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Food stuffs in ghan1


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Food stuffs in ghan1

  1. 1. FOOD STUFFS IN GHANA TETTEH BERNICE (10340856) FPEN 405: Engineering and Design Food Processing Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Science
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Ghanaians since time immemorial have enjoyed and consumed food crops of various types. These food stuffs mostly from tubers, cereal, legumes, fruits, vegetables and herbs. Most food crops are grown in the hinterlands and transported nationwide for consumption. Others are locally originated and others are grown from foreign seeds. Agriculture and its related occupations support 80% of Ghana’s economy. Most food products are bought in their raw state and others processed by fermentation, drying, canning etc. Most food products are sold in the general markets under the exposure to all condition whether good or bad. A survey on the food crops that are sold in Ghana resulted in the classification below; TUBERS Yam, Cassava, Coco yam, Potatoes, VEGETABLES Garden Eggs, tomatoes, celery, spinach, radishes, green pepper, sweet pepper, cabbage, lettuce, carrots, squash, pumpkin, and collard greens etc. FRUITS Mango, pineapple, blackberries, dates, pear, orange, banana, plums, pawpaw, kumquats, ‘alasa*, avocado, cocoa, dates, serendipity berry etc. Spices Aidan tree fruits, calabash nutmeg, Negro pepper, grains of paradise, nutmeg, cloves, etc. There are more fruits which are indigenous to Africa especially, West Africa. Some include ‘prekese’, ‘alasa’, Negro pepper etc.
  3. 3. VEGETABLES PICTURE NAME DESCRIPTION USES Bell pepper also Capsicum annuum Is a member of the Capsicum genus, it is the only Capsicum that does not produce capsaicin, a lipophilic chemical that can cause a strong burning sensation when it comes in contact with mucous membranes. Used in cooking and serve as a vegetable in various Ghanaian diahes. It is used in stews, salad, coleslaw, fried rice etc. Carrot, also as Is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exists. It has a crisp texture when fresh. The most commonly eaten part of a carrot is the taproot, although the greens are sometimes eaten as well. Carrots are widely used in many cuisines, especially in the preparation of salads, drinks and stews. Also extracts are used in beauty creams and cosmetics. The fruit of the cucumber is roughly cylindrical, elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60cm long and 10 cm in diameter. They are usually more than 90% water. Much like tomatoes and squash they are often also perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables. Can be used in cosmetic products as body creams and face wipes. Daucus carota. Cucumber, also known as Cucumis sativus
  4. 4. Squash also known as Cucurbita moschata PICTURE Is a special type of berry with a thick outer wall or rind formed from hypanthium tissue fused to the exocarp; the fleshy interior is composed of mesocarp and endocarp. Squash are represented frequently in Art Moche ceramics It is also used in cooking. The seeds are also used for flour, eaten raw or pressed for oil. NAME DESCRIPTION USES Cabbage also known as Brassica oleracea. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kg, and can be green, purple and white. Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to highly dissected. Cabbage is prepared and consumed in many ways. creating dishes such as sauerkraut, cabbage stew, coleslaw and stews. Jute, Ademe (Togo), Ewedu (Nigeria), Mulukhiyah (Arabic) also with scientific name as The leaves are alternate, simple, lanceolate, 5–15 cm long, with an acuminate tip and a finely serrated or lobed margin. When boiled, the resulting liquid is a thick, highly mucilaginous broth, slimy," like cooked okra Corchorus used mainly in the cuisines of southern Asia and Africa. Its used for Tuo zaafi soups and banku soups in conjunction with okra. Corchorus olitorius.
  5. 5. Celery also as Apium graveolens var. dulce Seeds are used in pills for relieving pain and also used to reduce blood pressure. Celery is used in weight-loss diets Spinach Spinacia oleracea PICTURE The plant grows to 1 m tall. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. Commonly used as vegetable. Spinach is a leave which is alternate, simple, and ovate to triangular based, very variable in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad. Used in cooking to make purees, soups, salads etc. NAME DESCRIPTION USES kontomire (taro leaves) Taro leaves are heart-shaped, bright to deep green and they can span over a foot in diameter. The underside of the leaves have veins that branch out from the stem. It is a popular vegetable for local sauces such as palaver sauce and agushi stew. It is used for soups like abunubunu. It is good source of vitamins A and C.
