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Edited leader ship (2)

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በተምሳሌትነትና እየጠፉ ያሉ አገራት በአመራር / Leader ship / ብቃት ዕይታ


በብርሃኑ ታደሰ ታዬ



Published in: Leadership & Management
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Edited leader ship (2)

  1. 1. / Leader ship // Leader ship // Leader ship // Leader ship / !!!!"#"#"#"# $% #&' #($% #&' #($% #&' #($% #&' #( December 2016December 2016December 2016December 2016
  2. 2. 1 Table of Contents 1. 9: ............................................................... 2 2. ; <& => ? @ A B& CD EF ..........................................................................6 3. HIJ K;L MN ; ' /leadreship Thoughts/ QR 9 SN KT' N U9 ? . .................................. 7 4. TXY ZL[ ZI A]] A ET ............................................................ 16 5.1. ZI UN........................................23 6. U9_` A;abU % L cU Nd ................................................................... 28 6.1. Leadership function/ ........................................31 6.2. f" cU / Leadership Style/............33 6.2.1. Q A Qij KT A ZH Nk-.............................................. 34 6.2.2. ?m_ Kn / Consultative /k ............................................................................ 35 6.2.3. Ep q / Liaise faire / k......................................................................... 36 6.2.4. #r / Participatory / Shared Leadership /k.................................... 37 7.5.1. t ubU Lv j Qij A w ; N / Qualities of effective leadership/..................................................................................................................................... 46 8.1. ……………………………42
  3. 3. 2 1.1.1.1. 9:9:9:9: / Leadership / y z q% AI<{{ ?v K N| ; 9Q SN Lv q% A} y z mtE ~qA RN Z•# €w L•E{{ R F ‚$t /Writers/ ?jbU A R F A } " I„…#E{{ „ A& 9A†‡N EF R „ 'Lc#E{{ R ' N R „ A R ˆ# E{{ A R " I„ ‰E [ # KT RN BqA "UwE{{ Zt k T ?k mtR T ? yI< &IŠ K#F E‹ ; <& U9_U &IŠN KAŒQIp q% U9vA #Z& & • 9Q t# R } ‹RN Ž"< A• |Et 9Q } • N'‘ : "q E{{ > } @cU y" ’? f:" K RN q% I@ “”A ;• I N{{ !} Ap; –bU Y— ; <& ‰p A9˜ ˜j ‡cUk A9˜#M QEq% } @cUk 9E ™A D "šUk i I ' ’? y› … Nd#? Z•"
  4. 4. 3 AžŸ SN Z•# RN{{ Zt mEEk yI< Z K Y— QR… bU > &IŠbU ;Hw“ N{{ 9Q ¡wr ¢A A—£k } @#SNA <& &A k ; ž~DBAk ¤B~bUAk ; ¥¦bUA !p}A R 9 'N $"EAk $ y› … Z ?;§E N T?A¨N } @ K ZN{{ "YAA Tw" Z'NA $wr q ' ¨ QR H‚?SN BT' KURNA A " <©U "qA {{ R A} } @ 9Q QR ; # N ;Y •<r ‹E H# #? Z ' " •E{{ "Y U9 ;ŽŽ Tª& ‹# } @cUA TyII A} N;L #? ?C•E•Ek R' ¨ KTHE A› R Ÿ k }Y ;ŽŽ A ;T wE{{ $ &IŠ = A K p… † wSN } @cU w" Tq &I'N A T?tI; E ' ; 9Q L' T' "QwE{{ 9L w" A LEZ R A› k ZI N ; "«t E ?R Q"§E • j NA ; <& ={> R?yp K ;T RNA ¬; K Rm ~qA XY ]>t ‹ N ;-#? _U y&| A R? ®TI ~qA E ‹ N 9Q f" mY[
  5. 5. 4 /Style and Skills/k Y— A &IŠN R? T p& T [Uk RNLA /leading change/k ~qA "Y ?R 9A ]° N;L E ‹ ¢ ?R "&R {{ Tw" ± ; <& j b` ; Em "‹ ¢ A¦ L² ZI Lv ? SN{{ TE } &K#yZN E‹ § ; ?j qA "UE EC RQSN E‹ ; <& ¬ ? SN{{ XY A ;H m_ "y'‘ {{ w ³E ZI ? "§wE R 9 ´ SN{{ UA E‹ ; <& ;m RNL R? • Y— K A R?I© L R F LIcU ?}I9 : N{{ TXY Qµ ZE•Ž Nd#? E9[ R ; …; E¶ n A R # E › © R ˜ f ”€UA A| ² R?€E k 9Eˆ A · A R?I© Lk Y9 w" A R?;T E9[ '•LA pA #?z A R?;HA "I< E{{ @ v A<A} NdcUA L•E :QE Nd¢ & ZN "&R {{ Nd¢ Y— & ZN QR q% Y— A ] ;T [E{{
  6. 6. 5 "Y A&@ LI :Ÿ E?¢ ;m # w" ‹RN U9 K ; &IŠ RN U9 E‹ ; <& U9 N{{ E‹ ; <& A R?;HA R F “” ZI E‹ ; <& ¸-¹U R F j² j bUA :Ÿ 9Q M R?}I9 NZ ? ; 9<_cU {{ q% "Y ]>t ºIN R" A k A E9[ '•L ˜ f A R?µµE ;Uw Q A »U > / ‡AU? m benchmark/ H «‰E{{ R?UA w" ¤R¼‹ ; R :qA ‰ ‰ b` ; SN J 1. ž®m ~ (democracy) 2. j¿ B‹A/ E Republican/ liberalism 3. ® Á (monarch) 4. µB' / ºKÃ; Socialism/Communism 5. Q A Authocratic/ dictatorship > K v x, y and z ; <& theory N{{ 9E ' EF <RSN 9E] :qA > ¤R¼‹ ; K €¦ ]# wSN{{
  7. 7. 6 2.2.2.2. ; <&; <&; <&; <& =>=>=>=> ? @ A? @ A? @ A? @ A B&B&B&B& CDCDCDCD EFEFEFEF 'bU H &z C © fw?A 9 ?; # AžU ?9QQ L y" È& N{{ T „… A&K# N ‰ N |Et L ?9QQ /influence/ ?}I9 ~qAk H &z A © A fw? ? ‹ /achievement of group goals/ K SN{{ A} 'N } @¢ N;L RN £#k m k ZQ" k QRN … 'bUA ?9QQ /influence/ ?}I9 !}E B ©L N "UwE{{ H &z /willingness/ ~QE #R NA 9 R 9 … p R ˜ RNA —9@ ˜ „„ A K Rm N{{ jN } µ T}% © _ ˜ qA ˜ A K §U } @¢A fw? Až ‹ R?}I9 RN „„ qA R {{ ˆA; $ N;Ê KT A pŽE{{ XY j T#"A R?t R K | A »U ‹Q:N >Ë# SN{{
  8. 8. 7 jN T T#Ì` © A f" >Ë# Qi " ˜ } @¢A fw? ? ‹ A& K§E N{{ A E• R I< ˜ /Management/ /leadership/ ‹TE RNA EF A A} I< ;Hw“ N{{ jbU ³I K'Ê 'bU ‹TE RA 9A K ³v RyL / influence / ? © ;• A ? |Et Îj bU SN{{ 3.3.3.3. HIJHIJHIJHIJ K;L MNK;L MNK;L MNK;L MN ; '; '; '; ' ////leadreship Thoughtsleadreship Thoughtsleadreship Thoughtsleadreship Thoughts//// QR 9 SNQR 9 SNQR 9 SNQR 9 SN KT' NKT' NKT' NKT' N U9U9U9U9 ???? .... Z}® ;R v R‹TcU /Classical Thoughts/ R A} } @ ˜ ‹ |Et 9 KQ R Ï k ‹Ð#Ek „E y› … Ÿ N{{ ?R #SNA ‘ {{ Z E >A ; ' KQRN /Contemporary Thoughts/ ~qA >% “” T Ñ E } w TN •M NÒM >Ë#bU Ó?j R A} Y— Ô y" 9E } @ j Ap; – ‹ y" N&p Ÿ R Ÿ E|A
  9. 9. 8 } µ ""†E{{ q% TXY I< AURN Tw" ZI A R?; 9 KU jbU ~Ÿv N{{ ‰ _U R‹T qA wNA R‹T ?}I9 9QSNA ? ‹ ~U § N{{ ;Rq N{{ >A “” ; ' “” RH [ R N{{ q% 9 RN — — ZI R‹T E‹ qŸ TQ k 9QQ k 9Q c _ ; ‹E §R R}Y R9Õ A;a N Kq N fR KQRNA = R w "§E {{ Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willing and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals (Koontz et.al 1984:507) >R ¨N ?R Contemporary thoughts [ RŒN EqU R‹T#SN ‰•wSN jbU µR ; ; A&KU K wm ~qA{{ Ÿv A9˜#M q A9;#M wEq% } @cU y z K "Òy# {{ • j Z'N /Classical thoughts/ R A} } @ ;- ‰ SN KQ HL_ $ k Ï k 'N
  10. 10. 9 „E ‹Ð#E A Z•# w; QSN $ R A p; 1. T tj‹ B: 2. & J<A k a 3. v‰A< vAž 4. TaÙ Â A AA LZ; "§wE{{ |L A}k >R Â; w" K# N jbU ™ž®m ~ M k ;E•AA …Lz ?R k QR;E• ¢ RY—QSN ?"y9%k ¡wr A E² R ; (T Ë w" R N ?R )k ¡"EA Z ;E•AA …Lz ?R ~qA (" N Y— Ò "qA j ;E•A ;R ›) ;E•AA ; wE² wR ; KH T;9 9 © K — ~qA{{ Ó?j ''N – RKH IN U9 k R H IN A9E k Ó•Ak #&Ak ˜& ® Ù Q $wr A R N'<SN Y—A RTt ¨ „< K< „ {{ >R ¨ w" Z'UN & J<A HL_ $ k Ï ; KUE „E Ž"< RN q% 9Õ A;a q% N 9E] K# N{{ ÚA ± R?9Û RI@ # ¬ TZ}®‰ J<A ©
  11. 11. 10 ? Rt mA 2005 ¬ ¢A R?• ; HI N{{ q% j• ± •A TJ<A ÛUN 9 July 2011 ~qA{{ SNA ± ‹yÝ Þw j• 9Õ A<R R • “” #yZN HIA¹U •• 2013 f. . ~qA{{ 'w ; r ? 2015 H N y&9Õ >R¢ _U # ZN m E DÏ›<A v »m jm ?§ y&;E•A : RJ <9 9Õ¢ Cc >% yp Tt ¨ ' M ZN; XUN &I' N{{ q% m E DÏ›<A¢ 10 July 2016 <9 9Õ¢ ? «¢ »m jm ?§ RfR Zt ” N#_U A9;¢ y#&_U "š#SNA < | Y"y LŽ &&I' y|{{ A&K#yZN '®%A µE Kž K# N Y— ;& ;Hj N{{ >A QR RN & J<A <9 y& ; ; ¬ E Q N KE N{{ TQ ?• Y—QSNA R¬ R;& R® A;a qAk A E Nd¢ U9 N;L T # = ; ;ß#Eà ‰ 9A RXY SN ;E•A C³§ N{{ ;E•A w" RN A9; 9Õ žQQ; &I N N ¨ Y— Ò R?}I©SN R bKbU £# ;R wSN N{{
