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Introduction
                   Previous Work
       Our Results & Contribution
                        Summary




      Cognitive Aspects of Color
             Aspetti cognitivi del colore


              G. Beretta            N. Moroney

               Print Production Automation Lab
                Hewlett-Packard Laboratories
                      Palo Alto, California


IVa Conferenza Nazionale del Gruppo del Colore
  ¯
           Como, 18 settembre 2008



                Beretta, Moroney     Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                             Previous Work
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Broad Problem Description
                             Previous Work
                                              Specific Problem Description
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Categorical Perception
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                         Broad Problem Description
                        Previous Work
                                         Specific Problem Description
            Our Results & Contribution
                                         Categorical Perception
                             Summary


Emerging Display Technologies




                     Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                         Broad Problem Description
                        Previous Work
                                         Specific Problem Description
            Our Results & Contribution
                                         Categorical Perception
                             Summary


Today’s Nomadic Road Warrior Works Wherever




                     Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                         Broad Problem Description
                        Previous Work
                                         Specific Problem Description
            Our Results & Contribution
                                         Categorical Perception
                             Summary


Color Management Is Just Expected to Work




                     Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                               Broad Problem Description
                              Previous Work
                                               Specific Problem Description
                  Our Results & Contribution
                                               Categorical Perception
                                   Summary


Color Integrity


  At the 1997 panel discussion on color fidelity vs. color integrity
  at the Color Imaging Conference in Scottsdale we had argued:
      Color fidelity cannot be achieved in consumer applications
      like Internet shopping
      A color never comes alone: it is part of a palette
      Color fidelity is not necessary if color integrity is
      maintained
        1   Foveal colors should not cross name boundaries
        2   The error vectors should have a uniform flux
      Distortions are unavoidable, we need to control them



                           Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Broad Problem Description
                             Previous Work
                                              Specific Problem Description
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Categorical Perception
                                  Summary


Naming of Colors


  In real life, the names of colors are often less important than
  the names of colors of objects
  Example
  Delk & Fillenbaum experiment (1965)




                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Broad Problem Description
                             Previous Work
                                              Specific Problem Description
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Categorical Perception
                                  Summary


More Applications of Color Naming
  Once we have facilities for processing color by name, we can
  find more applications:
      Better user experience in GUIs
      Automatic nudging of text and logo colors for readibility in
      variable data printing




      Gamut mapping for HDR and wide gamut displays
      Culture-independent preferred color rendering
      Thematic rendering
                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Broad Problem Description
                             Previous Work
                                              Specific Problem Description
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Categorical Perception
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                           Broad Problem Description
                          Previous Work
                                           Specific Problem Description
              Our Results & Contribution
                                           Categorical Perception
                               Summary


Metric Color Discrimination




                       Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                  Broad Problem Description
                                 Previous Work
                                                  Specific Problem Description
                     Our Results & Contribution
                                                  Categorical Perception
                                      Summary


Color Communication

  stimulus      detectors    early mechanisms           pictorial register

                                                  color
                                                   edges
                                                  contour
                                                  motion
                                                   depth
                                                    …
                                                                      context parameters

                                                                                         chroma
                                                                                  etc.
                                                                                                 hue
                            Color lexicon                                            lightness

                                                                    chroma         internal
                                                             etc.
                                                                                  color space
                               amber                                        hue
                                                                lightness

       action               color name                    apparent color
                                                          representation


                              Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                               Broad Problem Description
                              Previous Work
                                               Specific Problem Description
                  Our Results & Contribution
                                               Categorical Perception
                                   Summary


Color Naming Constraints

   1   Physiological basis of color perception
   2   General color cognition
           basic vs. derived color categories
           role of prototypes
           formatting of internal representation
   3   Color communication
           sharable knowledge about the world
           metaphorical names
           semantic and syntactic constraints
  Result: an observer can discriminate more efficiently between a
  pair of colors straddling a category boundary than between a
  pair in the same category

                           Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                          Broad Problem Description
                         Previous Work
                                          Specific Problem Description
             Our Results & Contribution
                                          Categorical Perception
                              Summary