  6. 6. Green beans Phaseolus vulgaris Green beans (which may be other colors as well, and are also referred to as string beans) have long, edible pods and small inner beans. It can be cooked and eaten raw, or used in stews, soups etc. Green beans are often steamed, boiled, stir-fried, or bake in casseroles. Radishes are round to cylindrical with a color ranging from white to red. A longer root form, ideal for cooking, grows up to 15 cm (6 in) long. Used in cooking for soups, salad, juices etc. in da industry, the seed can be pressed for cooking oil. Citizens of Oaxaca, Mexico, celebrate the radish in a festival called Noche de los Rábanos Collard greens also known as Brassica oleracea. Locally known as “Boma”. It does not have the usual close-knit core of leaves (a "head") like cabbage. It has an upright stalk, often growing up to two feet tall. The plant is very similar to kale. Used in ooking of soups. Can replace lettuce and used for salads and coleslaw. Pepper Capsicum The fruits, commonly known as "chilies" or "chili peppers," are fiery red or green pods which rarely grow to more than 4 inches in length. Apart from its use as season, It decongest, relieves tooth ache, scares away ants and pets along with a few household substances including cinnamon and vinegar. White Radishes Raphanus sativus
  7. 7. Tomato PICTURES It’s the fruit of the plant Solanum lycopersicum. It is spherical, some ranging from 2-10 cm diameter. It has edible seed is and soft exocarp and mesocarp. Used in almost every Ghanaian cuisine namely soups, stews, sauce, salads, pies etc. used for tomato juice. NAME DESCRIPTION USES Yam Dioscorea alata Yams are brown in colour on the outside, but the flesh is white, yellow or red. Their weight varies between 2 and 5 kilogrammes. Cooked/fried/ baked and eaten. Use in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Used also for puddings, soups etc. Cassava also known as manihot esculanta The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Cassava roots are very rich in starch. Used as dishes like fufu, eba and tapioca. Also use as a source of biofuel, animal feed and medicine. Coco Yam Xanthosoma sagitollium It is a perennial, tropical plant primarily grown as a root vegetable for its edible starchy corm. The corm grows to the size of turnip, has a globular or oblong shape with brown fibrous skin. It is used for fufu, puddings and soups. In addition, it has very good amounts of potassium which is good for regulating blood pressure.
  8. 8. This is a deep red root of the beet plant and is spherical and tapered at the ends. The usually deep red roots of beetroot are eaten either grilled, boiled, or roasted as a cooked vegetable. Used industrially as red food colorants to improve tomato paste. Beetroot dye may also be used in ink Plantain Cacalia plantaginea Plantains are a starchy, unsweet variety of banana that are inedible raw and must be cooked before eating. Most are larger and slightly more angular in shape, than ‘sweet’ bananas. They are usually baked, fried, boiled and eaten. It can be used for fritters, chips, juice, fufu etc. Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Tilapia have laterally compressed bodies. Tilapia have a long dorsal fin, and a lateral line which often breaks towards the end of the dorsal fin, and starts again two or three rows of scales below. Used in soups, stews etc. used as a control method of choice, for reducing or eliminating the use of toxic chemicals and heavy metalbased algaecides. Tilapia help purify water . Beet Roots Beta vulgaris OTHERS Pictures
  9. 9. Cat Fish Ictalurus punctatus Channel catfish have a top-end size of about 18– 23 kg. Most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum. Catfish have no scales and has four pairs of barbels (whiskers). Used as food. Locally dried and added to soups. In parts of America it is roasted and eaten with rice and corn bread. Herrings Clupea harengus Their size varies between subspecies. These fishe have a single dorsal fin, which is soft, without spines. They have no lateral line and have a protruding lower jaw. Adult herring are harvested for their flesh and eggs, and they are often used as baitfish. They are used in many dishes. In soups, stews, sauces etc. Crabs Pithirus pubis They live in all the world's oceans, in fresh water, and on land, are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton and have a single pair of claws. Crabs vary in size depending on their species, Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in several different ways all over Ghana. They are used in okra stews, aprapransa etc.