  12. 12. 11 " a N;L K# N ;& k ® SNA R N&} A;aN jb` ;E•AA …Lz ?R " RÒSN q% N{{ # RN Tt ¨ ;& mmE Eq A9;#SN ‹ª} q%A R F fR?Zt } @cU " E± {{ R 9 T$ ' QR ' „›N UA ™ Ì K& J ;& áU |L SN Tt ¨ N{{ A& F " } ËCA 9 Tq yv 5,000 ;& áU UA A&K& J N E (United Nations estimation 2016. DOW JONES & COMPANY.INC){{ D_é' tpÏ c[ (2016: 229 & 230) TŽHRU ™•B A R?‰=} # U • AA A} R?}I9 A& p& T wSN ©jQEž :; ? m R _§SN Ñ &m ‰E{{ •E A • A i—£U A “” ; ‰Ì` jb§SN 'vwSN NY& A} ˜ †Ï fR }Im ¡ wA i—£U R qA p ‰E{{ A “” ©jQEž :;? m RNY& Q‹ªêSN ¬ cU †Ï •B A • A i—£U !}RáU KbU q ‰E{{ Eq` N_ë jbU N_ëA R A & Ž'; A} &Iì " ¨ {{ mA ¢ wR 60 f # tL & •N ¤R¼‹ ;R N_ëA
  13. 13. 12 y& NY& R? • ` >Ë# HL_wS‰E{{ >A N_ë 300 KBÌA Y— "† •j‹AA §" A ²‹T A} A‹ q U N{{ $ BATA A•Ì` &£U w" ;Tr N<K ¬ ?‹ª} ‰=&U •j‹AA HLíE{{ & A•ÌU w" Z<•N }E †Ï fR ¡ E q U •j‹AA ; z•E{{ TQ} ‰© Tt[ ÛN A} : H INA î®m ~ E]9 T& T'•A > •j‹ŸU ’&; w" SN{{ AºA J $ UA N;L &I' A T '• ¨ y& •j‹ «C A L© 9z A •j‹A A} Q; ÛN • E!9 #r R qA p E{{ A} A E‹ ; <& A ; Emcï ™ Ìð >Ë# TXY R( "qA {{ ™ Ìð A‹ E qA E R]9 URN ³E w" 'I N ¨ A} ñ © TQ i9 w" ;HA § N{{ i - A9;#M jò Bm qŸ R9R' R Ñ=A cUñ R> ‰; ~'Lk u_U E’ ™ Ìð ?!Zt N;L q N N;L ± SN T _ N ¨ ;- — N;L ; <& ~Ÿ SN N{{
  14. 14. 13 v‰A<A vAžA ;A RT &I'N › ÕtÓŽ R?UA T&I'N Tt ¨N › A 'I &I ' ·N E· q% K#y; ~qA{{ • j ‰A A± M 'w ;ww A vAžA ;A RT ;‹>A "Y &© µµE R? ¢A K I©9L Ò mA p Âó E Kž ?‹z ' Ó IN E· ;© q%A I< U E{{ [` TQ} U9 N;L tI SN NA q N R aÙ {  A AA LZ; "§wE{{ >R¢ # QSN R I©© T;E•A 'w NI} R NI} © "š ~qA{{  A9; ž®m ~ M ;wEq Z‰KbUA R?LŽ ª&N Z • • INA E "<A y& Q' m j ;E A9; |?RA RK RISIS SNA <I© {{ ‹# £#bUA A}#;Im T?}I„ w"ñ ;w "Eq% m ;¼ ŸU m j Eq% C …;B®U Œ$" Õ •U ISIS R Y ª #I‘ #I‘ 'bU † T7000 &K EL ” N#_U ›9 N#E{{ XYA Õ •U R?LŽ TQ} ;‰ THR ~qA • K — N Aô$A Y± –cU T'?" Ky &N £A ‡#SNA y& ‡ Z v § "qA µ SN q N
  15. 15. 14 #j‹SN IN y} ‰E{{ Aô$A = k ® k ;& A9E [ • ;HjN &9® TAô$A ;& áU © IN ISIS ««9 '&<SN 'w?Mb`A '&‘ H w ?SN N{{ ;R >Ÿ • A ~ 9Q c Ÿ A} $"E q%A ; 'Tv • A ; p • A >R ¨N R ¬ ' ALRN 9A : 9AA }/ ?tI; ‰=<SN Nà • A #? w" ³I ; c T N_¸ ™ºŸK LA‹Ï µRU (1¨) T R 4¨ } €#E Tw" ZJ L L RÒSN q% = _U KBÌA K• v ;& áUA A& SN ?; } H INA ;& áU ZN; /migrant crisis/ Z<K U9vA t# w" Uà A AõA ÏN Y— TrE Z RN QR q% 9L _w" U9 :HL Q à 9Õ RÒSN q% = ¬ ¢ ;Tr Y— @ w &wSNk #I<SN § "qA Õ p 'N w "~; /ISIS/ HEHE Y— ;& ‰ K ZJ SNà ¬ ¢A «C N $ N;L RZN Y— |L Tt ¨ Nà R" µE Kž /social medias/ ›z #jm qŸ ÑbUA › N A} Y±A E@ ;& yp ®c =
  16. 16. 15 It b=N tc ÛN ~qA • A U9v : # c U9 <RN y| _A R;& áU mt &I UN /open door policy/ T RUNà '®%A BBC (2016) broadcasted during Ethiopian Christmas › QN X> Âj ;& áU • A N Z}®N FÃ÷ ~¼ ?j v Õ "Z y&; R?'? • AA ’A’ ? 9} &q QSN Y ¢A • SNA ›9 ‰Eà A U9 Kž CŽA 9zc Q"© AR Tt ¨ E· w" q% K#yp N{{ j SN w" ?] A HApR A9; ?‹ª<SN j SN €I‡ Nž I: N L z Ÿ w" ~q%{{ ;& w" RNA j R?; R; Nž I: •E AA w" £A — Aô$A E· $ ;& QQ'{{ UA |L SN ?" p M ;& áU " ¨ {{ ;& á` UA > Y ; N;L N Y #SNA T# E w" SN{{ RXY > mA q N ;E•AA …Lz ?R k Á p} R Ÿ k E‹ ; <& R Ÿ k QR;E• ¢ RY—QSN ?"y9% qAk SNA &?"y}p
  17. 17. 16 | k ¡wr A E² R ; (T Ë w" R N ?R )k ¡"EA Z ;E•AA …Lz ?R ~qA ("YN Y— Ò "qA j ;E•A ;R ›) ;E•AA ; wE² wR ; KH T;9 9 © K — U9 ~qA N Y— A RU9 K< „ {{ 4.4.4.4. TXYTXYTXYTXY ZL[ZL[ZL[ZL[ ZIZIZIZI A]]A]]A]]A]] A ETA ETA ETA ET 9L ‰ NA } µ ""†E QR mA >R à _UA LZ; K§E ~qA " N & º A '•A º A ? "§wE{{ ?A &KI<N '•A ºj # ; #Z N R {{ T ZJ & º A ;A RT #? A ; Emc µRU = } #Eà & º #? q% ³QA bø #SNA L k Hw“ k U L RNA #SNA « N &A á§SNA m Nk HN } @c§SNA ">A SNA µRU } ‰#E{{ q% c A t R R ?pI ‰R A‰" t' A €— R‚ U ù A} qA } ‰#Eà
  18. 18. 17 Y„ UA T T'¢ #wwp m; cU A‘ q N & tj‹ ¸ #"} 9t N{{ " N R ± #SN yÊ A áU/#© U Tv # w" R ; <I©SN{{ A A A 9t • _ 9t : Zp & H‚ QSN ± NúbU 9AQ Z& v & &I QSN 9t X N 9t R & & EHR„ {{ ÃN F "p Q" YI q% R >% 'w?SN SNA [U R; R%_ ;?K A I© N{{ RX> ‰ C v … ;?SN Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela, but many people know him by his calm name (Madiba) ÃE'A ?Aîw |E Ò j #©C ;?SN K#y| (?žQ) v{{ "Y K N tj‹M A ; - 9Q K wm N{{ Ó?j R>R ¨ Ò R #Ó R HR©SN ;9 9 R q SNA K I©9L N{{ ;E•A T Ñ w "›N J ›Iz A ‰© A¦ y jbUA R?;y• E®Tv {{ • j N L| DÏ›<A q N T IÊ w R A} Ò › A "Y /R 5 # / 'w j A v ~qA{{ ;E• SNA RZ•" j 'w ;Im ‰E{{ T;E• SN TyI‘ w N & "qA ?SN R m ?SN{{ ¨N j ">A žD[? k
  19. 19. 18 fR?UA T ¥‰U A9} 'bU ž> ©” áU & tj‹ & 'N SNA "€ z ²c " J R; "#' {{ q% T;E•A y &N SNA v L| A„; ; S‰E{{ SN 2010 FIFA World Cup / fR ‰AÒA ;#›©@ f" SN ? § "qA •NA Ñjm z N yÊ SN v{{ Time life books (1996) Qy<&IN 'I 20¨N mtR › A 100-#wwp 'bU ~ IÊ SN A‘ v{{ “The stories behind the people who shaped our century it includes the leadrs, (under the category activists, they were Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Mother Teresa and Mandela, who bravely fought for what they belived was right.) The pioneers, the innovators, the scientists, and the creators,” fR?UA #wwp 'bU E‹ L² ; b§SN K#y| A 'bU ; — — N;L ;?SNA y•N{{ '"• M ; ~' IN È R L² ; N ;… ‹ ~qA{{ R?UAA >A QRU &IŠ } qA ‹&I„ ; — — N;L E‹ ; SN ?žQ ‹ ¢ L tj‹ Q SN{{
  20. 20. 19 5.RRRR € TZI • j€ TZI • j€ TZI • j€ TZI • j NNNN Š¸A ; qAŠ¸A ; qAŠ¸A ; qAŠ¸A ; qA{{{{- fR?UA w" IHIH HL_ $ k „E k ‹Ð#E L ¨ "q% RŒ„ A Â; _U LZ; "§wEk Tw" A& Z'N • ‰ Š¸A ; qA Y— † T™ Ìð © ; •Œ Z I U/ Ñ EF w ; qA " N 102 KBÌA R 150 KBÌA EF ¢ N{{ j• Z? L 80% ? N{{ ;RXY R µ R A; Q# ? U IHIH HL_ ?!}A w U{{ 9A ;T p # HL_ &© T #• r fR?UA >R ¨ |A ™ºŸK j IU ; qA{{ >A ™ºŸK Z& TKQ _U # RU U &IŠ‰ TfR Â; ¨ ™ºŸK j U{{ j• § #SNA ?pI E y'% 9Ñt } @cU SN HL_ $ #SNA R? &9 "y'% 'r q LÏ bUA ?; Q /Importing raw materials/ SN I¢ RZwSN L wSNA ‹# cU wN fR «L / Exporting manufactured products / ;T >A }I;
  21. 21. 20 RfR?UA Tt ¨ } µ w " |A SN KQ fR?UA Â; ¨NA &IŠ Nk Š¸A Unitary State, Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary system "Ž ; QE{{ r “” j¢ A} ¸I¥ ; IU ~qA N_¸A '•A •j‹ ž®m ~ ; ;T 1955 | " Z… (www.rogerdarlington,me.uk 2017 Japanese political system-Roger Darlington’s World){{ N_¸M A ºA; ¥ (conservative party) K v I ~qA ž®m ~ ?"#yp ~qA KT ¤R¼‹ ; L ¸ ¼ jc R ~qA ºA;¼¼NC E ® Á‹E (Constitutional Monarchic) ; T wRU Ep ;E•A Q"ŸIN m £# wSN ~ q% pw" KÃ; vA ¶ "'• {{ pw" KÃ; v ‹:ËSNA Ò K# RQSN > ~ E qA " p #E{{ >% “” j•A w" RN ¸ ¼ E }®m ¼m ¸ ¥ (Liberal Democratic Party) N{{ Š¸A T 1955 w" RN Liberal Democratic Party ~qA R F “” ‰K qŸK NA ~Òy •"cE{{ j¢ ‰ ¸ ¼ —9 N ; w" 1.Liberal Democratic Party 2.
