How Telescopes Work

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Telescopes From Galileo to Hubble

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  • Pewaukee Public Library Harken Observatory Written by Scott Berg. First presented by Scott at the Harken Observatory public open house on January 13, 2007.
  • How Telescopes Work

    1. 1. Telescopes From Galileo to Hubble Scott A. Berg January 13, 2007 Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory - Pewaukee Public Library http://pewaukeeastro.com/ Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    2. 2. <ul><li>A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Greek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tele = far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skopein = to look or see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teleskopos = far-seeing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supposedly, it was coined at a dinner party for Galileo in about 1610. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    3. 3. <ul><li>Goals for a Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Refractor (Dioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector (Catoptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lens-Mirror (Catadioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    4. 4. Goals <ul><li>Gather light to make dim objects bright </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate presentation of the image </li></ul><ul><li>Magnify the image </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    5. 5. 1 - Gather Light <ul><li>Astronomical objects are far away and very dim. </li></ul><ul><li>A telescope gathers light from a large area (aperture) and concentrates it into a small area (eyepiece), making the image brighter. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    6. 6. Aperture <ul><li>The size of the opening through which light from the object enters the scope </li></ul><ul><li>Large diameter (>10”) amateur scopes are sometimes called “light buckets” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Aperture envy” leads to keeping up with the Jones’s </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    7. 7. 8 mm or 50 mm 2 300 mm or 70,000 mm 2 A 12” diameter (300 mm) aperture, like the scope at the Harken Observatory, is about 1,400 times the area of the largest human pupil, so it gathers far more light. All that light comes out an eyepiece or into a camera. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    8. 8. 2 - Accurate Image <ul><li>Chr oma tic abe rrat ion – Is what you see the actual color(s) of the target? </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical aberration – Is what you see really the shape of the target? </li></ul><ul><li>Many other distortion types </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    9. 9. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    10. 10. 3 - Magnify <ul><li>Most novices think a large astronomical telescope must magnify “millions of times” </li></ul><ul><li>Most useful astronomy is 50x-500x with much of it around 100x </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    11. 11. <ul><li>Goals for a Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Refractor (Dioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector (Catoptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lens-Mirror (Catadioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    12. 12. Refractors <ul><li>A refractor scope uses only lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered by many people independently in early 1600’s. e.g. Patent applied for by Dutch optician Hans Lippershay (1570-1619) in 1608. </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was the first to publish and publicize his version of the telescope in 1610. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    13. 13. Galileo’s Telescopes <ul><li>Galileo built dozens of scopes, but only 2 survive </li></ul><ul><li>About 3 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture: 15mm </li></ul><ul><li>Power: 14x & 21x </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, leather, paper </li></ul>Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza [IMSS] Institute and Museum of the History of Science Florence, Italy Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    14. 14. Reproductions Reproductions of the two surviving telescopes made by Galileo were made for Griffith Observatory & Adler Planetarium in 2006. They are museum quality and very elaborate. The same artisans often recreate historic instruments for the PBS show NOVA. http://www.scitechantiques.com/ Actual Scope Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    15. 15. Galileo’s Historical Record <ul><li>Making refractors was a profitable business for Galileo. </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo published astronomical observations, but never a highly detailed cookbook for scope building. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of academic debate about details of his scopes. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    16. 16. But how well did Galileo’s telescopes work? Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    17. 17. Reproduction of Galileo’s Scope Celestron C8 Images are from a highly accurate reproduction of Galileo’s favorite scope. Tom Pope and Jim Mosher http://www.pacifier.com/~tpope/index.htm Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Reproduction of Galileo 23mm Mars Jupiter Saturn
    18. 18. Eyepiece Finder Primary or Objective Lens Counter Weight Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    19. 19. ↑ ↑ Target (star) Objective Lens fits in Aperture of diameter A Eyepiece Lens Objective Lens Focal Length (F o ) Eyepiece Lens Focal Length (f e ) Magnification = F o /f e Focal ratio = F o /A The front “objective” lens brings light to a focal point in the “middle” of the tube. The light rays cross, inverting the image. The eyepiece picks up the rays and puts them back in a straight line. All the light coming in the objective is presented to your smaller diameter eye, so it’s brighter. The ratio of two lens focal lengths determines magnification. The eyepiece lens moves to allow focus. Focal Point Image All the light, less area, brighter Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    20. 20. Chr oma tic abe rrat ion <ul><li>This simple type of refractor distorts the color of the image. </li></ul><ul><li>The previous diagram shows the ideal case of a beam of white light passing through the lens and being bent perfectly. </li></ul><ul><li>However, blue light bends slightly more than red light. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    21. 21. Lens (or prism) can Separate Color Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Blue focal point Red focal point Green focal point (the one used) Chromatic Dispersion is caused by different wavelengths of light (colors) being bent when moving from air to glass and becoming separated. Focus is a compromise between which color to believe is the focus. Since the human eye is most sensitive to green, it’s the one viewers choose.
