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Introduction to MPEG-21




Giordano Beretta
HP Laboratories Palo Alto
8 July 2003
Outline



 • What         is MPEG-21 ?

 • How         is MPEG21 structured ?

 • Why         is MPEG-21 relevant to you ?

 • What         can you contribute to MPEG-21 ?

 • The        bottom line

8 July 2003                      VCIP 2003 — T6   page 2
“It was on the 29th of January 1988 that an
              SC 2 / WG 8 resolution established the
              Moving Picture Coding Experts Groups”


                                      Leonardo Chiariglione
                                         Telecom Italia Lab




8 July 2003                     VCIP 2003 — T6                page 3
What is MPEG-21 ?




                            •   An open framework for
                                multimedia delivery and
                                consumption

                            •   Focal points:
                                      • Content creators
                                      • Content consumers




8 July 2003          VCIP 2003 — T6                         page 4
MPEG



 • MPEG             is a working group of ISO
      –       ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11
      –       Coding of moving pictures and audio

 • Development       of international standards for compression,
      decompression, processing and coded representation of
      moving pictures, audio, and their combination, in order
      to satisfy a wide variety of applications

 Much of the material on these slides is from http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/




8 July 2003                                                 VCIP 2003 — T6        page 5
Application examples

 • Video          CD, MP3, DVD

 • Satellite        TV, digital cable, HDTV

 • Video          on demand

 • PC          video streaming
      –       Apple QuickTime
      –       Microsoft Windows Media Player
      –       RealNetworks Helix and RealPlayer

 • Do-it-yourself

8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6   page 6
The MPEG family


 • MPEG-1      and MPEG-2 provide interoperable ways of
      representing audiovisual content, commonly used on
      digital media and on the air

 • MPEG-4     defines how to represent content

 • MPEG-7     specifies how to describe content

 • MPEG-21     provides a truly interoperable multimedia
      framework

8 July 2003                   VCIP 2003 — T6               page 7
MPEG-1 — ISO/IEC 11172


 • Coding   of moving pictures and associated audio for
   digital storage media
 • Video and audio at 1.5M bit/s for CD-ROM
 • Five parts:
      –       Part   1   (systems): multiplexing & synchronization
      –       Part   2   (video): ~VHS quality at 1.15M bit/s
      –       Part   3   (audio): stereo at 384K, 256K, 192K bit/s
      –       Part   4   (conformance testing): references for decoder
      –       Part   5   (reference software): C implementation
 • Applications:                Video CD, MP3

8 July 2003                                VCIP 2003 — T6                page 8
MPEG-2 — ISO/IEC 13818

 • Generic   coding of moving pictures and associated audio
 • Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)
   for session set up and remote control of a server, used in
   set top boxes for satellite and cable TV
 • Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) for multi-channel audio
 • 4:2:2 profile for TV production studios
 • Provisions for Intellectual Property Management and
   Protection (IPMP)
 • Applications: digital TV set top boxes, DVD
 • Transport Stream version
 • Patent issues


8 July 2003                 VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 9
MPEG-4 — ISO/IEC 14496

 • Coding   of audiovisual objects
 • MPEG-4 defines how to represent content
   – ancestry: VRML
   – interoperability of content structure
              • AFX   — Animation Framework eXtension
              • XMT   — textual XML format for SMIL, Web3D, etc.
      –       adapt transparently to device capabilities
              • FSG — Fine Granularity Scalability

 • Extensions  of AAC and IPMP, Studio Profile
 • MP4 and AVC file formats, multi-user environment
 • Patent issues
8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6              page 10
MPEG-7 — ISO/IEC 15938



 •    Multimedia content description
      interface

 •    MPEG-7 specifies how to
      describe content
        • describe content way
          beyond metadata
              • facilitate content
               management, in particular
               searching                            Image credit: http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/standards/mpeg-7/mpeg-7.htm




8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                                                                            page 11
MPEG-21 — ISO/IEC (18034) 21000




      Define the technology needed to support Users to
      exchange, access, consume, trade and otherwise
      manipulate Digital Items in an efficient, transparent and
      interoperable way




8 July 2003                     VCIP 2003 — T6                    page 12
MPEG-21 scope


                                    User application



              metadata processing                         resource processing
              IPMP       DIA         •••                 MPEG-2       MPEG-4    •••




                           application level protocols
               HTTP         RTSP                   RTP              SOAP       •••




                       transport & network level protocols
               TCP             IP                 UDP             MPEG-2 TS    •••


8 July 2003                             VCIP 2003 — T6                                page 13
MPEG-21 Digital Item

 • Structured   digital objects, including a standard
      representation and identification, and metadata

 • Fundamental   unit of distribution and transaction within
      the MPEG-21 framework

 • No         further technical meaning

                                    Digital Item
                              resource       •••          resource

                                         metadata

                             Digital Item ••• Digital Item


8 July 2003                              VCIP 2003 — T6              page 14
MPEG-21 User

 •A     User is any entity that interacts in the MPEG-21
      environment or makes use of a Digital Item
      –       Users include individuals, consumers, communities,
              organisations, corporations, consortia, governments and
              other standards bodies and initiatives around the world.
 • Users are identified specifically by their relationship to
   another User for a certain interaction
 • MPEG-21 makes no distinction between a “content
   provider” and a “consumer” — both are Users
      –       A single entity may use content in many ways
      –       however, a User may assume specific or even unique rights
              and responsibilities according to their interaction with other
              Users within MPEG-21
8 July 2003                             VCIP 2003 — T6                     page 15
MPEG-21 CE testbed

  http://www.midgardmedia.net/UMA/mpeg21main.htm


                                                                      streaming
                             User                                         server
                             environment
                             database                               streaming


              retrieval of
               capability
              descriptions
                                        connection