  22. 22. 21 Democratic Progressive Party 2. Kometo “Government” “Fairness” or Justice party 3. Communist party 5. Initiatives for Osaka 6. Socal Democratic Party 7. Party for Japane Kokoro (means Party that cares for Japn’s heart) 8. The Assembely to Energize Japan 9. New Renainaissance (New Reform Party) Okainawa Socialist Masses Party) 10. Okinawa Socialist Masses Party L c` ~q% (en.wikipedia.org politics_of_Japan 2017) {{ SN T ‹#b` ³QA bU N;L #? ¢ K#yZNA C q NA A} ³QA Z}®N ; • H IN 'N ; cÌ< [ ' N{{ ¨ NZN >% ; • 9A cÌ# (Toyota) q%A N{{ ‰ N ¢ UAA ">A R A ?LRpR| K; ‰ E9[ “” I@ q%k L ¢k ;?K ¢ ‰© I } R&A á` ;?K ¢ y<@ RN q% N{{ :_N pAÊ q% Toyota R F ;jcU Tr#SN Toyota KRNA ; • ;T RN • ‹ ~qA R mE Toyota Spade, Toyota Succeed L·c` ~q% (JOHN PEARLEY HUFFMAN 2014 The Ultimate Toyota-thon Ever) KRN M " w" T ± L·c` N;L 1964 1999 Lexusk 1992 Camry, 1960 Land
  23. 23. 22 Cruiser FJ40, 1993 Supra Turbo, 1990 Lexus LS400, RX 300k 2000 Tundra, 2008 NASCAR Camry, 1985 MR2, L·c` ¨SN{{ Tw" ZJ A Ó _ T ?UA † ìì E9[ K#yZNA KÃQ; #SN R UA IT¢ #wp 'NA E@ ŸŸ Z I Š¸A H Nd N{{ } @¢A #jm ; Emc Á NA … SN ô$t Rô ~qA • j N Tw" Z'N cÌ< QRN 'N 1918 f. cÌ# Á A R ; ;£ ‰ ® ;Rq T' N qw …T w" R ' I [ N #j³ :— ; #jm K• IN{{ K' 'N " #E q% vA Z 1939 f. cÌ#A ® … ¢A L 9Q ' c Nd#? q% Z'N YI Z SN ' áU † #2000 ' áUA p ; NA • I KRN SN ]> m R'N E@ H ; SN … " QS‰E{{ R? HR³ A} 9R' ; N ; vA RNL ? • KUE q%A R?Î N{{ Japanese Toyota Motor corporationk (2014) #j³ > ‹RH qw yA}… ‡ '£` } @¢A ‹; <&v qw ¢A R?UA w" > y<@ qŸ C ¬Ê² Á µR
  24. 24. 23 q%A R?UA w" > ž> {{ ÓIµN 'bU ?R yA}®` ‡ '£` ?‹z 75 f ÓIµ &A á§SNA tw€ R? m ?' Z v ' áU † R I< mE #338,875 q%A }YI ô ;t_#E{{ "Y? A} 9R' RNL R v § "qA R UA > R pL § " qA E9[ Hw“b`A ? ‹¢ N{{ R'NE@ #wp ˜ ' N IT¢ m 'NA E@ µR R?}I9 KLv ' N wR 9R'£U{{ 5.1.5.1.5.1.5.1. ZI UNZI UNZI UNZI UN >R ¨‰>R ¨‰>R ¨‰>R ¨‰ ~N› wA} /Switzerland/Switzerland/Switzerland/Switzerland/ ; qA fR?UA w" •< ;Ž• ; ¨ N{{ 1960 IN Y— † 5.3. KBÌA ~qA QRHN &9® (2015) 8.2 KBÌA Y— † {{ >% yp Y— † F " } ËCA yp¢ A 'I 8,416,765 N{{ (December 18, 2016 based on the latest united nation estimation www.Worldometers.info). "Y K wm N TfR?UA Y— † CŽA ~#" 0.11% —p ¨N Nk (Switzerland population is equivalent to 0.11% of the worled). 73% Y—
  25. 25. 24 KŸIN T ? N{{ "Y K N UA à q% N{{ RfR K IHIH 9 ">A R A; Q# · q Ï w q ‹‹‰ w qA k Sº R?UA |A † L # RfR ?pI C w {{ = j fR?UA •< ;Ž ; ¨ TKQ & ; qA "Y L RN y RfR † E#Z K ;Uw "&RU {{ "YAA U9 R pIt §RUN cUA TNÕ ?; Q Sº R? I Kq% y ‰] UA TNÕ ?; Q R L A † mA q E{{ "YU fR?UA AC Y—£ø ›"‡ ~#" R;© yA•E R KŸv fR?UA ; qA{{ "YN ‚L#k ; fR?UA A‹ 'w?M %_ Ÿ k ?Y Mk ™ºŸK Mk ¤R¼‹M ˜ © nH Q #wp = U{{ q% Â; ¨ ZI UN ‹ < ? j ;HE© mA ¢ ‹# ;& áUA Z w A& í Y—£U ?Ÿ K ?}I9 T [U _U ‰ T •j‹ ZLw wÒNA |L ;R "— Nk
  26. 26. 25 A& T 'I U }• &IŠ T160/170 Ñ ?" E• {{ 5.2.5.2.5.2.5.2. ùùùù UAUAUAUA a Ìða Ìða Ìða Ìð T#j‹UA I< A&K§RN › A q UN ™ Ìð UA 'N › ¨k A& T •I•IU 4000 r q Uk Y—£ SN µ wSN ?R r&w w k }• q% Q§SN =NEcU Np m ;¼ k Až> A9< ZQ" Ñ ;m_U SN{{ UA j v SNA R w "'Ê SNA '!k r Rr ‰&| UAA •" NE E{{ #jm ‚$t A&K Rm¢ T› tA yžY v A jbU ?A § — UA $ A‹ jbU K I©9Ê SN{{ J " #$%&'( " ) '( " *+,- . " /01 '23 45677 89:;<! =>? @A?B AC$D !' !77 '9E =FFG H>I : ! :AJ 1 A 'B '9E :AFK 60 $N *+'#&D( ;O.PQN . 8R S >%T '9E : U V0K 77 :*,;C W X! : R =AY B :Z[ I]Y I B IYC^ Z[ :AE:B %9 ;A_/ =a b cA1' =% 977 @de :20 ,fA 1B( G , 91B
  27. 27. 26 . g9 ,hY1B *> ! :=1 20 de i&D %9 5 ! = ^ %9 !77 j +9- HKk ='; ]! :fA.l A9- X m AE! n2B o E,F [ : @pq! r s05 B9i %9 pa t : 2 uQD I =>Yq! F1 'P0 0f!B @AvB B w :=wh' ='S ! @ax$D w I Av:B =>Yq! A2pq! 45 77 0H *Fs ! o yz { % r s05 =AY PB . 0 0 Xq! *FA2-B !77 f]x B 8z0 @:gB { & A|? :}dUB *XI V5 :=d6 ~• ' h€ *X ! A.. ( :f [h ( AnPO ( :f A Y{B ,O *> ! > 45 :h1n ! fA ,Xh [0D9 !77 :?B = _rD XCpD :A9p }J! =9J^977 :A56 •2g B *h[‚ •w @ < 0n:P9? = UA ;T NZN }I; T Q# T tj‹ A&¨ TfR 10¨ q "#y Eñ q UA; A K ' A R R IT A? ‹Eq A E³ R ; ' A? 1. "qA 9 ; Ò‰ §UA A& c§UA SN Y— —… ~› Tt } N
  28. 28. 27 } ±SNA K› v (QAž SNA Tt } N K NR E "ªAA „„ Y— K ;&;¢ ):: (R v ZI N _ ; q N ; Ó‰# R> ; ? q% N{{ ¸ ¼bUA ; " R J ; qA ;RKUE ; ›A }A/¸ ¼ #Q IN Ó‰#N T?A © BqA N{{ IA A' N Nd# Aq N _ ; ~§E § N{{ 9A Ã }AA ? &}k ?;H ¢k ?'v 9& RNd ?• A;a N{{ "Y ?R Ã }A 'wr "Ÿ ?R N{{ XY yp <RU "#yp {{ q% E• Y— $E T QU tLÒN 9Õ¢ TY— © N Kq N{{ &9® Em L² &ZI tI; ;T wE{{ rE D_žN' qA R Ï A / ;H "Y !• HA# Až& E z E]t E NA {{) q% R UA • j qAA |L Ñ L ?A AUwRAñ 2. ;T N LÏ ! / •< « A / cUA AZ RN?
  29. 29. 28 3. ™ Ìð "qA •< #UAA L / Process / & N T I¢ w RfR † L ?pI A#yp ? 4. ;T N ›" Em R 9 KNRN L RN /Organic/ %9k 'BL ' #UAA LÏ ! y&NÕ « A w E³ KI© Rd Lv Eq ›" ; QN? 5. U "qA ;T ÓIµN EY q%k 'R %k ?v k R • j 'bU q% N? 6.6.6.6. U9_`U9_`U9_`U9_` A;abUA;abUA;abUA;abU %%%% LLLL cUcUcUcU NdNdNdNd Tw" ›I›v >R „ " N € TZI U9 TZI / &„ _U w&„ _U EF #SN ‰ 'R N / ?IN/ 'N ¡"wSN w" wSN EF A}A N? NA NZ R R?