    22. 22. Solution #1 Thinner lens -> Longer Focal Length -> Less Distortion ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Thinner Lens Longer Focal Length Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    23. 23. Solution #1 Thinner lens -> Longer focal length -> Less distortion http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/ Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    24. 24. “ Six to eight feet—that was the length of a good astronomical telescope in 1645. Five years later it was 10 to 15 feet. Ten years after that, 25 feet. Ten years after that, 40 to 50 feet. By 1673, [Polish astronomer] Johannes Hevelius had constructed a telescope 150 feet long on the shores of the Baltic Sea....One astronomer cheered the coming day when aerial telescopes would have a focus of 1,000 feet and human spectators could marvel at the antics of the animals on the Moon.” Seeing and Believing: How the Telescope Opened Our Eyes and Minds to the Heavens, by Richard Panek Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    25. 25. Johannes Hevelius Scope Built 1673 150 ft long Wooden trough “ The telescope would shake in the smallest breeze, the wooden planks warped, and the ropes had to be constantly adjusted because of stretching and shrinking in the humidity. The unsteadiness also made it difficult to line up the lenses for observations. Due to all these difficulties, this huge telescope was rarely used.” http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/ Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    26. 26. Focal Ratio = Focal Length / Aperture f/12 + “Slow” Easier to get high magnification. More forgiving of optical imperfections than faster systems. Small field of view. Large depth of field – focus good for target and background (not as relevant for stars). f/7 to f/11 Medium. All Meade LX200 scopes (like Harken Observatory’s) have a focal length of f/10 (120”/12” or 3050mm/305mm). Common range for amateur scopes. f/3.5 to f/6 “Fast” Harder to get high magnification. Wide field. 1 ) The same eyepiece yields different magnification with different f-ratios. You can get the same magnification at different f/ with another eyepiece. 2 ) When using digital imaging, you must match focal length to pixel size. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    27. 27. Solution #2 Achromatic Lens A convex lens (white) of ordinary glass and a double-concave lens (yellow) of flint (leaded) glass bends the light twice, cancelling out the error. (Mostly!) More complex systems of more lenses using multiple materials yields better performing apo-chromatics & super-apo-chromatics. Invented for microscopes first by Zeiss corporation. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Flint Glass Crown Glass
    28. 28. Focus Issues <ul><li>You will see this concept again and again. </li></ul><ul><li>Light from the target does not focus to a precise point. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many other optical defects including coma, astigmatism and field curvature. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    29. 29. Eyepieces <ul><li>Eyepieces come in many designs and may incorporate many lenses (8 or more) of different materials and shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Many trade-offs: focal length, eye relief, aberrations, expense, diameter, field of view, … </li></ul><ul><li>Eyepiece types include: Plössl, Huygens, Ramsden, Kellner (or achromatized Ramsden), Orthoscopic (or orthographic) and more </li></ul><ul><li>CCD imagers are another set of issues </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    30. 30. Yerkes Observatory Williams Bay, WI 40” Refractor 63 foot tube f/19 Built 1897 Illustrates the challenge of a large diameter lens with a long focal length. The same issue arises with a thin lens that also creates a long focal length. Unwieldy and the tube bends. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    31. 31. Summary of Refractors <ul><li>Use only lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce high contrast images. Perfect for planets, moons, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Good ones correct lens issues, making them expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Optics are tightly mounted, sealed and stay clean. Scope is usually rugged. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    32. 32. <ul><li>Goals for a Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Refractor (Dioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector (Catoptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lens-Mirror (Catadioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    33. 33. Reflector Telescope <ul><li>Lens based scopes had been around for about 50 years and were limited by size, lens aberration, glass quality, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Several people speculated mirrors could bypass the issues – but how? </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton invented the first real reflector telescope in 1668 </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    34. 34. Newtonian Reflector Prime Focus Aperture – No Lens Mirror Prime Focus Mirrors don’t have chromatic distortion and curved mirrors can focus. But how do you stick your eye down the tube? Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    35. 35. Newtonian Reflector Aperture – No Lens Primary Mirror Light Bounces off its Top Secondary Mirror Eyepiece Secondary mirror bounces light out a hole in the side. It blocks the light, but it’s not as noticeable as you think (about 10%). Dotted line is unobstructed path to the prime focus, which is inaccessible due to the secondary mirror. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    36. 