   Digital                                                                      media
     Item                                                                       description
 provider                                 retrieval of
                                          Digital Item                          database
8 July 2003                                        VCIP 2003 — T6                         page 16
The parts of MPEG-21


 1.           Vision, technologies and strategies
 2.           Digital Item Declaration
 3.           Digital Item Identification
 4.           Intellectual Property Management and Protection
              (IPMP)
 5.           Rights Expression Language
 6.           Rights Data Dictionary
 7.           Digital Item Adaptation
 8.           Reference Software
 9.           File Format

8 July 2003                         VCIP 2003 — T6              page 17
MPEG-21Part 1 — Vision


 •            Define a multimedia framework to enable transparent
              and augmented use of multimedia resources across a
              wide range of networks and devices

      1.       Provide a vision
      2.       Facilitate integration and harmonization of technologies
      3.       Provide a strategy for achieving a framework through
               collaboration




8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                     page 18
Users and content



                                    content
                         access
                                              delivery
                     representation             search
                                      storage
                            adaptation
               (re)use                     property

                   manipulation                       IP management

                                    identification          creation
                 IP protection
                                                     distribution
                         networks
                                          payment

                                     privacy




8 July 2003                         VCIP 2003 — T6                     page 19
Digital assets


 •      World Wide Web’s phases
      –  1990 (info.cern.ch) —
         scientific exchange
      –  1995 (tidal wave) —
         free content
      –  2000 (dot bomb) —
         ubiquitous fast network

 •            Users are starting to
              recognize the value of their
              digital asset resources

 •            Markets must be efficient

8 July 2003                                  VCIP 2003 — T6   page 20
The need for harmonization

      access        delivery
               content
     representation          search
                    storage
(re)use adaptation
   manipulation
                            property
                      IP management
                                                    s/w platform owners
               identification creation
 IP protection
                        distribution
     networks
                  payment
               privacy


                                                                          h/w platform owners
                                         creators
                                                    distributors

           service providers

                                                          gadget platform owners

                                         fiduciaries

 8 July 2003                                             VCIP 2003 — T6                         page 21
MPEG-21 Part 2 — Digital Item Declaration

 • Index           a Digital Item

 • Purpose:    describe a set of abstract terms and concepts to
      form a useful model for defining Digital Items

 • Three           normative sections:
      –       Model
              • set of abstract terms and concepts
      –       Representation
              • normative description of syntax & semantics of DID elements
      –       Schema
              • normative XML schema comprising the entire grammar of DID
8 July 2003                               VCIP 2003 — T6                      page 22
Digital Item Declaration in detail




8 July 2003               VCIP 2003 — T6   page 23
Digital Item Declaration example

                                    container                        item
                  item
                                                              descriptor
        descriptor
                                             item                   component
                component                                        descriptor
                                descriptor
              descriptor
                                                                           resource
                                      component
                     resource
                                   descriptor                              item
                component                     resource               component
              descriptor                                          descriptor

                     resource                                              resource




8 July 2003                                  VCIP 2003 — T6                           page 24
MPEG-21 Part 3 — Digital Item Identification


              The scope of the Digital Item Identification (DII)
              specification includes:

 •            How to uniquely identify Digital Items and parts thereof
              (including resources)
 •            How to uniquely identify IP related to the Digital Items
              (and parts thereof), for example abstractions
 •            How to uniquely identify Description Schemes
 •            How to use identifiers to link Digital Items with related
              information such as descriptive metadata
 •            How to identify different types if Digital Items

8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                page 25
DII example: MPEG-21 music album
                                                                                                        N5231

                                                                 Identifier:
              backCover.jpeg
                                                                 •GRid
                                                metadata         Descriptions:
                cover.jpeg
                                 MPEG-21                         •Album Title
                                                                 •Label
                                music album
              coverNotes.html


                                                                                          Identifier:
                                                                                          •ISRC
                track1.aac        track2.aac                 track3.aac                   Descriptions:
metadata                                        metadata                       metadata   •Lead Singer
                                                                                          •Orchestra
                                                                                          •Conductor
                                                                                          •Concert Hall
                                                              Identifier:
                                                                                          •Engineer
                lyrics1.aac       lyrics2.aac                 •ISMN
                                                                                          •Label
metadata                                        metadata      Descriptions:
                                                              •Title
                                                              •Composer
                                                              •Lyricist
                                                              •Duration
                                                              •Singer


8 July 2003                                 VCIP 2003 — T6                                          page 26
MPEG-21 Part 4 — IPMP

 •            Improvements over MPEG-4 IPMP:
      –        Internetworking
      –        IPMP tool retrieval & authentication
      –        Integration of Rights Expressions (RDD & REL)

 •            Intellectual Property Management and Protection
              involves the enforcement of REL permissions
      –        IPMP shall consult REL before any actions are taken in the
               User’s system

 •            REL: What is protected? What right applies?
              IPMP: How is it protected?
8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                   page 27
MPEG-21 Part 5 — REL




 •            Rights Expression Language

 •            A machine-readable language

 •            Can declare rights and permissions

 •            Uses terms defined in the Rights Data Dictionary



8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6              page 28
MPEG-21 Part 5 — REL

 •            The Rights Expression Language consists of licenses
              and grants that give specific permissions to Users to
              perform certain actions on certain resources, given that
              certain conditions are met
      –        Grants can also allow Users to delegate authority to
               others
 •            User’s system shall parse and validate the RE
 •            User’s system shall check permissions before any
              further action is done
 •            DID parser is responsible for discovering and
              identifying where to gather licenses
 •            REL licenses are wrapped in Digital Items

8 July 2003                           VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 29
REL data model

                                        right
                 issued to                                subject to
                                associated with
                    principal         resource          condition