  30. 30. 29 &„ ‹w&„ I‰E/ NZ‰E KQ ~y<&v NZ &IŠSN EF #SN Ñ © "&R " RNk EF #SN TXY ZL[ KZ A 9 R 9 w" wSN EF N{{ J {J {J {J {---- 1. ; - 9Q / 9 I - Y€U / Y9A ?m 'I#M j SN ?}I©SNk 2. $Zz A} Y ?m SNk 3. Tt ¨ ¡wr A «T KU q SNk 4. Y9 j bUA ?m ?;T SNk 5. ”©SNA ?m ?;T §wSNk
  31. 31. 30 6. ; t j #SNk 7. $ A • k 9Q Z ‰!R A‰" t' A pk 8. ; A 9Q R 9 KL ‹E' ;A R Z t &¨ q qAk 9. A“” R; N ³I K'L RXY RN QYj Z j Eq ; ' A ?m /punctuality/ R' Ep m K'Lk1997 Michaelj. Bonnell www.mdcebonnell.com R? R Tw" ›I›v &„ RŒ„ 9 R 9 R EF q% Qw&„ L·c` § K T v ~qA &„ 9A Ñb` ¡wr A «T… K v ;Rq
  32. 32. 31 wRÊ H INà q% A} = A‹ U QRN T9R' • _ 'T} @ ž> J ; ; / A‹ } @cU ; ; / A LA‹Ï }m Ky;% SN ;Rq } @#U> LA‹Ï RN ; ‰…† R Ep } µ RNà 6.1.6.1.6.1.6.1. ////Leadership functionLeadership functionLeadership functionLeadership function//// © fw?A R? ‹ Až§E © C Nd#? 9Q M ; ; ?;§E Nà Lv j 9Q }%A Ap; – Z @c #Z& ; w? ?;H‚ §E N{{ 9Q A&K' N ; Qij " BR " "UwEà ‰ ‰ b`A A RT ?Z}k N Ë ; k ?; Q k m E ?}I9k 9% t k ? © k 9Õ A t# k … M }©t ; k y› … SNà Tw" U9 Em ›I›v ‰ U9 SN RRNL t &¨ R qA A AºA •A< K E¬SN ‰KbU :Ÿv resistant to change in order to hand over their head of stat to opposition party since they are capable of groth and
  33. 33. 32 development for their country{{ p}K ?A¨N R;E•A i— I N ‹E p}K Y A9;#SN N;L ? Zpk R 9 ?›©• 9Q M ?}I9 K QSN T A} y" >R “” qw Á jbU £#NA ž"Ñ p} 9 BŸ " QE (succession plan and its commitment/ since action speaks louder than words) E‹ ; <& p} 9 /good governance and its action/ Ÿv ? Õ RN N {{ Tw" HIJ "Y p} ;R wSN N{{ Tw" &ZI N Á p} ;R wSN T¨ NÕ ‰· R ?R RI@ “” ;E•A w" • jb` %_ &wSN q N Y—QSNA RU9 k R9Õ k R;< R® K ©EÊ {{ !p} Ak Aî k ?A &K' y'A È& N{{ !p} y& AHE N 9 R }I; 9R' / A9; / ¸ ¼bU TQR “” T T'¢ R F U9_UA R †ÏNA A Ak y&r¢A p•Ò A E j N{{ q% R“” M Lp A R?;T [ ›wfR?M #jmA ? w« ;RK • K NA Y— m _ E©" AH; k TY— #U A¦ w "q% k R I N Y— RL bU ;Sº" N Ë ; y› : N{{
  34. 34. 33 6.2.6.2.6.2.6.2. f" cUf" cUf" cUf" cU / Leadership/ Leadership/ Leadership/ Leadership Style/Style/Style/Style/ Tw" &# N U9 A " ;E A N «R Kq N? f" ;AE A} j 9QvA R?T yA AžUE T#Ì`A y" n ¨NA / Subordinates / A f" A } R A&KUE Ky;A N{{ f" cU R F >Ë#bU "THw {{ f" R A} ˜ ‹ Nd#? €w } µ RN{{ R {- jN ˜E•%A Aî A&K Z k T #U n ¨N y" Y— © RNA 9A ? KT A nI ?}I9 f" ¢A "§wE{{ f" cU R F A »U TŽt[ ? :§E XY ! t y'% A § R? A®m RA{{ w" f" _UA › › } A RA{{ XY Q A / Authoritarian / ?m_ K ' / Consultative /k Ep q / liaise fair/ #r / Participatory / SN{{ A<A<SN 9RÒ ZL[ › —íE{{
  35. 35. 34 Q A /Authoritarian Leadership/k Q A ›î Hw“ ¢ Z ' • :qA >A Ñ £#bU "# E{{ K R‚N R A »U SN{{ 6.2.1.6.2.1.6.2.1.6.2.1. Q AQ AQ AQ A QijQijQijQij KT AKT AKT AKT A ZHZHZHZH NkNkNkNk---- N Ë n•LA ˜E•AA › Nk ˜ p& T E ZN Ažª‘ "HE©Ek #U n á` A ; A<RQSN J "y; Ek … ˜E•AA "y;<Ek ¡wr A J § } € Ek R? · TCE? "Ep p• w" ³ Ek
  36. 36. 35 6.2.2.6.2.2.6.2.2.6.2.2. ?m_?m_?m_?m_ KnKnKnKn / Consultative // Consultative // Consultative // Consultative /kkkk TXY #U ZJ A KT E j ?m_ Kn KE BHI@ "UwE{{ ˜E•AA K ‹tEk R Qw IŠ K'L k n ¨N w" RNk n áU t u $ Až'Ê K I##k N ËbU RNL Až&I9QSN K Z /Present decision for change/k
  37. 37. 36 N Ë R ; $ K 'Q; k U9_UA KR" y" >Ë#bU KUEk Tp• "Ep CE? A R? “ K Z k 6.2.3.6.2.3.6.2.3.6.2.3. EpEpEpEp qqqq //// LiaiseLiaiseLiaiseLiaise fairfairfairfair//// kkkk XY f" KHI@ j KT Qij "Ÿv#E{- N Ë R ; JA K Ek 9E'£UA q }ŸUA ˜ >Ë# R T# E 9îRC q k R · A &A# RNk
  38. 38. 37 j bUA 9Q M m E ? & 9k _U SN Ažu‘ K N / q N ">A f" /k 6.2.4.6.2.4.6.2.4.6.2.4. #r#r#r#r /Participative//Participative//Participative//Participative/ Shared Leadership/Shared Leadership/Shared Leadership/Shared Leadership/kkkk KT A Qij › N{- = E } E NL Až&I9 §§Ek n áU N Ë ; Až I##Ek & R A = TŽtwEk n ¨N U9 A R"c Až y• p& T E Až'•SN }©t & ©Ek
  39. 39. 38 ; ; ;; AžH >Ë#bUA R? §S "L Ek n ¨N ˜E•AA AžR? } & ©Ek ž®m ~ M T Ñ f" cU N;L A‘ N{{ ">A A¦ ž®m ~ M #r ?m_ Kn KQ f" cU pÚE{{ [U E? ˜j ‡cU A&K&I N > Tw" R f" cU Y— › t K#F SN{{ T ?k mtR T ? yI< &IŠ A& XY f" Qij A K F jbUA ¨RA{{ Tw" |J R F f" cU SN A‹ &‹? €ŸU :Ÿv‰SN Nd A R? • ~QE A&˜ N QY " A&>Ë#N # f" c`A ?Z • Z ; "§wE{{
  40. 40. 39 7.7.7.7. mY[mY[mY[mY[ /leadership skills//leadership skills//leadership skills//leadership skills/ mY[ /leadership skills/ ?R ÓQÕ q _UA 9 U[# ?R N jbU{ 'bU Nd#? Z NA 9 9 AžU mY[ ;HE©E{{ T ?k m/T yI< &IŠ q ?A¨N } @ jbU !p} R 9 vA # p® ? ‹ AžU mY[ ;HE©E{{ A& koontz et.al /1984/ " j mY[ A< " Z {{ =. jbU ;E•A /the authority or power of leaders/ R. 'bU R 9” >Ë# R ? · A } B | &KU I< { ù. 'bU … p?SN Až'v ? . jN KT RN ›"‡ /the style of leader/ UN jbU 9Q R y• R 9 R f" mY[ ;HE©E{{ j mY[ R F >Ë#bU H ¹ ? "§wE{{ y' R qbU ~qA
  41. 41. 40 J ˆA' $ /conceptual/k ' M /human/k ¥mËM /technical/ ¤R¼‹M /political/ mY[ RN A& p& T wSN B#F "Uw {{ R 9Eˆ R?}I9 A<A‘ mY[ A ET {{ 7.1.7.1.7.1.7.1. ˆA'ˆA'ˆA'ˆA' ==== mY[mY[mY[mY[ /conceptual skills//conceptual skills//conceptual skills//conceptual skills/ } @¢} @¢} @¢} @¢ ………… ;•;•;•;• f" ? I< mY[ N{{ • R F } @ ˜ I< • R F } @¢ mt[U ; › ²U ‹TE RN 9A A› • } @¢ N;L K&I NA 9A ;; } @¢ NÒM N;•M TQ: />Ë#bU/ $E RNA 9A R I< k • } @¢A ¤B~ !p} R 9 K&I9 H U[#k • ; QE&IQA ; Q _ Z @c Nd#? ?}I9 y› SN
  42. 42. 41 7.2.7.2.7.2.7.2. ' M' M' M' M mY[mY[mY[mY[ ////HHHHuman Skills/uman Skills/uman Skills/uman Skills/ "Y"Y"Y"Y &9®&9®&9®&9® ³I³I³I³I K & NK & NK & NK & N {{{{---- • T [U © _ ; §Ek • © 9A ;I §Ek • n ¨NA —AQ tw• LI y› KI< Nk 7.3.7.3.7.3.7.3. ¥mËM¥mËM¥mËM¥mËM mY[mY[mY[mY[ /technical skills//technical skills//technical skills//technical skills/ "Y mY[ y' ˜ ;m QR… q% K z N{{ • N Ë ; N{{ • … M }©t ; mY[ • <' 9 ? ?}I9 mY[ • ?; <& mY[ • ?Z} 9 mY[ • 9A mY[
  43. 43. 42 7.4. ¤R¼‹M¤R¼‹M¤R¼‹M¤R¼‹M mY[mY[mY[mY[ /Political Skills//Political Skills//Political Skills//Political Skills/k ¤R¼‹ A| ²k } @¢A > ; ' 9Q 9Q M ?}I9 ~qA /implement political theory, ideology, political orientation applied practically/ R?R ~qA A} j XY I } KŸIN mY[ {- • T wN }A y" ’ © } } ; K &I9 R T ‹Q: ; <& QR;E•Ak i—£U } @cU y› … t "§wEk • T [U © y $ ‹HEk E } R‰yLk • & & ? A mA ; k • ; w" U9 K • 9ÕcUA/ QE#bUA t# TwTEk • ; A R?•E [U ›A} ZQ" Ak m A ‰© ?|9Û y› … 7.5.7.5.7.5.7.5. ?A¨N?A¨N?A¨N?A¨N mY[mY[mY[mY[ ////Leadership skills/Leadership skills/Leadership skills/Leadership skills/
  44. 44. 43 mY[ > › ²U 9Q SN " wSN :qA A<A} >Ë#bU A&˜ N f" Ó?j mY[ B "| "Uw {{ Y— jbU Ó?j Y— E‹ ; <& ; KI< mY[ B ;HE©SN "UwE{{ R {- RY— ;?K ; <& ;E k >Ë# t k A‹ ’ k i I ' 9A ; k w" KyÊ Lv N}} QiEA ?< _ K' N n áU N;L T##" ; µµE ;• A ?•E KUEk RY I ' K p… ?m_ D_•mcUA /macro projects/ ?}I9 §Ek RA9} } Tt ¨ 9 RN qA 9Q M ?}I9k A‹ A9} } @cUA ? I## KUE •A< RN R?;H‚ | ¨ RNk ¤B~‰UA ; ¥¦‰UA 9E] ?›©• R 9Q M ¢ KL qAk L #SN fR Zt 'TIwSNA 9E A9} } @cUA ?›©• ? “ p® ˜ A ?µµE 9 y› …. C SN{{ XY ]>t • j N ' ;EcU q% E‚‰E{{ q% ?A¨N Tw" Z Ê A ®m_bU A›
