></ul>
  9. 9. Balancing The Act: The Strategic Partnership Nexus
  10. 10. <ul><li>Inclusion Of Private Sector Completes Matrix </li></ul>Stakeholder Views Necessary But Not Sufficient <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Policy & Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs/Donors </li></ul><ul><li>Tool-Oriented Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Funds </li></ul>+ <ul><li>Progressive Private Sector Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Investments </li></ul><ul><li>Long Range Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial Exploitation </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Government/NGO/Donor Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure (Motorable Roads, Electricity, Telecommunication Facilities, Social Amenities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Development (Attractions, Facilities, Activities, And Services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market To Generate Initial Tourist Traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government And Industry Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Eco-Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational And Market-Wise Incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Appropriate-Return Investment Opportunities </li></ul>Prerequisites For Private Sector Investment: Govt./NGO/Donor Role
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Business View Adds The Dimension Of Sustainability And Independence Free From The Vagaries Of Donor/Philanthropy Support </li></ul>The Strategic Partnership Nexus <ul><li>Conservation/Preservation View </li></ul><ul><li>As a Tool For Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Development View </li></ul><ul><li>As a Tool For Development by </li></ul><ul><li>Government/Dev’t Partners </li></ul>Eco-Heritage Tourism <ul><li>Business View </li></ul><ul><li>Must Subscribe To Principles Of Conservation and Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Has To Generate Social And Economic Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Needs To Offer Appropriate Investment Returns </li></ul><ul><li>Must Ensure Sustainability Of Industry </li></ul>
  13. 13. Goal of Stakeholders <ul><li>NGOs - Create Unique Experiences For Discerning Tourists To Enjoy Nature And Culture In Fulfillment Of Their Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Government/Dev’t Partners- Create Sustainable Development Projects That Are Environmentally And Socio-Economically Beneficial To Local Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector - Create Opportunities And Optimize Investments In Eco-Heritage Tourism In Harmony With Existing Ecosystems And Culture </li></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges to Eco-Heritage Tourism Development
  15. 15. Challenges to Tourism Development <ul><ul><li>Over-Exploitation of Mineral Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Mining, Mining in Forests, Mining Methods) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-Exploitation of Timber Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Loss of Virgin Forests) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-Exploitation of Wildlife Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(The Bushmeat Crisis and The “Empty Forest” Syndrome ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsustainable Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(“Slash & Burn” Agriculture, Agro-chemicals, Plantation Agriculture, Mono-culture, etc). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Impact of Loss of Natural and Cultural Resources
  17. 17. Impact of Loss of Resources <ul><li>Deforestation And Habitat Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of deforestation, Land degradation: Global Annual Loss of 130,000 square km of Forests.* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of Cultural Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totems (chieftaincy, national identity, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Insecurity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa - Undernourishment:169 million (20%) in 1990-92; 212 million (25%) in 2003-05.** </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of forests contribute 20% to GHG*** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drastic Changes in Temperature Variability, Drought, Agriculture, Health Implications, etc. </li></ul></ul>*Source: **Source: ***Source:
  18. 18. Stop Eco-Terrorism* Unless We Protect the Structure, Functioning, and Diversity of the Natural And Cultural Resources on Which We All Depend, The Development We Seek Will Undermine Itself and Fail. * Any Activity That Leads to the Destruction of Ecosystems Without Regard for the Survival, Stability, Protection, Regeneration, Restoration, and Conservation of Genes, Species and Ecosystems.
  19. 19. Strategic View
  20. 20. Guiding Principles <ul><li>Must Be Self-Evident And Reinforce Each Other </li></ul>Eco-Heritage Tourism Balance And Sensitivity In Resource Exploitation Integrity Of Ecosystem And Culture Uniqueness And Authenticity Of Experience Active Community Participation Socio-Economic Opportunities
  21. 21. Development-Based Model Of Tourism
  22. 22. Monitoring And Evaluation System: A Responsibility Of All Actors M&E System Visitors Species Habitat Product Community Economic Infrastructure Management
  23. 23. Conclusion
  24. 24. Conclusion Acknowledgement: Dixcove Ventures, New York & Accra. <ul><li>Africa Has Enormous Natural And Cultural Resources. However, Their Sustainable Utilization Depends On: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Tourism Planning And Development to Integrate Conservation of Natural Resources and Preservation of Cultural Resources to Ensure Their Sustainable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination And Management of All Sectors, Stakeholders, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism Development Plans, Natural Resource Management Plans, Historical/Cultural Preservation Programs, Minerals/Extractive Industry Development; Government, NGO, Private Sector. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Natural And Cultural Resources We Have Today Belong To A “Triple Heritage” – A Vast Family of Which Many Are Dead, Few Are Living Today And Countless Are Yet To Be Born Thank You
  26. 26. Proprietary: All or parts of this presentation May be used, copied, circulated, provided the Author is acknowledged: Author could be reached at: Besa Vormatu-Dzelumadzekpo Email: [email_address] Cell Phone: 339-970-1610