 • REL          grant consist of
      –       principal to whom grant is issued
      –       rights the grant specifies
      –       resource to which right in grant applies
      –       condition to be met before grant can be exercised

8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 30
MPEG-21 Part 6 — Rights Data Dictionary

 •            Set of clear, consistent, structured, integrated and
              uniquely identified Terms to support REL
 •            Specification of dictionary structure and methodology
              to create dictionary
 •            Dictionary is prescriptive, inclusive, and has audit
              provisions
 •            Legal definitions are mapped from other Authorities
 •            Supports mapping & transformation of metadata from
              terminology of one namespace (or Authority) into that
              of another namespace in automated or partially-
              automated way
 •            Dictionary is based on a logical model, the Context
              Model, which is the basis of the dictionary ontology
8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6                   page 31
MPEG-21 Part 7 — Digital Item Adaptation

 • Goal:  achieve transparent                                                                    User application

   interoperable access to distributed
   multimedia content                                                   metadata processing

                                                                        IPMP          DIA         •••
                                                                                                                 resource processing

                                                                                                             MPEG-2        MPEG-4       •••


 • Enable ad hoc formation of User                                                     application level protocols


   communities in which contents is                                      HTTP           RTSP               RTP           SOAP          •••




   shared with agreed or contracted                                      TCP
                                                                                   transport & network level protocols

                                                                                            IP             UDP        MPEG-2 TS        •••

      –       Quality
      –       Reliability
      –       Flexibility                                                      User
                                                                               environment
                                                                                                                           streaming
                                                                                                                               server

                                                                               database

      –       Diversity                                                                                              streaming


                                                         retrieval of
                                                          capability
                                                         descriptions
                                                                                       connection



 • Guaranteed               user experience               Digital
                                                            Item
                                                                                                                                 media
                                                                                                                                 description
                                                        provider                        retrieval of                             database
                                                                                        Digital Item




8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                                                                                  page 32
Concept of Digital Item Adaptation



                                  Digital Item
                                Adaptation Engine

                                     Resource
                                                        Adapted
                Digital Item      Adaptation Engine
                                                       Digital Item

                                     Description
                                  Adaptation Engine




                 Scope of
                                    DIA Tools
              standardization



8 July 2003                           VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 33
Relation between DIA and other MPEG-21parts
                    CDI                                          Adapted CDI
                MPEG-21 DID          Digital Item                 MPEG-21 DID

                MPEG-21 DII       Adaptation Engine               MPEG-21 DII

              MPEG-21 IPMP/REL                                  MPEG-21 IPMP/REL
                                      Resource
                                   Adaptation Engine
                  Descriptor                                        Descriptor

              MPEG-21 DIA Tools      Description                MPEG-21 DIA Tools
                                   Adaptation Engine
                  Resource                                          Resource

                                   XDI
                                       MPEG-21 DID

                                       MPEG-21 DII

                                   MPEG-21 IPMP/REL

                                         Descriptor

                                   MPEG-21 DIA Tools
                                     Usage Environment
                                     Resource Level Tools
                                    Digital Item Level Tools


8 July 2003                                    VCIP 2003 — T6                       page 34
Scope of standardization


 • User       Characteristics                                                                     streaming
                                                                                                      server
                                                                     User
                                                                     environment
                                                                     database
                                                                                             streaming



 • Terminal       Capabilities                        retrieval of
                                                       capability
                                                      descriptions
                                                                             connection


                                                       Digital                                           media
                                                         Item                                            description

 • Network        Characteristics
                                                     provider                 retrieval of               database
                                                                              Digital Item




 • Natural       Environment Characteristics

 • Resource       Adaptability

 • Session       Mobility
8 July 2003                         VCIP 2003 — T6                                                         page 35
Overview of DIA Tools


              Usage Environment Description Tools

              •   User Characteristics
              •   Terminal Capabilities
                                                                     •BSDL (Bitstream Syntax
              •   Network Characteristics
                                                                     Description Language)
              •   Natural Environment Characteristics
                                                                     •gBS Schema (generic
              Digital Item Resource Adaptation Tools                 Bitstream Syntax Schema)

              • Bitstream Syntax Description
              • Terminal and Network Quality of Service              •AdaptationQoS
              • Metadata Adaptability

              Digital Item Declaration Adaptation Tools
                                                                     •MetadataAdaptationHint
              • Session Mobility
              • DID Configuration Preferences
              • DIA Description Messages


8 July 2003                                         VCIP 2003 — T6                              page 36
Bitstream Syntax Description



 •A     BSD describes the syntax (high level structure) of a
      binary media resource

 • BSDL:     XML schema based language to design specific
      bitstream syntax schemas for particular media formats

 • gBS     schema: generic schema enabling the construction
      of resource format independent bitstream syntax
      descriptions


8 July 2003                     VCIP 2003 — T6                 page 37
Adaptation architecture

        scalable    description       bitstream
                      description
                    generation
        bitstream                    description
                      generation




                                      description
                                         description
                                    transformation
                                       transformation




        bitstream                    transformed
       generation                     description              AdaptationQoS
                                                               MetadataAdaptationHint




        adapted
        bitstream
                                                        … adaptation strategy
              •••                                       … optimal adaptation decisions
                                                        ... reduced complexity adapting the metadata

8 July 2003                           VCIP 2003 — T6                                              page 38
Terminal and Network Quality of Service