Categorical Color Discrimination




                      Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Broad Problem Description
                             Previous Work
                                              Specific Problem Description
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Categorical Perception
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                            Broad Problem Description
                           Previous Work
                                            Specific Problem Description
               Our Results & Contribution
                                            Categorical Perception
                                Summary


Development of Color Naming

     Color naming is acquired, not genetic
         socio-economic status (SES)
     Occurs late in child’s development, but age is decreasing
     with increase of technology
         1900: basic four colors @ 8 years
         1950: @ 5 years of age




                        Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                     Broad Problem Description
                                  Previous Work
                                                     Specific Problem Description
                      Our Results & Contribution
                                                     Categorical Perception
                                       Summary


Color Ontogeny of Languages

         Brent Berlin and Paul Kay, University of Berkeley, 1969
         The physiology underlying even the unique hues is
         unknown
         There is no natural categorization

                                                                                   orange
                                                                                   and/or
                             green          yellow
   white                                                                            pink
    and         red                                        blue           brown    and/or
   black                                                                           purple
                                                                                   and/or
                             yellow          green
                                                                                    gray



     I          II             III            IV             V              VI      VII




                               Beretta, Moroney      Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                                                                                    Broad Problem Description
                                                                                    Previous Work
                                                                                                                    Specific Problem Description
                                                                        Our Results & Contribution
                                                                                                                    Categorical Perception
                                                                                         Summary


The Structure of Color Naming Spaces
           1         What is the set of color names?
           2         Where are the boundaries for synonyms?
                                           Without a natural categorization, it is not clear where the
                                           boundary for synonyms are
                                           An important problem in avionics
           3         How are the color names categorized algorithmically?
        v’
                                  white            yellow
                  1. 1. 1.
                               .98 .92 .65 .53
                                                .73 87 .91                           orange
  .55        green 1. .99 .98
                                .97 .88 .62
                                                            .87 .71.53
                                                                          .75.88.96
                                             .59.73 .74.57                          .98 .98.96
                   .97 .91 .94                               .33 .45                           .93
                                 .84 .66 .5 .46          A            .51 .58.54 .63
                                                                                     .59.52 .5
                                                  .44 .31.49.63
                    .71 .71 .68                                   .78.81 .63
                                   .7 .44 .47.52
                                                   .41.35.56
                                                                              .47 .33.39.61      red
                     .57.56 .44                                .61.61.52
                                              B
                                   .33 .45.56 .56                           .53.53
                                                                                   .47.47
                                                    .43.32.46.56
               aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E    D
                                            .64.53.35
                                                                    .68 .76 .74.75
                                                                                   .58 peach
  .45                                                   .53 .7 .8
                      .82.65.36.45                                   .85.87.82.74
                                        .45.48 .3
                                                     .52.74.81
                       .69.42 .36                                .87 .91.89.86
                                     .47.48.28
                                                  .33.57.69
                        .53.64 .5                             .83.92.88 .87
                                      .38.37.48.44
               gray .62.75                             .57 .7 .82.86
                                  .53.35.56.56
                                                   .47 .56.68
                                                                        .88    pink
                          .74.82 .53 .54                        .72.74
                                           .67 .77.59
  .35                                                   .48.51.63
                            .9 .84 .48
                                         .7 .83 .8
                                                     .72.65 .5
                           .92.89.53
                                         .82.92 .9 .75.69
                             .98 .9 .52
                                          .83.93 .89.81
                                                               purple
                   blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92
                              .97 .9 .52.91
                                               .95
  .25                                                                    A = CIE Standard Illuminant A
                               .96.91 .6 .84
                                                                        B = CIE Standard Illuminant B
                                .97.92.63
                                                                        C = CIE Standard Illuminant C
                                 .97.94                                 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65
                                                                        E = equal-energy point
                                  .97

                                                                                                     u’
  .15
     .05                    .15                      .25                     .35                     .45
   David L. Post, 1988

                                                                                                 Beretta, Moroney   Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                             Broad Problem Description
                            Previous Work
                                             Specific Problem Description
                Our Results & Contribution
                                             Categorical Perception
                                 Summary


What is A Color Thesaurus?