36. <ul><li>1668 - First of a kind </li></ul><ul><li>~2 inch spherical mirror polished speculum metal (copper & tin & arsenic) </li></ul><ul><li>6 inches long </li></ul><ul><li>About 40x magnification </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to bypass lens aberration </li></ul><ul><li>Owned by Royal Society of London, which appointed Newton as a member due in part to this invention </li></ul>Isaac Newton’s reflector Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    37. 37. Isaac Newton’s reflector Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    38. 38. Eyepiece Aperture Spider Finder Scope German Equatorial Mount Clock Drive (disassembled) Counter Weight Secondary Mirror Tube (OTA) Milwaukee Astronomical Society Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    39. 39. Spherical Aberration <ul><li>Newton used a mirror shaped like part of a sphere. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no chromatic aberration since light bounced off the top of the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical optics, whether mirrors or lenses , introduce other types of distortion </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    40. 40. Spherical Aberration Perfect Lens Spherical Lens Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    41. 41. Spherical Aberration Perfect Focus Outside Inside Negative Aberration Zero Positive Aberration Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    42. 42. Spherical Aberration <ul><li>Solved in 1721 by John Hadley, inventor of the sextant, who made a parabola shaped mirror to eliminate spherical errs </li></ul><ul><li>Newtonian scope mirrors are parabolic </li></ul><ul><li>The difference (depth) between the edge and center is small, even on large mirrors. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    43. 43. Vertical axis is 1”. The difference between a circle (sphere) and a parabola becomes evident. A hyperbola is even flatter. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    44. 44. Off Axis Coma <ul><li>A defect of an objective mirror or lens in which rays of light, striking the objective away from the optical axis are not brought to focus in the same image plane. </li></ul><ul><li>The result is that star images toward the edge of the field of view appear to have comet-like tails spreading radially out from the optical axis ( negative coma ) or in toward the axis ( positive coma ). </li></ul><ul><li>Common in parabolic curved mirrors used in Newtonian reflectors. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    45. 45. Parabolic Mirror Focal point for off axis (edge) object has a tail like a comet Focal point for on axis (centered) object Eyepiece  Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Field of View 
    46. 46. Mirror Coating <ul><li>Original scope mirrors were shiny metal. It was hard to make a smooth surface with perfect curvature. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass mirrors are ground like a lens with very high precision. </li></ul><ul><li>The reflective coating is on top of the glass, not on the back. It was originally silver. Now everyone uses aluminum. It is easy to scratch, so it rarely gets cleaned. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    47. 47. Now, about that eyepiece… MAS A-Scope 112” f/9 Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    48. 48. Cassegrain Reflector Newtonian Reflector Folded optics – tube can be shorter & eyepiece is on bottom Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    49. 49. <ul><li>Milwaukee Astronomical Society </li></ul><ul><li>25” Cassegrain reflector </li></ul><ul><li>Prime focus big enough to hold camera </li></ul><ul><li>Focal Length: 112”, f/15 </li></ul><ul><li>Note Alvin Clark refractor </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    50. 50. Off Axis Reflector (DGM Optics) <ul><li>Mirror is parabola ground at an angle in the glass block, creating a sort of tilt. </li></ul><ul><li>The focused beam hits a small mirror on the tube’s side. </li></ul><ul><li>No central obstruction so no diffraction issues. Image contrast is better. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to use a camera. </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    51. 51. Schiefspiegler <ul><li>Exotic tilted (oblique) component scope </li></ul><ul><li>Only mirrors & eyepiece </li></ul><ul><li>No central obstruction, improving contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Often f/28+ </li></ul><ul><li>Invented by Anton Kutter ~1950 </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    52. 52. Coud é Focus Harlan Smith 2.7m Telescope McDonald Observatory Austin, Texas Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    53. 53. Coud é Focus Harlan Smith Telescope - McDonald Observatory, Austin, Texas 4 spectrographs in the basement under the scope can get the light bouncing down from the scope. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    54. 54. Parabolic Mirror 200” Prime Focus Cassegrain Room below mirror Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Prime Focus Cage
    55. 55. Segmented Mirrors <ul><li>A single slab of glass can be only so big before it is too difficult to make, expansion cracks it, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a bunch of smaller pieces work together. </li></ul>http://www.keckobservatory.org/ Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    56. 56. Keck 10 meter Telescope Ernie Mastroianni Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    57. 57. <ul><li>36 mirrors on scope </li></ul><ul><li>6 sided </li></ul><ul><li>1.8m (6’), 880 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Recoated every 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>>$1 million each </li></ul><ul><li>f/1.75 hyperbolic </li></ul>http://www.keckobservatory.org/ Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    58. 58. Summary of Reflectors <ul><li>Easy to make large aperture scopes </li></ul><ul><li>Newtonian has open aperture, so inside (mirrors) can get dirty </li></ul><ul><li>Long focal lengths mean long tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Folded optics can shorten tubes, making scope shorter, lighter, portable </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    59. 