              • AdaptationQoS specifies the relationship between constraints and
                feasible adaptation operations
              • Constraints: BandwidthInkbps, ComputationTimeInMillisecs
              • Utilities (qualities): PSNRIndB
              • Adaptation Methods:
                   •   frameDroppingAndOrCoefficientDropping, requantization,
                       fineGranularScalability, waveletReduction, spatialSizeReduction
              •   UtilityFunction:
                   •   describes possible adaptation operators and associated qualities
                       using a set of constraint points as indexes
                   •   Linear interpolation is assumed between constraint points
              •   LookUpTable:
                   •  additional multi-dimensional sets of data to support more elaborate
                      adaptation scenarios
              •   StackFunction
                   • tool for describing the data in numerical function format
8 July 2003                                      VCIP 2003 — T6                             page 39
Metadata Adaptability

                MetadataAdaptationHint describes adaptation hint information
                pertaining to metadata within a digital item
                Hint: a set of syntactical elements with prior knowledge about the
                metadata that is useful for reducing the complexity of the metadata
                adaptation process
                                                                                         to PC
               hint information

               metadata (RDF)
                                        Digital Item
                                     Adaptation Engine                                  to PDA
                    web documents
                                                                 adapted metadata
                                                                  adapted metadata
                                         Resource
                                      Adaptation Engine
               hint information

              metadata (MPEG7)          Description
                                      Adaptation Engine
                                                                  adapted resources
                                                                                      to phone
                    video contents

8 July 2003                                     VCIP 2003 — T6                           page 40
AdaptationQoS ­ BSD Link

      In some cases it is convenient to specify intrinsic operations
      based on a universal model for scalable bit-streams
      A specified operation can be seen as a link that is
      composed of a mapping condition between identified
      parameters and an operation, which is conducted if this
      mapping is fulfilled
              parameters

                   AdaptationQoS

                                       linking          link specification

               bitstream description
              markers

8 July 2003                            VCIP 2003 — T6                        page 41
(g)BSD, AdaptationQoS, and Link

Content Digital
     Item                                    3                                                          2      Context Digital
                                                                                                                    Item
                                                   adaptation                         usage
                  AdaptationQoS
                                                 decision engine                   environment
                    description
                                                                                    description


                                  source
                  1              parameter

                                                    link                  source parameter references
                                                                          target parameter references
                                                                           BSD manipulation function


                                             4     description
                       gBSD                      transformation                       gBSD’
                                                     engine


                      resource                                                      gBSDtoBin         5

                                             6                      resource’
                                                                                                     Digital
Content Digital
                                                                                                        Item
    Item’
                                                                     gBSD’’                       Adaptation
                                                                                                     engine

8 July 2003                                        VCIP 2003 — T6                                                        page 42
MPEG-21 Part 8 — Reference Software


 •            Success of a standard depends on the availability of
              reference software
 •            Plan to use the software developed in Core
              Experiments (CE) as a basis
 •            Platform independence
 •            Future repository (requires membership)
      –        http://mpeg.nist.gov/cvsweb/MPEG-21/
 •            Temporary repository
      –        http://www.titr.uow.edu.au/cgi-bin/mpeg-ref-sw.pl
 •            Current main issue: parsing DID

8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 43
Digital Item Processing


 • Digital    Items act as a structure for organizing resources
      and its descriptions

 • Need     a mechanism for defining a set of operations by
      which a terminal can process a DI or DID

 • Currently   considering to specify a set of operations that
      can be used to process DIs: Digital Item Method

 •A    DIM defines an intended method for configuring,
      manipulating and/or validating a DI

8 July 2003                     VCIP 2003 — T6                    page 44
Methods vs. processing


 •    Interoperability of Digital Items means that terminals
      must handle the DIs in a consistent manner

 •    Digital Item Methods provide a way to specify a
      selection of preferred procedures by which the DI
      should be handled at the DI level
      – a menu of user interaction possibilities


 •    Digital Item Processing encompasses all aspects of
      processing a DI from an application perspective

 •    Applications build DIP environments around a
      fundamental DIME

8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6            page 45
Digital Item processing terminology

 • CDI — Content Digital Item
    • a DID containing the actual content

 • DIBO — Digital Item Base Operation
 • DIM — Digital Item Method
              • method that can by applied to a DID
      –       DIME — DIM Engine
              • part of the terminal responsible for executing the DIM
      –       DIML — DIM Language
 • DIP — Digital Item Processing
 • MI — Method Item
 • PI — Processing Item
 • XDI — Context Digital Item
8 July 2003                               VCIP 2003 — T6                 page 46
Digital Item Processing


                   DID       DII        IPMP         REL              RDD        DIA
                                                                                         •••
                  engine   engine      engine       engine           engine     engine




 Digital Item
 DIM 1
 DIM 2                                             DIME                                         User
 DIM 3
 •••


                           DIBO1     DIBO2    DIBO3         DIBO4       DIBO5    DIBO6



                                                                                         media resource
              network              local storage                    local platform
                                                                                             codec

8 July 2003                                        VCIP 2003 — T6                                         page 47
DIP flow control


        DID


                                                       DIML


                             DIML
                                                              DIBO library
                                                   O
                                                DIB
               DID     DIM
              engine                  DIME
                                                DIM

                                                              DIM library




                                                       DIML
8 July 2003                    VCIP 2003 — T6                                page 48
MPEG-21 Part 9 — File Format




 •            An MPEG-21 file format shal be capable of storing
              MPEG-21 Digital Items
      –        all components of the DI within a single file

 •            The MPEG-21 file format will inherit several concepts
              from MP4, in order to make ‘multi-purpose’ files
              possible



8 July 2003                             VCIP 2003 — T6                page 49
MPEG-21 — Further work


 • Persistent    association of information with DIs

 • Accessibility


 • Personal      data

 • Content      representation

 • Event      reporting

 •…
8 July 2003                      VCIP 2003 — T6        page 50
Why is MPEG-21 relevant to you ?