  Definition
  A thesaurus is a compilation of synonyms (and antonyms) with
  etymological and semantical information as well as examples to
  disambiguate the synonyms

      There is a number of dictionaries of color names
      In 1955 Kelly and Judd produced an early color thesaurus
      In 2007 Nathan Moroney created an online thesaurus of
      color names
          based on an earlier online color naming experiment



                         Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                             Previous Work
                                              Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Summary
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                                                                      Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                                                       Previous Work
                                                                                                      Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                                           Our Results & Contribution
                                                                                                      Summary
                                                            Summary


The ISCC–NBS Method of Designating Colors and A
Dictionary of Color Names
     Kenneth L. Kelly & Deane B. Judd, 1955
     Names from over a dozen compilations in use in the USA;
     uniformity in Munsell space
     1933 recommendations by I.H. Godlove + scheme of hue
     modifiers + heuristics
                                                                            Munsell Value

                        black          dark gray      medium gray           light gray        white

                      –ish black     dark –ish gray     –ish gray     light –ish gray –ish white


                                                                  pale
                                    dark
                      blackish                 grayish              or                   very pale
                                   grayish
                                                              light grayish




                      very dark     dark      moderate              light                very light
     Munsell Chroma




                      very deep     deep       strong                        brilliant




                                                vivid



                                                           Beretta, Moroney                           Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                             Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                                           Previous Work
                                                             Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                               Our Results & Contribution
                                                             Summary
                                                Summary


Coloroid Color Names
Antal Nemcsics, 1993

            Historical pigment names; process and structure not
            documented; 70’000 observers
            Structure hierarchy: 7 domains, 76 primary colors
            Several errors and inconsistencies
             broken warm white A = 20
   cement grey Roman ochre Pompeian yellow
     100
       90
       80
       70
       60
       50                                 Indian orange
   V




       40                        orange ochre
       30                 Arsigont
       20           brown beige
       10
             Anatolian brown
        0
         0    10   20   30      40    50 60 70 80           90   100
                                       T
                                        Beretta, Moroney     Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                             Previous Work
                                              Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Summary
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                                                                                               Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                                                                                                       Previous Work
                                                                                                                               Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                                                                                           Our Results & Contribution
                                                                                                                               Summary
                                                                                                            Summary


Color Names for Avionics
David L. Post and collaborators, 1985–1989

                           Start with 12-name vocabulary (basic terms + peach)
                           Psychophysics; present 210 stimuli (uniform in UCS) on
                           various backgrounds under various illuminants
                           Boundaries enclose areas within which the modal
                           color-name response corresponds with the color name
                           Probability of obtaining the modal color-name response
         v’
                                  white            yellow
                  1. 1. 1.
                               .98 .92 .65 .53
                                                 .73 87 .91.87                        orange
   .55        green1. .99 .98
                                .97 .88 .62
                                                                  .71.53 .75.88
                                              .59.73 .74.57                       .96.98 .98.96
                   .97 .91 .94                                .33 .45.51                         .93
                                 .84 .66 .5 .46.44 A                       .58.54 .63.59
                                                                                          .52 .5
                                                       .31.49.63
                    .71 .71 .68                                    .78.81 .63
                                   .7 .44 .47.52
                                                    .41.35.56
                                                                               .47.33.39.61        red
                     .57.56 .44                                 .61.61.52
                                               B
                                   .33 .45.56 .56                            .53.53
                                                                                    .47.47
                                                     .43.32.46.56
               aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E    D
                                            .64.53.35
                                                                     .68 .76 .74.75
                                                                                    .58 peach
   .45                                                   .53 .7 .8
                      .82.65.36.45                                    .85.87.82.74
                                        .45.48 .3
                                                      .52.74.81.87
                       .69.42 .36                                      .91.89.86
                                     .47.48.28
                                                   .33.57.69.83
                        .53.64 .5                                  .92.88 .87
                                      .38.37.48.44
               gray .62.75                              .57 .7 .82.86
                                  .53.35.56.56
                                                    .47 .56.68
                                                                        .88     pink
                          .74.82 .53 .54.67                      .72.74
                                                .77.59 .48
   .35                      .9 .84 .48
                                                             .51.63
                                         .7 .83 .8
                                                      .72.65 .5
                           .92.89.53
                                         .82.92 .9 .75.69
                             .98 .9 .52
                                          .83.93 .89.81
                                                                purple
                   blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92
                              .97 .9 .52.91
                                                .95
   .25                                                                   A = CIE Standard Illuminant A
                               .96.91 .6
                                             .84
                                                                         B = CIE Standard Illuminant B
                                .97.92.63
                                                                         C = CIE Standard Illuminant C
                                 .97.94                                  D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65
                                                                         E = equal-energy point
                                  .97