  45. 45. 44 E <UNA ?TE !p»UA ‹yÊ qw !p}A L©: >Ë# Z N 9 ;#A< } 9 ;UwE{{ p}A R 9 Lv mY[ BŸ " QE{{ Ó?j KT 9 µR N A R? • "I<E{{ • Tw" N Ë 'Õ ‹w T#U ;T w QRN QR} µ ‹w k i I ' &IŠ RK !p}A R 9 TK'v mt[U © © £ ?N• 9 9” ' <N ;? c A&t{{ • !p}A R 9 A‹ | z ;• AžHL ?}I9 • !p}A B ; KUE }©t · = ?›©• • !p‘A Q y•N 9” ' < ;#A< } nI T y q%A p m E ?}I9 • } @¢ ÓQÕ >Ë# RNA RNL ? › !p}A ?; ‹TE • ‹Q:NA i I ' RK p… 'r D_•mcU !p} 9 } A ?;ŽŽ i I 'A : AÕ AžŽ A ?}I9
  46. 46. 45 • i I 'A 9A†‡ ? &9 RE? A K Q ; K'v ¿_•m ˜ bU w" ‰ " AžqA m E |LL L ?µµE ; bUA Až 9… ?}I9 Ó?j m A Z ; ¿_•mcU ›wSN “” Až E| † ; • _U Ti— © 9A t §E • Y I 'A } @#SN !} w" Až &IŠN _Uk … $ [UA ºK¥ ?& • / ’’ • !p} ~y• K ÛNA Nd K ; ÛNA Z•# 9 I E; ; #F A U9_U _ t# §E{{ ">A ?A¨N }I@ jN KT RN f" E } 9E Qi " mY[ } @ !p} ? µµE Tt ¨} µ RN {{ mY[ Lv Nd ~ ; z A} ‹E N{{ Thus style of leadership is more peopule oriented rather than other and requires a leadership approach that
  47. 47. 46 transforms the feeling, attitudes and bealifes of others. In other words, it transforms orgnization culture. 7.5.1.7.5.1.7.5.1.7.5.1. t ubt ubt ubt ubUUUU LvLvLvLv jjjj Qij AQij AQij AQij A w ;w ;w ;w ; NNNN / Qualities of effective/ Qualities of effective/ Qualities of effective/ Qualities of effective leadership/leadership/leadership/leadership/ ;Ž Z K ; / Strategic Thinker / } @¢ Ry&r¢ ‹ AžqA KL k J R [U ; QE&I£` ' ; 9Q qA KUE / Role model / k N Ë 'Õ / Decision – Maker / H•A 'R N Ë K'Lk T J Lp ?˜T r k Ñ=%A Lp ?˜T Až & „ K 9—k /creating synergistic effect by implementing selflessness/ k « ©"/ mediators/ 9ÕcU “” A}H¢ K 9—k consensus seeker and creator ; © Ë KHL /consensus seeker /builder/ © ; A 9 K'Lk
  48. 48. 47 JA L® KH C /self evaluator/ RRNL —9Ý q positive for change }A ;K A KHL /team spirit creator and promoter/ R A} 9Q 'bUA } Až'Q' K & 9 k K† M q /fair and balanced/ > A 'N ³E K " /positive for impartiality and inclusive/ ZE•Ž ‰•R <z N Ë K'Lk $ A Zw 9E] ?; wRt KUE / good communicator/k ? A qA K / lead through influence and example setting/ / K'L = N Ë Ò ? & 9k ; K'L KZ E /taker and giver of feedback/ A: UcUA "'•E "Z wEk L® K & L /emphatic listener/ A& : 'R®A ‹R H•A t } R ; E‹ }?Õ qA K ;HE9 Nà Tw" ›I›v Lv j QYj mY[ R A} A9; ">A 9E } @cU jbU R9w ž> T Z…QSN @„ K SNà
  49. 49. 48 K• IN A}A } @ 9R' &IŠ ;Rq LA‹Ï KR‹N X> A‹ } @cU ; ; N < SN Nà R} @#SN N&p ?&9 y v Nà q% A} j A " >Ã# £# A f" mY[ A Z <R R"c ?yp R à yp¢A ÓQÕ >Ë# ?dA Tw" ZI A ;E A ? §S 9 "Ÿ #Eà
  50. 50. 49 mtE >RmtE >RmtE >RmtE >R 8.¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w U”É” ’¨< ;¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w U”É” ’¨< ;¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w U”É” ’¨< ;¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w U”É” ’¨< ; ¾|n MGÆR dNB K›”É SY]Áu?ƒ SW[ƒ ¨ÃU ¾T°²” É”Òà “†¨< }wK¨< ¾T>ÑS~ƒ” SW[ © ¾Y’UÓv` S`J−‹“ c?„‹ uÓMî ¾T>Ádà “ W^}™‹“ Lò−‹ Y^†¨<” c=ÁŸ“¨<’< K=”ìv`s†¨< ¾T>Ñv†¨<” lMõ ¾J’< ¾SM"U Y’UÓv` SÑKÝ−‹” ¾T>ÖlU ÏÓ u×U ÖnT> ¾J’ ¾SY]Áu?ƒ” ¾Y^ vIM ¾T>k`ê ¨d˜ ¾Y^ ›S^` SX]Á ’¨<:: 8.1.8.1.8.1.8.1. ¾Y’¾Y’¾Y’¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w ØpUUÓv` Å”w ØpUUÓv` Å”w ØpUUÓv` Å”w ØpU uØpK< ¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w Lò−‹“ ‰t®‹ Y^†¨<” SM"U |nMGÆ` }Lwc¨<“ ŸSØö Y’UÓv` `k¨< ”Ç=ÁŸ“¨<’<“ ¨<Ö? T ”Ç=J’< wKAU ¾SY]Áu?~” ^°Ã }M°¢ “ Óx‹ KTd"ƒ Ÿõ}— ѳ ÁÅ`ÒM 8.1.1.8.1.1.8.1.1.8.1.1. kz!H bt=¥¶kz!H bt=¥¶kz!H bt=¥¶kz!H bt=¥¶ ¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w¾Y’ UÓv` Å”w ¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ ØpV‹ ›K<ƒ :¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ ØpV‹ ›K<ƒ :¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ ØpV‹ ›K<ƒ :¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ ØpV‹ ›K<ƒ :----
  51. 51. 50 W^}™‹“ Lò−‹ k|n MGÆR xµ*à XRG-¾ ÃLçn#ÆcW g#Ä×C s!ÃU_¥cW xÈBqE" WS_ s!gb# CGéc$N lmF¬T y¸ÃSCL S”ÑÉ KSÖqU“ ¾T>ÁhS< ’Ña‹” ÓMê KTÉ[Ó' ¾ØpU Ó߃ K=ðÖ` ¾T>‹Muƒ” G<’@ “ Óß~ K=¨ÑÉ ¾T>‹Muƒ” G<’@ KTSLŸƒ' W^}™‹“ Lò−‹ SW[ © ¾J’< ¾SY]u?~” Xs@èC½ S`J−‹ dNïCN ?¯CN b¥KbR |‰cWN b|R›T XNÄ!m„ l¥DrG½ ŸÁ”Ç”Æ Lò“ W^}— ¾T>Öup }Óv`“ Lò’ƒ” ”Ç=G<U SM"U Y’UÓv`” KTw^^ƒ“ uÓMê KTekSØ' W^}™‹“ Lò−‹ y:lT tlT }Óv^†¨<” SM"U |nMGÆR }Lwc¨< XNÄ!ÃkÂW’< KTÉ[Ó' ‰t®C ŸSM"U |nMGÆR W+ yçn SØö tGÆR XNÄYf{Ñ lmk§kL ¾SM"U Y’UÓv` SÕÅM c=ÁÒØU l!wcÇ y¸gÆcW” y:RMT XRM©ãC l¥mLkT½
  52. 52. 51 Q´u< uS”ÓYƒ W^}™‹“ ¾Y^ Lò−‹ Là U’ƒ ”Ç=•[¨< KTÉ[Ó' 9.9.9.9. ; 9Q €&E A;abU K Q J; 9Q €&E A;abU K Q J; 9Q €&E A;abU K Q J; 9Q €&E A;abU K Q J mA cUmA cUmA cUmA cU =. ; 9Q €&E A;a=. ; 9Q €&E A;a=. ; 9Q €&E A;a=. ; 9Q €&E A;a - ; 9Q —p / E‹ ; 9Q „}R / * ;9 9 k ;y<} k E 9 Q" * Tt ¨ J; L ¨ qA * ;A T wN ?; RL w" tw€ R. QQC mA cUR. QQC mA cUR. QQC mA cUR. QQC mA cU 1. ™ºŸK M mA cU. ™ºŸK M mA cU. ™ºŸK M mA cU. ™ºŸK M mA cU • 'I#M tw€ A R? w R §E • ; ‰; &YA ;• ?• • %_ N} © • : R Ÿ • A9; S¨ U y" E9[ 'Õ q QSN ;ºU ˜ bU Ÿ¤E —
  53. 53. 52 2.¤R¼‹M mA cU¤R¼‹M mA cU¤R¼‹M mA cU¤R¼‹M mA cU • ž®m ~ M ; R › © / R T • E‹ ; <& ¬ · 9E] U9 • Y9 w" R ;HA - ;E•A ?TE 3.QYwM ; E£ M.QYwM ; E£ M.QYwM ; E£ M.QYwM ; E£ M ¡wZ ; '£U E »U- ~ E w ~µ "•Ó‰E K ; ' R;w•A _Lk ; 9Q €&E A& E‹ € — &Ž • … ?Y M ;; k — } " z#A 'I &I 9E©[ ; A& E‹ QYE • 4. ’?M mà cU4. ’?M mà cU4. ’?M mà cU4. ’?M mà cU R > Nd#? ' áU ? I#§ ; R › © ( I@ q Õ “” Y }Ek &IŠ } k R 'v ; bU ? I#§k …) n ¨N / NZ mY[ ; ' ) KHR N &IŠ w" R }I; A RT 9E RK µC A9; ' ŸU } R Ÿv ' &A j bU 9Eˆ ˜ › — Hw“N >Ë# Ec R Û :Ÿ 9Q ; w" R ‰E U9 1.4 ; 9Q €&E K ;T wSN „<cU; 9Q €&E K ;T wSN „<cU; 9Q €&E K ;T wSN „<cU; 9Q €&E K ;T wSN „<cU
  54. 54. 53 =. ™ºŸK M „<cU=. ™ºŸK M „<cU=. ™ºŸK M „<cU=. ™ºŸK M „<cU • E? A ZÕÒE • ™ºŸK } Až # & ©E • Á N}Z AžŽ A }Y Tt ¨ &IŠ Až;ŽŽ & ©E R. ¤R¼‹M „<cR. ¤R¼‹M „<cR. ¤R¼‹M „<cR. ¤R¼‹M „<cUUUU • Y9 w" 'bU w" mc Y—£U ž®m ~ M ; w" Ë# Až Ê & ©E • ¤R¼‹M R I©© Ak ; ; L LA 'bU ' M L' A ;RK ;T E Y— A9; w" RNA Ë# •‰Eà • = i— &YA w" &© ;T wE ù. ?Y M „<cUù. ?Y M „<cUù. ?Y M „<cUù. ?Y M „<cU - ; L k – ¨ <j k • • €< w" ~R A # k [ €< <<j k ‰E! k › r <" ;T wE 9.1.9.1.9.1.9.1. ; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q €&E€&E€&E€&E yA•EyA•EyA•EyA•E "#"#"#"# 2.12.12.12.1 yA•EyA•EyA•EyA•E A}A}A}A} NNNN Aî ;Aî ;Aî ;Aî ; "’’?E"’’?E"’’?E"’’?E???? yA•EyA•EyA•EyA•E A}A NA}A NA}A NA}A N????