                              •         All rich media commerce on
                                        the Internet will be driven by
                                        MPEG-21

                              •         Only companies that drive the
                                        standard will reap substantial
                                        profits
                                         – First to market
                                         – Licensing fees




8 July 2003            VCIP 2003 — T6                                    page 51
The case against participation

 • MPEG             standards take 10 years to become profitable

 • My           competitor is not participating

 • There    are strong drivers in the standard and we can just
      leverage on them
      –       Licensing fees are lower than the total cost of participating
              in the standardization effort
      –       We do not have deep pockets
      –       OS companies control the desktop anyway

 • MPEG-21             is too complex for me
8 July 2003                             VCIP 2003 — T6                        page 52
The case for participation



 • Learn and work with the leading experts
 • Understand standards from an evolutionary standpoint
 • Work efficiently
 • National Body protocol prevents power games
 • Stay current on trends
 • Be familiar with the competitive landscape
 • Discover opportunities for your unique contributions




8 July 2003               VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 53
The case for participation (cont.)



 •    Score card: focus research on                                        content
      areas of competitive                                      access
                                                                                  delivery
      advantage, partner for the rest
                                                           representation              search
                                                                             storage
                                                                   adaptation
 •    MPEG-21 is an extensive and                     (re)use                     property
      complex standard                                    manipulation                 IP management

      – Only by participating you                                          identification    creation
                                                        IP protection
        can maintain competitive                                                     distribution
        advantages                                              networks
                                                                               payment
      – Only by participating you
                                                                           privacy
        learn with whom to partner


8 July 2003                          VCIP 2003 — T6                                                     page 54
Work with the experts

 • Under   the MPEG ægis, the world’s top experts
   collaborate to create the technology for rich media
   distribution frameworks
 • Leverage on synergies, negotiate differences
 • Co-invent new emergent properties
 • Own intellectual properties instead of licensing them
 • Develop technical partnerships that can evolve in fruitful
   business partnerships
 • Learn what products are on the horizon
 • Learn who your competitors will be before product
   development starts

8 July 2003                  VCIP 2003 — T6                 page 55
How to make money

 • Patent   your unique contributions & submit patent
      statements to ISO

 • Participate     in the industrial forum to build markets

 • Share      in the licensing revenue stream

 • Have       products ready before the standard is published

 • Build      business alliances at an early stage

 • Know       the competition
8 July 2003                       VCIP 2003 — T6                page 56
What can scientists contribute to MPEG-21 ?




                               •   Researchers perform long-term
                                   research and can pursue
                                   activities not yet on a product
                                   horizon

                               •   Academia has vast pools of
                                   inexpensive brain power




8 July 2003             VCIP 2003 — T6                               page 57
Play to win




 •    MPEG groups the world’s
      leaders in rich media

 •    Leaders win by competing with
      other leaders




8 July 2003                      VCIP 2003 — T6   page 58
The bottom line




                                     What can you do for your
                                    founding agencies regarding
                                            MPEG-21?




8 July 2003        VCIP 2003 — T6                             page 59
Time horizon

 • Development      time horizon is based on product cycle and
      vintage chart size
      –       Must be able to predict components available for purchase
      –       Typically about 4 years

 • Research    time horizon is based on fundamental
      breakthroughs that allow paradigm shifts
      –       Emergent properties mature over long periods
      –       Typically about 10 years

 • MPEG-21             is more than 4 years away from general
      adoption
8 July 2003                           VCIP 2003 — T6                  page 60
Summary

 • What            is MPEG-21 ?
      –       An open framework for multimedia delivery & consumption

 • Why            is MPEG-21 relevant to you ?
      –       All rich media commerce will be driven by MPEG-21

 • What            can you contribute to MPEG-21 ?
      –       Your unique expertise

 • The          bottom line
      –       You have the expertise and credibility to successfully
              represent your employer’s interests in MPEG-21
8 July 2003                             VCIP 2003 — T6                 page 61
http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/mp21/vcip2003_T6.pdf