59. <ul><li>Goals for a Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Refractor (Dioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector (Catoptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lens-Mirror (Catadioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    60. 60. Mirror & Lens Systems Catadioptric <ul><li>By combining mirrors and lenses, a scope can be powerful and compact (short tube) </li></ul><ul><li>Aberration issues can be minimized </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrors and lenses are usually sealed up in the tube </li></ul><ul><li>More complexity and expense since they are harder to make (high precision) </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    61. 61. Corrector Plate & Secondary   Secondary  Primary  Cassegrain Catadioptric Lens & Mirror shapes vary Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    62. 62. Meade LX200-GPS <ul><li>The Meade LX200 (like the Harken Observatory’s) is a variation of the Schmidt-Cassegrain design using a corrector lens, a spherical primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror </li></ul><ul><li>The new (2006) generation, the Meade LX200 R , uses a Ritchey-Chr é tien (RC) design </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    63. 63. Meade LX200 Schmidt-Cassegrain Aspheric Corrector Plate Convex Secondary Mirror Baffle Tube 12” Spherical Primary Mirror Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    64. 64. Common Catadioptric Designs Easy  Hard : Spherical  Parabolic  Hyperbolic Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory Schmidt Cassegrain (SC) Ritchey Chr é tien (RC) Maksutov “ Mak” Corrector Aspheric Aspheric or Flat Convex-Concave or Aspheric Secondary Convex Hyperbola Hyperbola Primary Spherical Hyperbola Spherical Notes Popular for high end amateur (LX200GPS) Common for new high end (LX200R) Very compact Modest apertures
    65. 65. Ritchey-Chr é tien (RC) <ul><li>Invented in 1910 by American George Willis Ritchey (1864-1945) and Frenchman Henri Chrétien (1879-1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Ritchey was a protégé of astronomer George Hale </li></ul><ul><li>Ritchey strongly advocated RC for the new 200” Mt. Palomar scope, but it was rejected and fired from Hale’s staff </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    66. 66. Ritchey-Cr é tien (RC) <ul><li>Used in most modern high end scopes </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Subaru telescope, Chile’s Very Large Telescope, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can have astigmatism and other defects </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to grind mirror to this shape, so expensive </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    67. 67. Hubble Space Telescope The Most Famous RC of All Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    68. 68. Summary of Catadioptrics <ul><li>Combination of lens and mirror. Many variations of shapes for mirrors and lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Focal length is folded, so optical tube is short tube, making scope portable </li></ul><ul><li>Complex shapes for optics, so expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Common for modern high end scopes </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    69. 69. <ul><li>Goals for a Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Refractor (Dioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector (Catoptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lens-Mirror (Catadioptrics) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    70. 70. References <ul><li>“ Stargazer – The Life and Times of the Telescope”, by Fred Watson, © 2004, Brookfield Public Library (available by interlibrary loan). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unusual Telescopes”, by Peter L. Manly, ©1991, Milwaukee Astronomical Society library (members only). </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    71. 71. References <ul><li>http://www.aip.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.antiquetelescopes.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.asterism.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.atmsite.org/contrib/Holm/bulletina </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.imss.fi.it/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.keckobservatory.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pacifier.com/~tpope/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.com </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    72. 72. A word from our sponsor… Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    73. 73. Mission Statement The Harken Astronomical Observatory provides education and brings the wonders of our incredible universe to families of our community in the friendly and casual environment of our new library. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    74. 74. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    75. 75. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    76. 76. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    77. 77. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    78. 78. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    79. 79. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    80. 80. Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory
    81. 81. Thank You! <ul><li>This is a volunteer group. All equipment is donated. There is no tax funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly club meetings are the 3 rd Thursday of each month </li></ul><ul><li>Public presentations and viewing is every Saturday, weather permitting </li></ul>Pewaukee Astronomy Club Harken Observatory

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