                                                                                                      u’
   .15
      .05                   .15                      .25                     .35                      .45
    David L. Post, 1988




                                                                                                            Beretta, Moroney   Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                   Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                                  Previous Work
                                                   Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                      Our Results & Contribution
                                                   Summary
                                       Summary


Influence of Culture on Color Naming
Heinrich Zollinger, ca. 1975


         What is the link between the neurobiology of color vision
         and color naming (embodyment)?
         Subjects native speakers in:
                chemistry students in German, French, English, Hebrew,
                Japanese
                art students in German, Hebrew
                Japanese children
                analphabets in Kekchi, Misquito
         Tasks:
            1   list minimally necessary color names
            2   list supplementary color names
            3   total must be 12
            4   name 117 Munsell chips

                               Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                                                 Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                                          Previous Work
                                                                 Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                              Our Results & Contribution
                                                                 Summary
                                               Summary


Frequency of Occurrence
Chemistry students
          Häufigkeit
          ETH-Zürich                  grün
   60%                                                   blau        violett
                      gelb
   40% rotorange
                                                                                     rot

   20%                                                                               rosa
                      braun

                                                                            purpur
         5R     5YR      5Y   5GY     5G     5BG     5B     5PB        5P       5RP

   80%   TKD-

   60%


   40%


   20%



         5R     5YR     5Y    5GY    5G      5BG    5B     5PB       5P        5RP
                                       Beretta, Moroney          Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                               Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                              Previous Work
                                               Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                  Our Results & Contribution
                                               Summary
                                   Summary


Robotic Agent Naming Colors
Johan Lammens, 1994




                           Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                              Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                             Previous Work
                                              Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                              Summary
                                  Summary


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                            Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                           Previous Work
                                            Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
               Our Results & Contribution
                                            Summary
                                Summary


Number of Color Categories

     Berlin & Kay: 11 basic terms
         white, black, red green yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink,
         purple, grey
     ISCC–NBS: 267 categories
     Nemcsics: 76 primary colors
     Boynton & Olson: 15 nonbasic terms are frequently used
         tan, peach, olive, lavender, violet, lime, salmon, indigo,
         cyan, cream, magenta, turquoise, chartreuse, rust, maroon
         11 + 15 = 26
         2 uninformed subjects were presented twice the 424 OSA
         patches and asked how many colors they saw
         one subject estimated 30, the other 80
     11 is too low a number to categorize colors

                        Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                                            Attempts to Compile Thesauri
                           Previous Work
                                            Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
               Our Results & Contribution
                                            Summary
                                Summary


Limitations of These Solutions



     Only ISCC–NBS has a bona fide thesaurus
         266 color categories with annotated synonyms
     Even with 7,500 color names, the dictionary is very limited
         a snapshot in time (1955)
         mostly government and industry related
         only in English
     It is not clear how many categories there are
     These limitations make it less useful




                        Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction      Color Naming on the Web
                                    Previous Work       Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                        Our Results & Contribution      Work in Progress
                                         Summary        Results So Far


Research Constraints


     We are interested in the names of color patches
     Not in free lists of color names
     Not in color object names
     Not in the evolution of color names
      carta zucchero
      102, 140, 204; #668ccc; very rare.
      azzurro, indaco
      azzurro scuro, ciano.
      ant. maroone chiaro, ocra.
      celeste                                                                                                              orange
                                                                                                                           and/or

