Bible Translation Into ‘Minority’ Languages Presenter: Bertram Gayle (Jr) Co-ordinator, JCTP
Schedule of Events <ul><li>5:00-5:15 – Bible Translation –  the concept behind it </li></ul><ul><li>5:15-5:30 - Videos </l...
What’s a Minority Language? <ul><li>Try formulating your own definition!  </li></ul><ul><li>Was your definition setting sp...
The Concept Behind BT <ul><li>From a Purely non-Christian Perspective  </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic liberation & empow...
The Concept Behind BT  (cont’d) <ul><li>From a Christian Perspective  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“… go   and  make disciple...
The Concept Behind BT  (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>Bible Translators see BT as a double-edged  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sword! ...
Videos <ul><li>The Ultimate Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The glory of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Joy of all Peoples ...
The Translation  Process
The Process behind BT <ul><li>For  pioneer  translators, BT isn’t the beginning! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Survey  </...
The Translation Process   7:  Preliminary testing 10:  Testing and reviewing 8:  Back-translation 11:  Final editing 12:  ...
Translation Exercise!!! <ul><li>Translate Luke 10:25-37 into  idiomatic  Jamaican Creole </li></ul><ul><li>This passage co...
Translation Guidelines <ul><li>Read the section in two different versions  (5 mins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose one versi...
Translation Guidelines  (cont’d) <ul><li>Make  mental or written notes of what was hard to translate, and where you needed...
Translations in Review <ul><li>Do you think translating a biblical text is more difficult than translating a ‘secular’ tes...
BREAK
Jamaican Creole Translation Project
Meet the Current Team
JCTP: An Introduction <ul><li>Part of Worldwide Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BT in ethnolinguistic minority communities ...
JCTP: An Introduction  (cont’d) <ul><li>The History of JCTP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980 – a mandate and its findings </li><...
JCTP: Challenges <ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Post-Creole Continuum”  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthographi...
JCTP: Challenges  (cont’d) <ul><li>Non-linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictual Translation Philosophies </li></ul></u...
Misconceptions Encountered <ul><li>As to: </li></ul><ul><li>what constitutes a language  </li></ul><ul><li>the value of cr...
“ Concerns” Encountered <ul><li>Religious Concerns :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It demeans   the   Bible  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Career Opportunities!!!  <ul><li>Language Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts Consult...
Career Opportunities  (cont’d) <ul><li>Non-Language Work  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin / Management  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
References <ul><li>Krieger , John., “ Why is Bible Translation” ULR  http:// www.ginesys.com/bibletranslation.htm   </li><...
Bible Translation
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Bible Translation