  55. 55. 54 • Y yL ¢ ;ZÕ ¢ Y9 & NA } “ k ?R Y9 TRTRNA ?}I9 y" Y9 #››NA R?}I9 Nà • yA•E ?}I9 y" QR?}I9 "Hˆ?E 9.1.1.1.9.1.1.1.9.1.1.1.9.1.1.1. yA•EAyA•EAyA•EAyA•EA K ’|…K ’|…K ’|…K ’|… tÏ _UtÏ _UtÏ _UtÏ _U////mt[Umt[Umt[Umt[U 1.... Y©MY©MY©MY©M tÏtÏtÏtÏ • A} } “ yA•E N R?R } “¢ A<"H‚ KTRTE Y9 (}A©!) Ÿ R * - 'N 9&E ; / ® ;Z•E 2. 9ÑŽM9ÑŽM9ÑŽM9ÑŽM tÏtÏtÏtÏ //// } €} €} €} € mtEmtEmtEmtE//// • Y yL N ;Z•E QRN } “ 9Q H‚ "Ÿ #Eà • } “¢A R H‚ ?' §NA A&yA•E "• * - 9} 9Q HŒ - 9} …T ?}I9/ R §E y" TrE HŒ /
  56. 56. 55 - R 9&E = /!p} ?›©• 3.... yA•EyA•EyA•EyA•E mtEmtEmtEmtE ® wM® wM® wM® wM tÏtÏtÏtÏ • } “¢ H‚ N T p w" q mà "qA qA [ y" SE z y" 9îRC y" "#' ?; 'E Tq yA•E ’| E AwRAà 2.22.22.22.2 p•p•p•p• w?Nw?Nw?Nw?N ====.... p•p•p•p• • yA•E H‚…A Y9 I© 'N w" Ky'} Š ~qA "Y A› k ; k A & y" ® BH‚ "UwEà RRRR.... p•p•p•p• ‰‰‰‰ w?w?w?w? • yA•R¨N " yA•E T H‚ Až#Z / Až #/ • wN 'N T ZúN Až? • yA•E H±KN Tp•¢ _ E‹ ; 9Q QR‡ AžqA R?;§E Nà
  57. 57. 56 10. þK+"© S<e“ (þK+"© S<e“ (þK+"© S<e“ (þK+"© S<e“ (Political corruption) þK+"© S<e“- uþK+" û`+−‹' uT”—¨<U Å[Í ¾þK+" ¨<d’@ uT>cÖ< Ÿõ}— ¾þK+" ›S^` ›"Lƒ“ uS”Óeƒ vKeMדƒ u¨<d’@ ›c×Ø Là ¾T>ðìU ¾S<e“ ¨”ËM ’¨<:: þK+"© S<e“ w²< Ñ>²? þK+Ÿ© ¨<d’@−‹ KÓM“ Ku<É” ØpU uT>ÁS‹ S”ÑÉ S¨c”” ¨ÃU ”Ç=¨c’< TÉ[Ó”“ ¾›”É TIu[cw” Ç=V¡^c=Á© ›c^` Y`¯ƒ' c?„‹”“ MTÊ‹” ¾S×e T”—¨<”U }Óv` ¾T>SKŸƒ ’¨<:: þK+"© S<e“ u}KÁ¿ SM¢‹ ¾T>ÑKê u=J”U ÑAM}¨< ¾T> ¿ ¾þK+"© S<e“ ¯Ã’„‹ ¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ “†¨<:- GGGG---- uU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìUuU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìUuU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìUuU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìU (Electoral Corruption) KKKK---- ¾S”ÓYƒ u=a¡^c=”“ ¾S”ÓYƒ Y^” KþK+" ØpU¾S”ÓYƒ u=a¡^c=”“ ¾S”ÓYƒ Y^” KþK+" ØpU¾S”ÓYƒ u=a¡^c=”“ ¾S”ÓYƒ Y^” KþK+" ØpU¾S”ÓYƒ u=a¡^c=”“ ¾S”ÓYƒ Y^” KþK+" ØpU TªMTªMTªMTªM (Politicization of bureaucracy)))) NNNN---- uIÓ ›¨×Ø H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìUuIÓ ›¨×Ø H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìUuIÓ ›¨×Ø H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìUuIÓ ›¨×Ø H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìU ( Corruption in the legislative process) “†¨<::“†¨<::“†¨<::“†¨<:: GGGG---- uU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìU S<e“uU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìU S<e“uU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìU S<e“uU`Ý ¨pƒ ¾T>ðìU S<e“
  58. 58. 57 ¾›KU }V¡a−‹ ”ÅT>Ád¿ƒ' uw²< ›Ña‹ ¾þK+" S]−‹“ û`+−‹ S<e“ ¨<eØ ¾T>Ñu<ƒ eM×” KSÁ´ ¨ÃU ueM×” Là KSq¾ƒ "L†¨< õLÑAƒ ¾}’d ’¨<:: 10.1.10.1.10.1.10.1. uU`Ý H>Ń ²<]Á ¾T>ðìS< ¾S<e“ ¨”ËKA‹uU`Ý H>Ń ²<]Á ¾T>ðìS< ¾S<e“ ¨”ËKA‹uU`Ý H>Ń ²<]Á ¾T>ðìS< ¾S<e“ ¨”ËKA‹uU`Ý H>Ń ²<]Á ¾T>ðìS< ¾S<e“ ¨”ËKA‹ SÑKÝ−‹SÑKÝ−‹SÑKÝ−‹SÑKÝ−‹ uU`Ý pekd ¨pƒ ¾pekd“ ¾–aûÒ”Ç Y^ KSc^ƒ uSÑ“— w²<H” ›ÖnkU Là ›=-õƒH©“ ›ÉKA›© ›c^` uSðìU I´u< ›T^ß ”ÇÕƒ SÑÅw¿ uU`Ý ¨pƒ KS^à‹ Ñ”²w ¨ÃU M¿ M¿ SÅKÁ uSeÖƒ U`݆¨<” Tek¾`¿ uU`Ý ¨pƒ K}S^à‹ Ñ”²w ¨ÃU M¿ M¿ SÅKÁ uSeÖƒ ”ÇèÇÅ TÉ[Ó' ¨ÃU uIÓ ›¨<ܨ< ¾T>ÖpT†¨< IÓ ¨ÃU ¨<d’@ ”Ç=cØL†¨< KTÉ[Ó K}S^à‹ ¾U`Ý pekd“ ²S‰ óÓ”e uTÉ[Ó' KKKK ---- ¾c=y=M c`y=c<” Sªp` KþK+" ØpU õLÑAƒ TTEÁ¾c=y=M c`y=c<” Sªp` KþK+" ØpU õLÑAƒ TTEÁ¾c=y=M c`y=c<” Sªp` KþK+" ØpU õLÑAƒ TTEÁ¾c=y=M c`y=c<” Sªp` KþK+" ØpU õLÑAƒ TTEÁ TªMTªMTªMTªM
  59. 59. 58 ÃI KþK+"¨<“ KþK+"¨< T˜“ ÅÒò KJ’< c−‹ ¾}K¾ ØpU“ U‡ G<’@ KSõÖ` c=vM u ¨<kƒ“ u‹KA Là Sc[ƒ vÅ[Ñ ¨<ÉÉ` ŸTeÁ´ ÃMp Kû`+¨<“ KþK+"¨< T˜ ŸSJ” ›”í` ¾c=y=M c`y=c<” Sªp` uSS<Lƒ ¾T>ðìU þK+"© ¨Ñ”}˜’ƒ” ¾T>SKŸƒ ’¨<:: uc=y=M c`y=e ¨<eØ ¾T>cØ Lò’ƒ KþK+"¨< T˜ uSJ” Là ¾}SW[} ŸJ’ }k×]−‹ T˜’ †¨<” KTd¾ƒ“ Å[͆¨<” KTdÅÓ ¾þK+" ØpU uTeÖup Y^ Là ÃÖSÇK<:: ¾²=I ÉU` ¨<Ö?ƒU ›e}ÇÅ^© Y^−‹” uþ`+ ›c^` ›”í` ”Ç=n˜ U¡”Áƒ ÃJ“M::¾S”Óeƒ“ ¾û`+ Y^ ÃkLkLM¿ Éу“ ¾ÅV´ ßT] þK+Ÿ ¨Ñ”}— ’ƒ Sc[ƒ ”Ç=ÁÅ`Ó ÁeÑÉÇM¿ÃI ÅÓV uK?KA‹ Là ¾Y^ }’di’ƒ ”Ç=k”e ÁÅ`ÒM:: NNNN---- QÓ uT¨<׃ H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìQÓ uT¨<׃ H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìQÓ uT¨<׃ H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìQÓ uT¨<׃ H>Ń Là ¾T>ðìU S<e“U S<e“U S<e“U S<e“ ¾}¨c’< ¨Ñ•‹” ØpU KTeÖup“ KS`ǃ uT>S‹ SMŸ< IÓ ”Ç=¨× Å”w“ þK=c= ”Ç=k[ê }î • KTÉ[Ó ¨ÃU uþK=e k[í ¨pƒ ¾¨ŸLD†¨< u<É•‹ ¾ÓM“ ¾u<É” õLÑA †¨<” uIÓ ”Ç=Á"ƒ~ KS”Óeƒ vKYMדƒ'KþK+" ›S^` ›vLƒ“ KI´w }S^à‹ Ÿõ}— Ñ”²w
  60. 60. 59 uSeÖƒ'uTÓvvƒ“ }î°• uTdÅ` ¾T>ðçU ¨”ËM” ¾T>SKŸƒ ÃJ“M::
  61. 61. 60 11.11.11.11. Y’UÓv` U”É” ’¨< ;Y’UÓv` U”É” ’¨< ;Y’UÓv` U”É” ’¨< ;Y’UÓv` U”É” ’¨< ; u›ÖnLà Y’UÓv` TKƒ Ø “ SØö uÔ “ ¡ñ ›dw' ”ÓÓ`“ É`Ñ>ƒ” ¾T>ÑMê Y`¯ƒ ’¨<:: ¾ƒ¡¡K—“ ƒ¡¡K— ÁMJ’ vQ`à SKŸ=Á ’¨<:: ›”É ›dw ¨ÃU É`Ñ>ƒ SM"U ¨ÃU SØö' ƒ¡¡M ¨ÃU eI}ƒ' ªÒ ÁK¨< ¨ÃU ªÒ ¾K?K¨<' õƒN© ¨ÃU ›=õƒN© SJ’<” KT[ÒÑØ ¾T>ÖpU SKŸÁ ’¨<:: Y’UÓv` ƒ¡¡K— ›dw”“ É`Ñ>ƒ ŸeI}ƒ KÄ KT¨<׃ ¾T>[Ç“ ¾c¨<” vQ`à ¾T>k`ê SS]Á c=J” ¾c¨< MÏ SØö ¾J’< U™„‹ ”ÇÁg”ñƒ“ ð”pK¨< ”ÇèÖ< KSq×Ö` ¾T>[Ǩ< ¾Y’Mx“ MÕU ’¨<:: ¾c¨< MÏ ”Å ”ed ”ÇÃJ” ’Ñ` Ó” cw¯© ¡w” uSÖup ¨<eש õLÑA~”U }Ñu= uJ’ ¨pƒ“ Yõ^ ”Ç=ÁTEL ¾T>ÁÅ`Ó ¾Qèƒ ¢Uþe ’¨<:: Y’UÓv` u›w³—¨< Ÿ}Óv` Ò` ¾}Ñ“– ’¨<:: ›`e„ƒM ¾}vK ¾Ó]¡ òLeó Y’UÓv` ›dv© dÃJ” c−‹ u}Óv` ¾T>Wƒ Y^ ”ÅJ’ }“ÓbM:: ”Å `c< à Y’UÓv` uc¨< vQ`à Là ¾}SW[} ’¨<:: SM"U Y’UÓv`