      54, 176, 239; #36b0ef; rare.
                                                                                          green    yellow
                                                                            white                                           pink
                                                                             and    red                     blue   brown   and/or


      ciano, azzurro
                                                                            black                                          purple
                                                                                                                           and/or
                                                                                          yellow   green

      cyan, carta zucchero.
                                                                                                                            gray



      ant. arancio, arancione.                                                I      II    III      IV       V      VI      VII




                                     Beretta, Moroney   Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Goal

   1   Large dictionary
           extensive, through crowd-sourcing
           evolves through time
           not limited to one language
   2   Number of synonym categories                     12
           decided though crowd-sourcing
           not 266 like in ISCC–NBS thesaurus
           . . . or 26, or 30, or 80. . .
   3   Algorithm for determining categories
           explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name
           construct separate categorizations for each
           explore boundary-finding algorithms


                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                        Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
            Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                             Summary     Results So Far


Color Naming Experiment




                     Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                              Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                  Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                   Summary     Results So Far


The Color Thesaurus in English
  The ephemerality is built in!




  http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Nathan_Moroney/
  color-thesaurus.html
                           Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                            Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                 Summary     Results So Far


Color Zeitgeist
      Can easily derive secondary tools
      Tag cloud visualization of the color name queries
  Example




                         Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                         Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
             Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                              Summary     Results So Far


Italian Color Thesaurus




                      Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Qualifying the Corpus

     Problems:
         we observed about
         5% disruptive
         participants in the
         experiment
         variability of rarely
         used names
     Solution is to collect
     explicit feedback on the
     global statistics from
     each participant
     More efficient than
     recruiting domain
     specialists
                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Expanding the Corpus


     Problem: Insufficient data in non-English corpora
     Solutions:
      1   brute force: adding a hundred names require tens of
          thousands of participants
               because of redundancy (long tail distribution) this is very
               inefficient
               when a name is missing, the cost for completing the corpus
               is high
      2   targeted harvesting: get participants to find sparse
          regions. . .
      3   . . . and submit relevant data



                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction                       Color Naming on the Web
                                            Previous Work                        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                                Our Results & Contribution                       Work in Progress
                                                 Summary                         Results So Far


Contributed Name Distribution
  2000                            green
                                  blue
                                                          light blue
                                                          lavender
                                                                                   grass green
                                                                                   tan
                                                                                                          khaki
                                                                                                          dark brown
                                                                                                                                       cornflower
                                                                                                                                       cream
                                  purple                  gray                     yellow green           dark purple                  red orange
                                  pink                    navy blue                navy                   moss green                   dark red
                                  red                     maroon                   peach                  burnt orange                 chocolate
  1600                            black
                                  lime green
                                                          lime
                                                          dark blue
                                                                                   burgundy
                                                                                   salmon
                                                                                                          spring green
                                                                                                          pea green
                                                                                                                                       crimson
                                                                                                                                       coral
                                  brown                   dark green               light purple           baby blue                    apple green
                                  magenta                 lilac                    rose                   kelly green                  eggplant
                                  violet                  olive                    gold                   dark pink                    goldenrod
                                  sky blue                olive green              plum                   rust                         medium blue
  1200                            orange
                                  yellow
                                                          cyan
                                                          periwinkle
                                                                                   brick red
                                                                                   beige
                                                                                                          blue green
                                                                                                          fluorescent green
                                                                                                                                       ocean blue
                                                                                                                                       leaf green
                                  teal                    mint green               mustard                sage                         bright purple
                                  light green             bright green             white                  hunter green                 grape
                                  fuchsia                 mauve                    indigo                 pale green                   light yellow
   800                            turquoise
                                  aqua
                                                          sea green
                                                          hot pink
                                                                                   bright blue
                                                                                   chartreuse
                                                                                                          blue gray
                                                                                                          cobalt
                                                                                                                                       emerald
                                                                                                                                       jade
                                  royal blue              neon green               light brown            midnight blue                ochre
                                  forest                  seafoam                  aquamarine             light pink                   army green
                                                                                                                                       brick
   400