  10. 10. . Ginger Zingiber officinale It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. It is consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. Ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. Ginger also acts as a useful food preservative. Sorghum Sorghum bicolor These are grains or seeds from the sorghum plant. The seed is rounded and bluntly pointed, from 4 – 8 mm in diameter and varying in size, shape and colour with cultivar. Some are reddish and others ranging from green to pale ash. Used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels Grains of pearl millet are about 3 to 4 mm long, and one third the size of sorghum. The pearl millet grain has great variation, and can be nearly white, pale yellow, brown, grey, slate blue or purple. They can be globular, obovate and elliptical in shape. Used for the preparation of alcoholic beverages like pito and burukutu. When combined with wheat, it can be used for flat breads. Used as food, example porridge etc. Pearl Millet, Pennisetum glaucum Used for a popular alcoholic drink called pito and burukutu.
  11. 11. Pineapple Ananas comosus It is a cone shaped juicy, fleshy fruit to 30cm or more in height, with the stem serving as the fibrous but fairly succulent core. The flesh is a tough, waxy rind, made up of hexagonal units, may be dark green or yellow. Used all over the country in drinks, juices, cakes etc. it has an ornamental value. Used in folk medicine and serve as animal feed (peels). Millet Leaves, These are grasslike leaves of the millet plant which has been dried. It has a reddish brown colour. These are sundried leaves or stalks of the millet plant used to impart a reddish colouring to waakye. Palm oil It is a yellowish fatty oil obtained from the crushed nuts of an African palm (Elaeis guineensis) Used in cooking. Also, used in the manufacture of soaps, chocolates, cosmetics, and candles. Eggs An egg is like a prolate spheroid It is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by spiral bands called Chalazae. Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, pastries, stews, coleslaw etc. Garden eggs The egg-shaped Used in fruit has a white preparation of flesh with a meaty stew, soups and texture. It
  12. 12. Contains numerous small, soft seeds which are edible. The fruit is less than 3cm in diameter. can be eaten raw if it is peeled. Cloves Cloves are brown, dried, unopened flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, an evergreen tree in the myrtle family Often used in cooking to add flavour. Used in preparation of sobolo. For aromatherapy and relieves tooth ache. Tetrapleura tetraptera , the fruit from the Aidan tree. It is 25 cm long. It is shiny, glabrous, dark brown, 1525 cm long,5 cm across, with 4 longitudinal, wing like ridges ( 3cm) broad. Two of the wings are woody, the other two filled with soft, sugary pulp, oily and aromatic. The fruit pulp is rich in sugars and may be used in flavouring food. Made from locust beans, boiled and fermented. It is sold in balls or patties. Is a condiment added to some foods to impart a particular flavour. Dawadawa (fermented locust bean) It is used as perfumes and in pomades prepared from palm oil. The fruit pulp is rich in sugars and may be used as a food flavour.
  13. 13. Mushrooms Mushrooms have a round shape with flared edges like an umbrella. The cap is connected to a stem, there are different sizes depending on their variety. Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines. Can substitute meat in vegetarian diet. Coconut Cocos nucifera It has 3 layers: the exocarp, meso carp, endocarp. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the "husk" of the coconut. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg. Can be used for oil, flour and milk. The coconut shell may also be ground down and added to products for exfoliation of dead skin. Garlic Alluim Sativum Used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It reduces the accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls. Prevents and fights Cold. Palm fruit Borassus flabellifer The fruit of the palm tree measures 4 to 7 inches in diameter, has a black and orange-red husk, and is borne in clusters. They have high amount of fatty acids. Cooked and used for soups. Oils can be extracted for consumption, biodiesels, cosmetic products and creams.
  14. 14. Alasa A bitter fruit, usually of diameter 4cm. the mesocarp is gummy when chewed. The exocarp of the seeds is very sweet. Eaten raw as fruit. Grains of paradise/ alligator pepper. Aframomum melegueta Is a pungent, peppery seeds obtained from ground plants. Used as season in food. Used in craft beers and gin. Bissap This is a specie of the hibiscus known as Roselle, it is dried and shredded. Mostly used for Sobolo, helps in weight losses and lowers blood pressure. Calabash nutmeg Monodora myristica the fruit of a tropical shrub (Monodora myristica) has many aromatic seeds that are used like nutmegs. This is used as a season in foods and has medicinal purposes. Agushi, seeds of a species of Cucurbitaceae (which includes gourds, melons, pumpkins and squashes) Used in soups, stews (palava sauce) Hibiscus sabdariffa Seeds of Cucurbitaceae
  15. 15. CONCLUSION There are a lot of food stuffs both indigenous and imported. This include fruits, varieties of tubers, vegetables and spices. The most staple amongst these food stuffs is cassava and maize. These food stuffs can be purchased in open markets and sometimes in supermarkets.
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