  62. 62. 61 ¾T>vK¨< ¾c¨< MÏ ¾}ðÖ[uƒ” }M°¢¨< uT>Ñv ”Ç=¨× ¾T>ÁÅ`Ó }Óv` ’¨<:: eK²=I ƒ¡¡K— ¾J’ ’Ñ` ¨Å SM"U Ów ¾T>ÁÅ`e É`Ñ>ƒ ’¨<:: 11.1.11.1.11.1.11.1. ¾SM"U Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SM"U Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SM"U Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SM"U Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹ G<K<”U W^}— u Ÿ<M ¯Ã” T¾ƒ' Nk˜’ƒ ' T˜’ƒ ... ¾Y^ c¯ƒ T¡u` vKÑ<ÇÔ u}Ñu=¨< S”ÑÉ“ uƒIƒ“ Te}“ÑÉ 11.2.11.2.11.2.11.2. ¾SØö Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SØö Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SØö Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹¾SØö Y’UÓv` UdK?−‹ ¾u=a ldlf‹” (¨[kƒ' `de eúM' ›Ó^õ'óeƒ’` ¨²}...) ¨Å u?ƒ ¨eÊ KÓM ØpU TªM uY^ W¯ƒ u=a ¨<eØ Y^” ¾uÅK< u¢Uú¨<}` Ñ@U Sݨƒ c=Ò^ KTÚe Y^” uT>uÉM SÖ” }ÚT] Ñ>²? S¨<cÉ ¾u=a YM¡” }Ñu= vMJ’ S”ÑÉ SÑMÑM - p x KÓM Y^ SŨM - p`w x Ũ<KA [ÏU c¯ƒ T¨<^ƒ ¨²} Y^” uT>uÉM SÖ” Ÿ}ðkŨ< uLà Ud c¯ƒ” T^²U
  63. 63. 62 ¾c¯ƒ ò`T” (uc¯ƒ dÃÑ–<) uðKÑ<ƒ Ñ>²? Sð[U uY^ c¯ƒ hà u?ƒ SH@É“ [»U ¾Y^ W¯ƒ uTvŸ” “ ¾ÓM e^” Se^ƒ “ Wò Ñ>²? uS¨<cÉ Y^” SuÅM 11.3.11.3.11.3.11.3. ; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q €&E€&E€&E€&E yA•EAyA•EAyA•EAyA•EA TwTETwTETwTETwTE ; ¥@; ¥@; ¥@; ¥@ ;E;E;E;E ====.... ; ¥¦bU; ¥¦bU; ¥¦bU; ¥¦bU 1.1.1.1. C EC EC EC E ™A 9j¼™A 9j¼™A 9j¼™A 9j¼ ~;~;~;~; //// u Mu Mu Mu M Z •Z •Z •Z • ; f; f; f; f tttt - i9i9i9i9 NÕNNÕNNÕNNÕN ‹E‹E‹E‹E{- ; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q €&E€&E€&E€&E R •• K ;UE L ; RN Y9 ?N• ;H±KA •• - Y9Y9Y9Y9 ;H±KN;H±KN;H±KN;H±KN{- y•NA Y9 9Q € jbUA | z t 9E] · RNA ' ~ E ' J N;L › © §Eà - t }t }t }t } ‡‡‡‡ <áU<áU<áU<áU RE ¨ ’?M ± t
  64. 64. 63 - ˜ Q˜ Q˜ Q˜ Q ‚I‚I‚I‚I …;…;…;…; ºAŸUAºAŸUAºAŸUAºAŸUA 9R' p ?„E …; yA•EA TR; ? &9 - Ñ=AÑ=AÑ=AÑ=A ¨¨¨¨ //// KžKžKžKž ////{- …; A ?©RL E‹ ; 9Q A i— N;L ?'Iˆ I } KŸ SNA K ?€E /ÕNN } ? ¤; —9@ / - ………… Y—QMY—QMY—QMY—QM ?Y A?Y A?Y A?Y A ?’’ ? T ‚I- …; 9E N;L KŸ SNA ² ? &9/?€E 11.4.11.4.11.4.11.4. …;…;…;…; yA•EAyA•EAyA•EAyA•EA R TwTER TwTER TwTER TwTE R ••R ••R ••R •• AAAA &I9&I9&I9&I9 RRRR RNRNRNRN ;Q;Q;Q;Q
  65. 65. 64 mtEmtEmtEmtE Â; {Â; {Â; {Â; {---- ; 9Q k; 9Q k; 9Q k; 9Q k 12.12.12.12. ; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q qbUqbUqbUqbU N#_UN#_UN#_UN#_U 12.1.12.1.12.1.12.1. ; Q; Q; Q; Q A} NA} NA} NA} N???? -Lv L²k € m k ‰© RN ‰© RN t =M ™-t =M q A99 } “ k - mmR¨ QY " RÁ k - ?Y Mk QYwMk … M ® wM 9Q M qbUA ‹ ] ; = Nà 10.1.110.1.110.1.110.1.1 E‹E‹E‹E‹ ; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q; 9Q - 12¢A ; 9Q qbU ?m • 12¢ ; 9Q qbU 1.... wwww ;;;; ////pApApApA (integrity)(integrity)(integrity)(integrity) - A kL RN E9[ ; A 9Q: QQj A w? ] A " E±E 2. #?z#?z#?z#?z /Loyalty//Loyalty//Loyalty//Loyalty/ - R E Ri 9;¢ Ri I ' R&A j bU Ù qAA
  66. 66. 65 3. 9Eˆ9Eˆ9Eˆ9Eˆ /Transparency//Transparency//Transparency//Transparency/ - :NA IŠ R :N ; A } p R qAAk 4. =Zz=Zz=Zz=Zz //// HHHHonesty/onesty/onesty/onesty/ - N ¨ T?#RE T?Õ • qA 5. ···· /Accountability//Accountability//Accountability//Accountability/ -RN ËbU R& “cU ¡wr N'} 6. K;LK;LK;LK;L Q·Q·Q·Q· /Confidentiality/secrecy//Confidentiality/secrecy//Confidentiality/secrecy//Confidentiality/secrecy/ - A9; y" 9wM Qij" wSNA K;L_U p E² R ; A 7. i—i—i—i— LpLpLpLp ?;Z&?;Z&?;Z&?;Z& /Serving the public interest//Serving the public interest//Serving the public interest//Serving the public interest/ - ˜ A i— A9; Lp nI ?}I9 ?T yA /p}K ; / 8. ˜E•AA˜E•AA˜E•AA˜E•AA 9Q9Q9Q9Q ZZZZ /exercising legitimate authority//exercising legitimate authority//exercising legitimate authority//exercising legitimate authority/ - ˜E•A & R A9;#M ˜ § Z 9.... R?<wR?<wR?<wR?<w /impartiality//impartiality//impartiality//impartiality/ - 'bUA ¤R¼‹ R‹T k › k ="?Ÿ EF R ›A
  67. 67. 66 10. i9i9i9i9----?m?m?m?m /respecting the law//respecting the law//respecting the law//respecting the law/ - i9A w" Z E 11. RiRiRiRi———— LLLL :NA:NA:NA:NA wCwCwCwC ;;;; / Responsiveness// Responsiveness// Responsiveness// Responsiveness/ - : m Y R R©" ; ! ‹#N &' 12. qAqAqAqA/ to be role model// to be role model// to be role model// to be role model/ - E‹ ; 9Q / qA **** N""N""N""N"" - / #UA N;L E‹ L² 9Q bU "LZJ? 12.2.12.2.12.2.12.2. 8888¢¢¢¢ ˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q N#_UN#_UN#_UN#_U 1.1.1.1. ¤R¼‹¤R¼‹¤R¼‹¤R¼‹MMMM | z| z| z| z ŸŸŸŸ - ;A T…; ?ˆ< …; A L • R ‰© 9Q | z ? T _U " E 2.2.2.2. Nd#?Nd#?Nd#?Nd#? Y9Y9Y9Y9 ?!Zt?!Zt?!Zt?!Zt Z • ŒI-…; i€U pIˆ ˜ w" ?‰E 3.3.3.3. 9Eˆ9Eˆ9Eˆ9Eˆ ···· ; f; f; f; f › ©› ©› ©› ©
  68. 68. 67 9Eˆ ˜ j k ˜ } µ › — : |LL ; f Nd º 9 4.4.4.4. ˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q &A&A&A&A ?›©•?›©•?›©•?›©• - T /‡¢ Qij" © › 12¢ ; 9Q qbU nI &I ; Q &A ›©@c X> 5.5.5.5. ˜˜˜˜ 9Q A9Q A9Q A9Q A ………… //// ˜˜˜˜ ‹E‹E‹E‹E ?}I9?}I9?}I9?}I9 - R'R' Y … ; 9Q w" ?‹ª} 6.6.6.6. R˜R˜R˜R˜ ```` >Ë#>Ë#>Ë#>Ë# tttt - n áUA !³E f"A ? - Rn ¨N ••z Lp mt ; f › © HŒ - n ¨NA ˜ ‰; &YA ;• A ?€E - /‡¢ N;L U[#A nI &I pL !} —NN HŒ - Rn ¨N : ³I /9 /Recognition/ ; 7.7.7.7. ˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q˜ 9Q T#T#T#T# mt[UAmt[UAmt[UAmt[UA ?’’?’’?’’?’’ ? T? T? T? T - E‹ ; 9Q R?;HA E¶ n A R?;y } ŒI-…; 9 A ?€E fw? w" nI¢ j #SN R /‡¢ ¡wr q% ; 9Q T# mt[UA A9;#M ’? N;L ?’’ R˜ SN ` >Ë# t