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  • Bible Translation

    1. 1. Bible Translation Into ‘Minority’ Languages Presenter: Bertram Gayle (Jr) Co-ordinator, JCTP
    2. 2. Schedule of Events <ul><li>5:00-5:15 – Bible Translation – the concept behind it </li></ul><ul><li>5:15-5:30 - Videos </li></ul><ul><li>5:30-5:45 – Bible Translation – the process behind it </li></ul><ul><li>5:45-6:05 - Translation Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>6:05-6:15 - Presentations & Review </li></ul><ul><li>6:15-6:20 – Break </li></ul><ul><li>6:20-6:40 – JCTP: An Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>6:40-6:50 – Q & A </li></ul>
    3. 3. What’s a Minority Language? <ul><li>Try formulating your own definition! </li></ul><ul><li>Was your definition setting specific? </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: for the purposes of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;regional or minority languages&quot; means languages: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traditionally used within a given territory of a State by nationals of that State who form a group numerically smaller than the rest of the State's population; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different from the official language(s) of that State. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within SIL/WBTI, “minority language” refers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the thousands of languages of the world that typically does not enjoy official status, long histories of being written, wide geographic distribution, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Concept Behind BT <ul><li>From a Purely non-Christian Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic liberation & empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation, standardisation & stabilisation of languages </li></ul><ul><li>Language development </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for systematic study </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural enrichment & preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing & sustaining a sense of identity & worth </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating literacy -information booklets, documenting traditional cultural knowledge... </li></ul><ul><li>Spin off products of Vernacular Bibles capitalised on by musicians, poets, drama writers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Change attitudes – towards language / language users…..justice </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Concept Behind BT (cont’d) <ul><li>From a Christian Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“… go and make disciples of all nations, baptising them… teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>them to obey everything I have commanded you …” (Matt 28:19-20)! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evangelism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Good News re: Jesus, the Christ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New churches: Mexico, Philippines, PNG, Brazil, etc… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipleship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BT has not kept us with Evangelism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding the Bibleless Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth, nurture, development, maturity (cf 2 Tim 3:16ff). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Concept Behind BT (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>Bible Translators see BT as a double-edged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sword! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spiritual nourishment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondarily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining life and improving the quality of people’s material existence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Videos <ul><li>The Ultimate Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The glory of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Joy of all Peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Flower Unfolds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suriname Javanese NT </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Translation Process
    9. 9. The Process behind BT <ul><li>For pioneer translators, BT isn’t the beginning! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetics & Phonology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orthography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexicography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology – religion, politics, economics, etc… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy / Scripture Use (eg. ethnomusicology) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The Translation Process 7: Preliminary testing 10: Testing and reviewing 8: Back-translation 11: Final editing 12: Final read-through 9: Consultant check 6: Key biblical terms 5: Team check 3: Supplementary helps 4: Keyboarding 2: Drafting 1: Exegesis
    11. 11. Translation Exercise!!! <ul><li>Translate Luke 10:25-37 into idiomatic Jamaican Creole </li></ul><ul><li>This passage comes early in the third division of Luke . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is on his way to Jerusalem . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H e is preparing his disciples for the time when he will no longer be with them . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice the reference to Samaria in Luke 9:51-56 . </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Translation Guidelines <ul><li>Read the section in two different versions (5 mins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose one version that is more literal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that follows the structure of the original language text closely, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and one that is more meaning based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that aims to communicate the meaning as effectively as possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Translate into idiomatic Jamaican Creole (10 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>Test your translation with several speakers of your target </li></ul>
    13. 13. Translation Guidelines (cont’d) <ul><li>Make mental or written notes of what was hard to translate, and where you needed to make adjustments to the form of the text to make the translation communicate well and appropriately: </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use footnotes? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have to explain cultural items? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you need to change idioms, metaphors or figures of speech? </li></ul><ul><li>What other adjustments did you make? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Translations in Review <ul><li>Do you think translating a biblical text is more difficult than translating a ‘secular’ test? </li></ul><ul><li>  Did you learn anything from doing this exercise? What? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do in the future to make this task easier? </li></ul><ul><li>What testing activities did you use to improve your translation? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of changes did you make as a result of the testing? </li></ul><ul><li>Anything else? </li></ul>
    15. 15. BREAK
    16. 16. Jamaican Creole Translation Project
    17. 17. Meet the Current Team
    18. 18. JCTP: An Introduction <ul><li>Part of Worldwide Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BT in ethnolinguistic minority communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WBTI has helped to translate 740 NTs and Bibles rep. over 82m! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6,486 WBTI personnel; presently working in 93 countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,998 programmes reaching 1.2b in progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Translations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 completed Bibles: - Haitian, Yacatan, Papiamentu, Wai Wai, etc 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 completed NTs: -Aukan, St Lucian, Sranan Tongo, Gullah, etc 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 portions:- Pemon, Islander Creole English (San Andres), etc 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 in progress: - Akawaio, Guadeloupean, Wapishana, T&T Sign Language, Jamaican, etc 4 </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. JCTP: An Introduction (cont’d) <ul><li>The History of JCTP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980 – a mandate and its findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1985 – the turning point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993 – the launch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Productions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Who Run Things” (June, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Di Krismos Story” (December, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(52% of the NT translated) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsequent Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luuk Buk Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamaican Creole Translation Project (2008) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. JCTP: Challenges <ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Post-Creole Continuum” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthographical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socially under-appreciation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle for functional domains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexicology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format: Audio vs Written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony vs Conflict Model </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. JCTP: Challenges (cont’d) <ul><li>Non-linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictual Translation Philosophies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Biblical Texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripture Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap Bridging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Awareness </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Misconceptions Encountered <ul><li>As to: </li></ul><ul><li>what constitutes a language </li></ul><ul><li>the value of creole: backward </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of creole: broken </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate use of creole </li></ul><ul><li>the expense: acceptable if cheap </li></ul><ul><li>the BT process </li></ul>
    23. 23. “ Concerns” Encountered <ul><li>Religious Concerns : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It demeans the Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation does not guarantee a conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional translations have been of value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental & Political Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global competitiveness discouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiteracy and ignorance promoted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting Creole is detrimental to SJE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Concern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creole reminiscent of a past one would rather forget </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Career Opportunities!!! <ul><li>Language Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts Consultant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological Bible Storying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnomusicologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripture Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Language Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular Media </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Career Opportunities (cont’d) <ul><li>Non-Language Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin / Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives / Exhibits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children's Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing / Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots more…! </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. References <ul><li>Krieger , John., “ Why is Bible Translation” ULR http:// www.ginesys.com/bibletranslation.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Clarke , David., Minority Language Status & Attitudes Toward Bible Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Ross , Ronald., “Issues in Creole Language Translation” </li></ul><ul><li>European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Strasbourg, 5.XI. 1992 ULR http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/148.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Wycliffe Int’l - Progress of Bible Translation Statistics 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Barnwell , Katharine ., Bible Translation: An Introductory Course in Translation Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, Barbara, The Attitudes of Jamaican Christians to the Translation of the Bible into Jamaican Creole </li></ul><ul><li>The Daily Observer – “The Patois Bible” – several articles </li></ul><ul><li>The Gleaner – “Patois Bible in Pan-African and Pan-Caribbean context” </li></ul>

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