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Introduction to MPEG21

  • 1. Introduction to MPEG-21 Giordano Beretta HP Laboratories Palo Alto 8 July 2003
  • 2. Outline • What is MPEG-21 ? • How is MPEG21 structured ? • Why is MPEG-21 relevant to you ? • What can you contribute to MPEG-21 ? • The bottom line 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 2
  • 3. “It was on the 29th of January 1988 that an SC 2 / WG 8 resolution established the Moving Picture Coding Experts Groups” Leonardo Chiariglione Telecom Italia Lab 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 3
  • 4. What is MPEG-21 ? • An open framework for multimedia delivery and consumption • Focal points: • Content creators • Content consumers 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 4
  • 5. MPEG • MPEG is a working group of ISO – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of moving pictures and audio • Development of international standards for compression, decompression, processing and coded representation of moving pictures, audio, and their combination, in order to satisfy a wide variety of applications Much of the material on these slides is from http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/ 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 5
  • 6. Application examples • Video CD, MP3, DVD • Satellite TV, digital cable, HDTV • Video on demand • PC video streaming – Apple QuickTime – Microsoft Windows Media Player – RealNetworks Helix and RealPlayer • Do-it-yourself 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 6
  • 7. The MPEG family • MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 provide interoperable ways of representing audiovisual content, commonly used on digital media and on the air • MPEG-4 defines how to represent content • MPEG-7 specifies how to describe content • MPEG-21 provides a truly interoperable multimedia framework 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 7
  • 8. MPEG-1 — ISO/IEC 11172 • Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media • Video and audio at 1.5M bit/s for CD-ROM • Five parts: – Part 1 (systems): multiplexing & synchronization – Part 2 (video): ~VHS quality at 1.15M bit/s – Part 3 (audio): stereo at 384K, 256K, 192K bit/s – Part 4 (conformance testing): references for decoder – Part 5 (reference software): C implementation • Applications: Video CD, MP3 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 8
  • 9. MPEG-2 — ISO/IEC 13818 • Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio • Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC) for session set up and remote control of a server, used in set top boxes for satellite and cable TV • Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) for multi-channel audio • 4:2:2 profile for TV production studios • Provisions for Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) • Applications: digital TV set top boxes, DVD • Transport Stream version • Patent issues 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 9
  • 10. MPEG-4 — ISO/IEC 14496 • Coding of audiovisual objects • MPEG-4 defines how to represent content – ancestry: VRML – interoperability of content structure • AFX — Animation Framework eXtension • XMT — textual XML format for SMIL, Web3D, etc. – adapt transparently to device capabilities • FSG — Fine Granularity Scalability • Extensions of AAC and IPMP, Studio Profile • MP4 and AVC file formats, multi-user environment • Patent issues 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 10
  • 11. MPEG-7 — ISO/IEC 15938 • Multimedia content description interface • MPEG-7 specifies how to describe content • describe content way beyond metadata • facilitate content management, in particular searching Image credit: http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/standards/mpeg-7/mpeg-7.htm 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 11
  • 12. MPEG-21 — ISO/IEC (18034) 21000 Define the technology needed to support Users to exchange, access, consume, trade and otherwise manipulate Digital Items in an efficient, transparent and interoperable way 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 12
  • 13. MPEG-21 scope User application metadata processing resource processing IPMP DIA ••• MPEG-2 MPEG-4 ••• application level protocols HTTP RTSP RTP SOAP ••• transport & network level protocols TCP IP UDP MPEG-2 TS ••• 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 13
  • 14. MPEG-21 Digital Item • Structured digital objects, including a standard representation and identification, and metadata • Fundamental unit of distribution and transaction within the MPEG-21 framework • No further technical meaning Digital Item resource ••• resource metadata Digital Item ••• Digital Item 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 14
  • 15. MPEG-21 User •A User is any entity that interacts in the MPEG-21 environment or makes use of a Digital Item – Users include individuals, consumers, communities, organisations, corporations, consortia, governments and other standards bodies and initiatives around the world. • Users are identified specifically by their relationship to another User for a certain interaction • MPEG-21 makes no distinction between a “content provider” and a “consumer” — both are Users – A single entity may use content in many ways – however, a User may assume specific or even unique rights and responsibilities according to their interaction with other Users within MPEG-21 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 15
  • 16. MPEG-21 CE testbed http://www.midgardmedia.net/UMA/mpeg21main.htm streaming User server environment database streaming retrieval of capability descriptions connection Digital media Item description provider retrieval of Digital Item database 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 16
  • 17. The parts of MPEG-21 1. Vision, technologies and strategies 2. Digital Item Declaration 3. Digital Item Identification 4. Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) 5. Rights Expression Language 6. Rights Data Dictionary 7. Digital Item Adaptation 8. Reference Software 9. File Format 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 17
  • 18. MPEG-21Part 1 — Vision • Define a multimedia framework to enable transparent and augmented use of multimedia resources across a wide range of networks and devices 1. Provide a vision 2. Facilitate integration and harmonization of technologies 3. Provide a strategy for achieving a framework through collaboration 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 18
  • 19. Users and content content access delivery representation search storage adaptation (re)use property manipulation IP management identification creation IP protection distribution networks payment privacy 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 19
  • 20. Digital assets • World Wide Web’s phases – 1990 (info.cern.ch) — scientific exchange – 1995 (tidal wave) — free content – 2000 (dot bomb) — ubiquitous fast network • Users are starting to recognize the value of their digital asset resources • Markets must be efficient 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 20
  • 21. The need for harmonization access delivery content representation search storage (re)use adaptation manipulation property IP management s/w platform owners identification creation IP protection distribution networks payment privacy h/w platform owners creators distributors service providers gadget platform owners fiduciaries 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 21
  • 22. MPEG-21 Part 2 — Digital Item Declaration • Index a Digital Item • Purpose: describe a set of abstract terms and concepts to form a useful model for defining Digital Items • Three normative sections: – Model • set of abstract terms and concepts – Representation • normative description of syntax & semantics of DID elements – Schema • normative XML schema comprising the entire grammar of DID 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 22
  • 23. Digital Item Declaration in detail 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 23