  69. 69. 68 8.8.8.8. A‹A‹A‹A‹ ~~~~ EEEE ?Y I'?Y I'?Y I'?Y I' tttt /Civil/Civil/Civil/Civil society/society/society/society/ - A9;#M ¤B¼‹M Rq i—QM ?Y " … ’? ?’’ - • Kž DÏ; ?;ŽŽ ŒI…; ; 9Q Ñj ? t - ¾Y’ UÓv` S`J−‹ u›ß¾Y’ UÓv` S`J−‹ u›ß¾Y’ UÓv` S`J−‹ u›ß¾Y’ UÓv` S`J−‹ u›ß - 12 ¾e’UÓv` S`J−‹ ƒ`Ñ<T†¨<“ uÁ”Ç”Æ S`J Y` ŸW^}™‹“ ŸHLò−‹ U” ”ÅT>Öup uUdK? ßU` Tw^]Á ¾T>k`wuƒ - Gk˜’ƒ (Gk˜’ƒ (Gk˜’ƒ (Gk˜’ƒ (Integrity) - p”’ƒp”’ƒp”’ƒp”’ƒ ((((Honesty) - T˜’ƒ (T˜’ƒ (T˜’ƒ (T˜’ƒ (Loyality)))) - ÓMê’ƒÓMê’ƒÓMê’ƒÓMê’ƒ ((((Transparency) - T>eÖ=` SÖupT>eÖ=` SÖupT>eÖ=` SÖupT>eÖ=` SÖup (Confidentiality)))) - }ÖÁm’ƒ}ÖÁm’ƒ}ÖÁm’ƒ}ÖÁm’ƒ ((((Accountablity) - ¾I´w” ØpU TekÅU¾I´w” ØpU TekÅU¾I´w” ØpU TekÅU¾I´w” ØpU TekÅU ((((Serving the public interst)
  70. 70. 69 - YM×”” u›Óvu< SÖkU (YM×”” u›Óvu< SÖkU (YM×”” u›Óvu< SÖkU (YM×”” u›Óvu< SÖkU (Exercising legitimate) - ›KTÇLƒ (›KTÇLƒ (›KTÇLƒ (›KTÇLƒ (Impartiality) - QÓ T¡u` (QÓ T¡u` (QÓ T¡u` (QÓ T¡u` (Respecting the law) - KI´w ØÁo }Ñu=¨<” ULi SeÖƒKI´w ØÁo }Ñu=¨<” ULi SeÖƒKI´w ØÁo }Ñu=¨<” ULi SeÖƒKI´w ØÁo }Ñu=¨<” ULi SeÖƒ ((((Responsiveness) - ›`›Á SJ” (›`›Á SJ” (›`›Á SJ” (›`›Á SJ” (Exercising leadership)
  71. 71. 70 TÖnKÁTÖnKÁTÖnKÁTÖnKÁ ¾S<e“ ƒ`Ñ<U ¾ ”ÓK=´—¨<” "Corruption" ¾T>K¨<” nM ”Ç=ÑMê ¾U”ÖkUuƒ ŸÓ°´ ¾}¨[c nM ’¨<:: S<e“ (Corruption) ¾T>K¨< nM ”Ç=ÑMì¨< ¾T>ðKѨ< É`Ñ>ƒ ¨ÃU }Óv` ¨<ewew “ Éwp ”Ç=G<U u`Ÿƒ ÁK<“ }³TÏ’ƒ ÁL†¨< ’Ña‹ uSJ“†¨< ¾}KÁ¿ c−‹ u}KÁ¾ SM¡ Ã}[Ñ<S< M:: J•U uSeŸ< Ø“ƒ“ U`U` ¾T>Á"H>Æ UG<^•‹'›KU ›kó© '›IÑ<^©“ HÑ` ukM É`Ï„‹ ¾}KÁ¿ SÑKÝ−‹” SW[ƒ uTÉ[Ó S<e“ KT>K¨< nM ƒ`Ñ<U u=cÖ<U ƒ`Ñ<V‡ c=Ö?’< u¨<e׆¨< G<K<”U K=ÁÓvu< ¾T>‹K< SW[ © ’Øx‹” SÁ³†¨< Ãe}ªLM:: uØpK< K›w’ƒ ÁIM ¾T>Ÿ}K<ƒ” S<e“ KT>K¨< nM ¾}cÖ<ƒ” ƒ`Ñ<V‹ ”n˜:- ÑSÂÑSÂÑSÂÑS xd‰N xlm-bQ½ XMnT ¥g#dL wYM xlm¬mN½ bg#ï½ bML©Â bxDlÖ ¦QN½ Wún@N wYM FTHN ¥²ÆT ’¨< (Oxford English Dictionary) :: S<e“S<e“S<e“S<e“ uÓM ¨ÃU uu<É”' uþK+" S]−‹ ¨ÃU uu=a¡^„‹ eM×”“ HLò’ƒ” SŸ uTÉ[Ó' ¾I´w” ØpU“ õLÑAƒ KÓM ØpU ¾TªM ›=-Y’-UÓv^© É`Ñ>ƒ c=J”' uS”Óeƒ“ uI´w Hwƒ“ ”w[ƒ Là e`qƒ SðìU' ´`òÁ T"H@É' Tßu`u`'IÓ“ Y`¯ƒ” }ŸƒKA ŸSY^ƒ u´UÉ“'uƒ¨<¨<p' uþK+" ¨Ñ’}˜’ƒ' uÑAc˜’ƒ' uHÃT•ƒ
  72. 72. 71 ƒee` Là }S`Ÿ<µ uSY^ƒ ›ÉKA SðìU' õƒI” TÕÅM“ eM×”“ Lò’ƒ” uIÑ¨Ø S”ÑÉ ¾ØpU TÓ— ¾TÉ[Ó Ÿ<à }Óv` ’¨< (Ÿ?Uüa“MÉ“ c`x`«M 2000) :: S<e“S<e“S<e“S<e“ ¾þK+"“ ¾S”ÓYƒ ›e}ÇÅ^© HLò’ƒ” "KS¨×ƒ ¾T>S’ß' TIu^©“ ›e}ÇÅ^© e`¯„‹” ¾S×e ¾Y’-UÓv` ÓÉðƒ c=J” ÃIU KÓM ØpU c=vM uI´w ¾}cÖ eM×”“ HLò’ƒ” ›LÓvw uSÖkU IÓ“ Å”w ¾S×e Ÿ<à }Óv^ƒ” uS<K< ÁÖnMLM (‰`Ke d” æRD 1998):: S<e“S<e“S<e“S<e“ bmNGST bHZB yts-N SLÈN ¦§ðnT KÓM ØpU ¨ÃU K?L” KSØkU c=vM ›LÓvw SÑMÑM ’¨< (Kimberly,1997 , klitgaard,1990, Vishny 1993 & Stapen Horst, Ric,1999) ¾›=ƒ¿åÁ s”s−‹ Ø“ƒ U`U` ¾›T`— S´Ñu nLƒ (1993) ½ ¯KU ›kõ ¾›=¢•T> MTƒ ƒww` É`σ (OECD) ½ Transparency International):: u›ß S<e“ HG YR›TN tkTlÖ kmS‰T YLQ SLÈN ¦§ðnTN SŸ uTÉ[Ó HG Y`›TN umÈS ymNGST yHZB ¦BT NBrTN mSrQ½ mZrF½ ¥+bRbR ”Ç=G<U uÑ<x ½bZMD½ bTWWQ½ b¯s"nT½ b±ltEµ wgNt"nT b¦Y¥ñT TSSR §Y bmmR÷Z xD§*êE bçn xs‰R õƒI” Á³u< ¾ÓM _QM” T"uƒ“ K?L” ¨Ñ” }Ñu= vMJ’ S”ÑÉ SØkU ”ÅJ’ Ÿ}cÖ<ƒ ƒ`ÕT@−‹ SÅUÅU ÉLM © fw?A R? ‹ Až§E © C Nd#? 9Q M ; ; ?;§E Nà Lv j
  73. 73. 72 9Q }%A Ap; – Z @c #Z& ; w? ?;H‚ §E N{{ 9Q !A&K' N ; Qùj " BR " "UwEà ‰ ‰ b`A A RT ?Z}k N Ë ; k ?; Q k m E ?}I9k 9% t k ? © k 9Õ A t# k … M }©t ; k y› … SNà Tw" U9 Em ›I›v ‰ U9 SN Á jbU p} 9 (succession plan and commit/ since action speaks louder than words) E‹ ; <& p} /good governance and its action/ R Ÿ N{{ !p} Ak Aî k ?A &K' y'A È& N{{ !p} y& AHE N 9 R }I; 9R' / A9; / ¸ ¼bU T T'¢ R F U9_UA R †ÏNA A Ak y&r¢A p•Ò A E j N{{ q% R9” M Lp A R?;T [ ›wR?M #jmA ? w« ;RK • • NA Y— m _ k RL ‰U ;Sº" N Ë ; y› : N{{
  74. 74. 73 ‰: ]$t‰: ]$t‰: ]$t‰: ]$t //// ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference Bertrand de Speville, (1997) Anti-corruption consultant, Reversing the Onus of Proof: Is it compatible with respect for human rights norms, submitted to the 9th anti-corruption convention, Japan Times Keidanren-Nikkeiren tieup scheduled for May 2002 start December 21 2000 Retrieved on July 22, 2012 Nippon Keidanren website About Nippon Keidanren Retrieved on January 16th 2011. Steven Lowenstein, Materials (1967) the study of the Penal Law of Ethiopia: Time (1996) “Time life books” printed in USA New York City.
  75. 75. 74 United States Agency of International Development USAIDfrom the American people 2004 training module Addis Ababa. United Nations (2016) United Nations popletion estimation http://www.DOW JONES & COMPANY.INC) ______________(2016) latest United Nation popletion estimation www.Worldometers.info ¾›=ôÇ=] u›pU Ó”vX T>’>e‚` (1994) ¾c=y=M c`y=e ThhÁ ýaÓ^U ¾Y’ UÓv` ThhÁ”®<e ýaÓ^U Ø^´ 1 “2 /¡õM1' Fa; a"ž /‡Â D_•m (1998) yI< p 9AQ# ?nE ¨ ]>t mtE 3 For more information you can find https://www.facebook.com/berhanu.tadesse.90 www.facebook.hashtag#G.S institute apprise and quality audit http://www.bertat.bright.light.com

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