    0 gre   r m y t l m l p s g p r b b k b k fl b c c e l e b
         en ed agen ellow urquo ight b aroo ilac eriwi ea gr rass g each ose eige right haki urnt elly g uores lue g ornflo hocol ggpla eaf gr mera rick
                   ta          ise lue n              nkl een re                       blu       ora ree ce ray we ate nt ee ld
                                                         e           en                    e        nge n nt g               r                 n
                                                                                                                    ree
                                                                                                                        n

                                              Beretta, Moroney                   Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                        Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
            Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                             Summary     Results So Far


Expanding the Corpus




                     Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                            Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                 Summary     Results So Far


Limitations of the First Experiments


      We have solved:
          how can we screen out bogus data?
          how do we get scalability?
          how can we make the experiments more collaborative?
      Remaining problem:
          the categorization lacks fixed boundaries
          synonyms are formed ad hoc by searching for the color
          names with the smallest CIECAM02 color difference
                            ∗
          greater than 5∆E02,C




                         Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Planned Extensions




  Algorithm for determining categories
      explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name
      construct separate categorizations for each
      explore boundary-finding algorithms




                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction         Color Naming on the Web
                                       Previous Work          Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                           Our Results & Contribution         Work in Progress
                                            Summary           Results So Far


The Density of Color Names

   g
   blue                                            green




                    grey      white

                                                         yellow
    purple                       brown




             pink
                              red                    orange

                                                                    j



                                      Beretta, Moroney        Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                             Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                 Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                  Summary     Results So Far


Outline
  1   Introduction
         New Challenges in Color Management
         Lexical Color
         Color Naming
  2   Previous Work
        Attempts to Compile Thesauri
        Extensions of the Basic Color Terms
        Summary
  3   Our Results & Contribution
        Color Naming on the Web
        Tools Leveraging the Corpus
        Work in Progress
        Results So Far

                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction   Color Naming on the Web
                                 Previous Work    Tools Leveraging the Corpus
                     Our Results & Contribution   Work in Progress
                                      Summary     Results So Far


Statistics


      120’760 synonyms served from September 2007 through
      August 2008
      Syndicated by
             Core Design 77
             http://www.core77.com/blog/object_culture/online_color_thesaurus_7966.asp
             Aubrey Jaffer
             http://people.csail.mit.edu/jaffer/Color/Dictionaries

      MagCloud reference magazine, available from
      http://magcloud.com/browse/Issue/2344




                              Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                           Previous Work
               Our Results & Contribution
                                Summary


Summary


    There are applications requiring a color thesaurus
    Current solutions are not adequate
    We have a promising early solution that scales well


    Outlook
        Research is required to tile the color space and build a true
        thesaurus
        Eventually, the tool should be so robust we can run it for a
        language none of us speaks




                        Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                             Previous Work
                 Our Results & Contribution
                                  Summary


Acknowledgments




  We are indebted to Prof. Lucia R. Ronchi of the Fondazione
  Giorgio Ronchi in Florence for many fruitful discussions and for
  compiling the book on Color and Language




                          Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color
Introduction
                              Previous Work
                  Our Results & Contribution
                                   Summary


Questions and Discussion
   mailto:giordano.beretta@hp.com
   http://www.hp.com/blogs/mostly_color
   http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Giordano_Beretta/