  • 24. Digital Item Declaration example container item item descriptor descriptor item component component descriptor descriptor descriptor resource component resource descriptor item component resource component descriptor descriptor resource resource 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 24
  • 25. MPEG-21 Part 3 — Digital Item Identification The scope of the Digital Item Identification (DII) specification includes: • How to uniquely identify Digital Items and parts thereof (including resources) • How to uniquely identify IP related to the Digital Items (and parts thereof), for example abstractions • How to uniquely identify Description Schemes • How to use identifiers to link Digital Items with related information such as descriptive metadata • How to identify different types if Digital Items 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 25
  • 26. DII example: MPEG-21 music album N5231 Identifier: backCover.jpeg •GRid metadata Descriptions: cover.jpeg MPEG-21 •Album Title •Label music album coverNotes.html Identifier: •ISRC track1.aac track2.aac track3.aac Descriptions: metadata metadata metadata •Lead Singer •Orchestra •Conductor •Concert Hall Identifier: •Engineer lyrics1.aac lyrics2.aac •ISMN •Label metadata metadata Descriptions: •Title •Composer •Lyricist •Duration •Singer 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 26
  • 27. MPEG-21 Part 4 — IPMP • Improvements over MPEG-4 IPMP: – Internetworking – IPMP tool retrieval & authentication – Integration of Rights Expressions (RDD & REL) • Intellectual Property Management and Protection involves the enforcement of REL permissions – IPMP shall consult REL before any actions are taken in the User’s system • REL: What is protected? What right applies? IPMP: How is it protected? 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 27
  • 28. MPEG-21 Part 5 — REL • Rights Expression Language • A machine-readable language • Can declare rights and permissions • Uses terms defined in the Rights Data Dictionary 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 28
  • 29. MPEG-21 Part 5 — REL • The Rights Expression Language consists of licenses and grants that give specific permissions to Users to perform certain actions on certain resources, given that certain conditions are met – Grants can also allow Users to delegate authority to others • User’s system shall parse and validate the RE • User’s system shall check permissions before any further action is done • DID parser is responsible for discovering and identifying where to gather licenses • REL licenses are wrapped in Digital Items 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 29
  • 30. REL data model right issued to subject to associated with principal resource condition • REL grant consist of – principal to whom grant is issued – rights the grant specifies – resource to which right in grant applies – condition to be met before grant can be exercised 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 30
  • 31. MPEG-21 Part 6 — Rights Data Dictionary • Set of clear, consistent, structured, integrated and uniquely identified Terms to support REL • Specification of dictionary structure and methodology to create dictionary • Dictionary is prescriptive, inclusive, and has audit provisions • Legal definitions are mapped from other Authorities • Supports mapping & transformation of metadata from terminology of one namespace (or Authority) into that of another namespace in automated or partially- automated way • Dictionary is based on a logical model, the Context Model, which is the basis of the dictionary ontology 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 31
  • 32. MPEG-21 Part 7 — Digital Item Adaptation • Goal: achieve transparent User application interoperable access to distributed multimedia content metadata processing IPMP DIA ••• resource processing MPEG-2 MPEG-4 ••• • Enable ad hoc formation of User application level protocols communities in which contents is HTTP RTSP RTP SOAP ••• shared with agreed or contracted TCP transport & network level protocols IP UDP MPEG-2 TS ••• – Quality – Reliability – Flexibility User environment streaming server database – Diversity streaming retrieval of capability descriptions connection • Guaranteed user experience Digital Item media description provider retrieval of database Digital Item 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 32
  • 33. Concept of Digital Item Adaptation Digital Item Adaptation Engine Resource Adapted Digital Item Adaptation Engine Digital Item Description Adaptation Engine Scope of DIA Tools standardization 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 33
  • 34. Relation between DIA and other MPEG-21parts CDI Adapted CDI MPEG-21 DID Digital Item MPEG-21 DID MPEG-21 DII Adaptation Engine MPEG-21 DII MPEG-21 IPMP/REL MPEG-21 IPMP/REL Resource Adaptation Engine Descriptor Descriptor MPEG-21 DIA Tools Description MPEG-21 DIA Tools Adaptation Engine Resource Resource XDI MPEG-21 DID MPEG-21 DII MPEG-21 IPMP/REL Descriptor MPEG-21 DIA Tools Usage Environment Resource Level Tools Digital Item Level Tools 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 34
  • 35. Scope of standardization • User Characteristics streaming server User environment database streaming • Terminal Capabilities retrieval of capability descriptions connection Digital media Item description • Network Characteristics provider retrieval of database Digital Item • Natural Environment Characteristics • Resource Adaptability • Session Mobility 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 35
  • 36. Overview of DIA Tools Usage Environment Description Tools • User Characteristics • Terminal Capabilities •BSDL (Bitstream Syntax • Network Characteristics Description Language) • Natural Environment Characteristics •gBS Schema (generic Digital Item Resource Adaptation Tools Bitstream Syntax Schema) • Bitstream Syntax Description • Terminal and Network Quality of Service •AdaptationQoS • Metadata Adaptability Digital Item Declaration Adaptation Tools •MetadataAdaptationHint • Session Mobility • DID Configuration Preferences • DIA Description Messages 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 36
  • 37. Bitstream Syntax Description •A BSD describes the syntax (high level structure) of a binary media resource • BSDL: XML schema based language to design specific bitstream syntax schemas for particular media formats • gBS schema: generic schema enabling the construction of resource format independent bitstream syntax descriptions 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 37
  • 38. Adaptation architecture scalable description bitstream description generation bitstream description generation description description transformation transformation bitstream transformed generation description AdaptationQoS MetadataAdaptationHint adapted bitstream … adaptation strategy ••• … optimal adaptation decisions ... reduced complexity adapting the metadata 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 38
  • 39. Terminal and Network Quality of Service • AdaptationQoS specifies the relationship between constraints and feasible adaptation operations • Constraints: BandwidthInkbps, ComputationTimeInMillisecs • Utilities (qualities): PSNRIndB • Adaptation Methods: • frameDroppingAndOrCoefficientDropping, requantization, fineGranularScalability, waveletReduction, spatialSizeReduction • UtilityFunction: • describes possible adaptation operators and associated qualities using a set of constraint points as indexes • Linear interpolation is assumed between constraint points • LookUpTable: • additional multi-dimensional sets of data to support more elaborate adaptation scenarios • StackFunction • tool for describing the data in numerical function format 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 39
