Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill


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  • Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill

    1. 1. Business Models for Open Access Publishing Matthew Cockerill Publisher, BioMed Central
    2. 2. What is fundamentally different about an Open Access publishing business model?
    3. 3. Traditional research publishing <ul><li>The research community transfers the rights to the research to the publisher </li></ul><ul><li>The publisher covers its costs by selling access to the content </li></ul>
    4. 4. Open Access research publishing <ul><li>There are no barriers to access </li></ul><ul><li>The publisher generally does not acquire any exclusive rights </li></ul><ul><li>Typically the publisher is paid for the service of publication </li></ul>
    5. 5. Revenue streams for open access publishers <ul><li>Publication fees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From meeting organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From sponsoring organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subscription content (e.g. reviews) </li></ul><ul><li>Services (e.g. Open Repository) </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit/explicit subsidy </li></ul>
    6. 6. BioMed Central journals which do not charge author fees <ul><li>Chinese Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Chiropractic & Osteopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Journal of Pediatrics </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Biomedical Science </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of the International AIDS Society </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology </li></ul>
    7. 7. Some journals operate mixed models <ul><li>Author’s pay publication fee for research articles </li></ul><ul><li>DFG funding covers cost of additional articles </li></ul>
    8. 8. BioMed Central journal’s with additional subscription content Coming soon…
    9. 9. Examples of additional services <ul><li>A hosted digital repository solution </li></ul><ul><li>Integration ensures articles published in OA journals can easily be included </li></ul>
    10. 10. Advertising? <ul><li>Some potential editors ask: “can we support a journal entirely with advertising?” </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely - advertising is tiny fraction of BioMed Central’s revenue </li></ul>
    11. 11. OA Publication Fees
    12. 12. Putting Open Access fees in the context of the traditional system <ul><li>Top-down and bottom-up analyses come to similar conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Average publisher revenue per STM article is around £3000 ($4700) </li></ul>
    13. 13. What do OA publication fees cover? <ul><li>Open access publishing has most of the same costs as the traditional system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing ( e.g. conference attendance) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. OA publication fees <ul><li>BioMed Central $780-$2100 </li></ul><ul><li>Public Library of Science $1300-$2850 </li></ul><ul><li>Company of Biologists $3100 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford University Press $3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Society ~$3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Springer $3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor & Francis $3250 </li></ul><ul><li>Wiley $3000 </li></ul>
    15. 15. How do OA publication fees get paid? <ul><li>Authors may pay out of grant funds </li></ul><ul><li>Some funders provide dedicated funds for open access publishing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions may cover costs centrally (via open access funds and/or membership arrangements with OA publishers) </li></ul><ul><li>Some journals are run by organizations which cover costs themselves </li></ul>
    16. 16. BioMed Central membership <ul><li>Prepay membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution pays funds into a deposit account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article Processing Charge is covered by funds from account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discount depending on deposit amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author does not have to pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified administration/reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporter membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions pay a flat fee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors pay a discounted Article Processing Charge </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. How are BioMed Central articles paid for?
    18. 18. Can the open access model work for high-rejection rate journals?
    19. 19. Submission fees? <ul><li>Submission fees are often proposed as a means to make high-rejection rate journals economically feasible under OA </li></ul><ul><li>However, charging a fee for the service of rejection problematic </li></ul>
    20. 20. Peer review cascade High rejection rate Moderate rejection rate Low rejection rate
    21. 21. Advantages of this approach <ul><li>Avoids delays for authors </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids saddling academics with repeated peer review of less interesting papers, wasting a precious resource </li></ul><ul><li>Separates question of soundness of research from level of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soundness determines whether to publish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest determines where to publish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the publisher, high-prestige, high rejection rate titles are magnets for research articles </li></ul>
    22. 22. This approach is becoming increasingly prevalent <ul><li>PLoS </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium </li></ul>
    23. 23. How can institutions help to make the open access model work?
    24. 24. Institutional policy on the payment of OA fees <ul><li>Publication fees are not just a matter for libraries, but are a strategic issue for the institution as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>A senior member of the institution should take ownership and coordinate activities </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions need to work hard to communicate policy to researchers </li></ul>
    25. 25. Centrally managed funds for Open Access publication charges <ul><li>Aarhus </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>Calgary </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>(part of plan for Office of Scholarly Communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Nottingham </li></ul>
    26. 27. Is the Open Access business model viable?
    27. 28. Growth of OA publishing in BioMed Central’s journals
    28. 29. Established journals are switching to the open access model in increasing numbers
    29. 32. Open Access publishing, then and now… <ul><li>2008 </li></ul>2000 And more…
    30. 33. A new industry association
    31. 34. Goals of OASPA <ul><li>Represent interests of Open Access publishers as a group </li></ul><ul><li>Agree common definition of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and enforce good standards of editorial and business practices amongst members </li></ul><ul><li>Identify guidelines and best practices for publishers and institutions in managing payment of publication fees </li></ul>
    32. 35. Springer’s acquisition of BioMed Central <ul><li>+ </li></ul>
    33. 36. Springer acquisition FAQs <ul><li>Will BioMed Central’s policy of open access to all research continue? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes – this was an obligatory condition for the deal to gain approval by BioMed Central’s Board of Trustees </li></ul><ul><li>Is BioMed Central profitable? </li></ul><ul><li>Springer bought BioMed Central because it is a healthy publishing business, in a growing sector of the market </li></ul><ul><li>Will BioMed Central APCs be increased to Springer Open Choice levels? </li></ul><ul><li>There are no plans to change BioMed Central’s APC pricing policy as a result of the deal </li></ul>
    34. 37. Experimental institutional Open Access deals at Springer <ul><li>Several institutions/consortia now have licensing deals with Springer allow their authors to select the Open Choice option without additional payment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max Planck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UKB (Dutch consortium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georg-August University of Goettingen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The University of California has publicly stated that it is working on a similar deal with Springer for its campuses. </li></ul>