  • 40. Metadata Adaptability MetadataAdaptationHint describes adaptation hint information pertaining to metadata within a digital item Hint: a set of syntactical elements with prior knowledge about the metadata that is useful for reducing the complexity of the metadata adaptation process to PC hint information metadata (RDF) Digital Item Adaptation Engine to PDA web documents adapted metadata adapted metadata Resource Adaptation Engine hint information metadata (MPEG7) Description Adaptation Engine adapted resources to phone video contents 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 40
  • 41. AdaptationQoS ­ BSD Link In some cases it is convenient to specify intrinsic operations based on a universal model for scalable bit-streams A specified operation can be seen as a link that is composed of a mapping condition between identified parameters and an operation, which is conducted if this mapping is fulfilled parameters AdaptationQoS linking link specification bitstream description markers 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 41
  • 42. (g)BSD, AdaptationQoS, and Link Content Digital Item 3 2 Context Digital Item adaptation usage AdaptationQoS decision engine environment description description source 1 parameter link source parameter references target parameter references BSD manipulation function 4 description gBSD transformation gBSD’ engine resource gBSDtoBin 5 6 resource’ Digital Content Digital Item Item’ gBSD’’ Adaptation engine 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 42
  • 43. MPEG-21 Part 8 — Reference Software • Success of a standard depends on the availability of reference software • Plan to use the software developed in Core Experiments (CE) as a basis • Platform independence • Future repository (requires membership) – http://mpeg.nist.gov/cvsweb/MPEG-21/ • Temporary repository – http://www.titr.uow.edu.au/cgi-bin/mpeg-ref-sw.pl • Current main issue: parsing DID 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 43
  • 44. Digital Item Processing • Digital Items act as a structure for organizing resources and its descriptions • Need a mechanism for defining a set of operations by which a terminal can process a DI or DID • Currently considering to specify a set of operations that can be used to process DIs: Digital Item Method •A DIM defines an intended method for configuring, manipulating and/or validating a DI 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 44
  • 45. Methods vs. processing • Interoperability of Digital Items means that terminals must handle the DIs in a consistent manner • Digital Item Methods provide a way to specify a selection of preferred procedures by which the DI should be handled at the DI level – a menu of user interaction possibilities • Digital Item Processing encompasses all aspects of processing a DI from an application perspective • Applications build DIP environments around a fundamental DIME 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 45
  • 46. Digital Item processing terminology • CDI — Content Digital Item • a DID containing the actual content • DIBO — Digital Item Base Operation • DIM — Digital Item Method • method that can by applied to a DID – DIME — DIM Engine • part of the terminal responsible for executing the DIM – DIML — DIM Language • DIP — Digital Item Processing • MI — Method Item • PI — Processing Item • XDI — Context Digital Item 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 46
  • 47. Digital Item Processing DID DII IPMP REL RDD DIA ••• engine engine engine engine engine engine Digital Item DIM 1 DIM 2 DIME User DIM 3 ••• DIBO1 DIBO2 DIBO3 DIBO4 DIBO5 DIBO6 media resource network local storage local platform codec 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 47
  • 48. DIP flow control DID DIML DIML DIBO library O DIB DID DIM engine DIME DIM DIM library DIML 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 48
  • 49. MPEG-21 Part 9 — File Format • An MPEG-21 file format shal be capable of storing MPEG-21 Digital Items – all components of the DI within a single file • The MPEG-21 file format will inherit several concepts from MP4, in order to make ‘multi-purpose’ files possible 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 49
  • 50. MPEG-21 — Further work • Persistent association of information with DIs • Accessibility • Personal data • Content representation • Event reporting •… 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 50
  • 51. Why is MPEG-21 relevant to you ? • All rich media commerce on the Internet will be driven by MPEG-21 • Only companies that drive the standard will reap substantial profits – First to market – Licensing fees 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 51
  • 52. The case against participation • MPEG standards take 10 years to become profitable • My competitor is not participating • There are strong drivers in the standard and we can just leverage on them – Licensing fees are lower than the total cost of participating in the standardization effort – We do not have deep pockets – OS companies control the desktop anyway • MPEG-21 is too complex for me 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 52
  • 53. The case for participation • Learn and work with the leading experts • Understand standards from an evolutionary standpoint • Work efficiently • National Body protocol prevents power games • Stay current on trends • Be familiar with the competitive landscape • Discover opportunities for your unique contributions 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 53
  • 54. The case for participation (cont.) • Score card: focus research on content areas of competitive access delivery advantage, partner for the rest representation search storage adaptation • MPEG-21 is an extensive and (re)use property complex standard manipulation IP management – Only by participating you identification creation IP protection can maintain competitive distribution advantages networks payment – Only by participating you privacy learn with whom to partner 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 54
  • 55. Work with the experts • Under the MPEG ægis, the world’s top experts collaborate to create the technology for rich media distribution frameworks • Leverage on synergies, negotiate differences • Co-invent new emergent properties • Own intellectual properties instead of licensing them • Develop technical partnerships that can evolve in fruitful business partnerships • Learn what products are on the horizon • Learn who your competitors will be before product development starts 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 55
  • 56. How to make money • Patent your unique contributions & submit patent statements to ISO • Participate in the industrial forum to build markets • Share in the licensing revenue stream • Have products ready before the standard is published • Build business alliances at an early stage • Know the competition 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 56
  • 57. What can scientists contribute to MPEG-21 ? • Researchers perform long-term research and can pursue activities not yet on a product horizon • Academia has vast pools of inexpensive brain power 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 57
  • 58. Play to win • MPEG groups the world’s leaders in rich media • Leaders win by competing with other leaders 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 58
  • 59. The bottom line What can you do for your founding agencies regarding MPEG-21? 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 59
  • 60. Time horizon • Development time horizon is based on product cycle and vintage chart size – Must be able to predict components available for purchase – Typically about 4 years • Research time horizon is based on fundamental breakthroughs that allow paradigm shifts – Emergent properties mature over long periods – Typically about 10 years • MPEG-21 is more than 4 years away from general adoption 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 60
  • 61. Summary • What is MPEG-21 ? – An open framework for multimedia delivery & consumption • Why is MPEG-21 relevant to you ? – All rich media commerce will be driven by MPEG-21 • What can you contribute to MPEG-21 ? – Your unique expertise • The bottom line – You have the expertise and credibility to successfully represent your employer’s interests in MPEG-21 8 July 2003 VCIP 2003 — T6 page 61