                           Beretta, Moroney    Cognitive Aspects of Color

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Cognitive Aspects of Color

  • 1. Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Cognitive Aspects of Color Aspetti cognitivi del colore G. Beretta N. Moroney Print Production Automation Lab Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, California IVa Conferenza Nazionale del Gruppo del Colore ¯ Como, 18 settembre 2008 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 2. Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 3. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 4. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Emerging Display Technologies Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 5. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Today’s Nomadic Road Warrior Works Wherever Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 6. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Management Is Just Expected to Work Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 7. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Integrity At the 1997 panel discussion on color fidelity vs. color integrity at the Color Imaging Conference in Scottsdale we had argued: Color fidelity cannot be achieved in consumer applications like Internet shopping A color never comes alone: it is part of a palette Color fidelity is not necessary if color integrity is maintained 1 Foveal colors should not cross name boundaries 2 The error vectors should have a uniform flux Distortions are unavoidable, we need to control them Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 8. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Naming of Colors In real life, the names of colors are often less important than the names of colors of objects Example Delk & Fillenbaum experiment (1965) Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 9. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary More Applications of Color Naming Once we have facilities for processing color by name, we can find more applications: Better user experience in GUIs Automatic nudging of text and logo colors for readibility in variable data printing Gamut mapping for HDR and wide gamut displays Culture-independent preferred color rendering Thematic rendering Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 10. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 11. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Metric Color Discrimination Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 12. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Communication stimulus detectors early mechanisms pictorial register color edges contour motion depth … context parameters chroma etc. hue Color lexicon lightness chroma internal etc. color space amber hue lightness action color name apparent color representation Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 13. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Naming Constraints 1 Physiological basis of color perception 2 General color cognition basic vs. derived color categories role of prototypes formatting of internal representation 3 Color communication sharable knowledge about the world metaphorical names semantic and syntactic constraints Result: an observer can discriminate more efficiently between a pair of colors straddling a category boundary than between a pair in the same category Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 14. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Categorical Color Discrimination Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 15. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 16. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Development of Color Naming Color naming is acquired, not genetic socio-economic status (SES) Occurs late in child’s development, but age is decreasing with increase of technology 1900: basic four colors @ 8 years 1950: @ 5 years of age Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 17. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Ontogeny of Languages Brent Berlin and Paul Kay, University of Berkeley, 1969 The physiology underlying even the unique hues is unknown There is no natural categorization orange and/or green yellow white pink and red blue brown and/or black purple and/or yellow green gray I II III IV V VI VII Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 18. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary The Structure of Color Naming Spaces 1 What is the set of color names? 2 Where are the boundaries for synonyms? Without a natural categorization, it is not clear where the boundary for synonyms are An important problem in avionics 3 How are the color names categorized algorithmically? v’ white yellow 1. 1. 1. .98 .92 .65 .53 .73 87 .91 orange .55 green 1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .62 .87 .71.53 .75.88.96 .59.73 .74.57 .98 .98.96 .97 .91 .94 .33 .45 .93 .84 .66 .5 .46 A .51 .58.54 .63 .59.52 .5 .44 .31.49.63 .71 .71 .68 .78.81 .63 .7 .44 .47.52 .41.35.56 .47 .33.39.61 red .57.56 .44 .61.61.52 B .33 .45.56 .56 .53.53 .47.47 .43.32.46.56 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E D .64.53.35 .68 .76 .74.75 .58 peach .45 .53 .7 .8 .82.65.36.45 .85.87.82.74 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81 .69.42 .36 .87 .91.89.86 .47.48.28 .33.57.69 .53.64 .5 .83.92.88 .87 .38.37.48.44 gray .62.75 .57 .7 .82.86 .53.35.56.56 .47 .56.68 .88 pink .74.82 .53 .54 .72.74 .67 .77.59 .35 .48.51.63 .9 .84 .48 .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 .92.89.53 .82.92 .9 .75.69 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89.81 purple blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .96.91 .6 .84 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B .97.92.63 C = CIE Standard Illuminant C .97.94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .97 u’ .15 .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 David L. Post, 1988 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 19. Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary What is A Color Thesaurus? Definition A thesaurus is a compilation of synonyms (and antonyms) with etymological and semantical information as well as examples to disambiguate the synonyms There is a number of dictionaries of color names In 1955 Kelly and Judd produced an early color thesaurus In 2007 Nathan Moroney created an online thesaurus of color names based on an earlier online color naming experiment Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 20. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 21. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary The ISCC–NBS Method of Designating Colors and A Dictionary of Color Names Kenneth L. Kelly & Deane B. Judd, 1955 Names from over a dozen compilations in use in the USA; uniformity in Munsell space 1933 recommendations by I.H. Godlove + scheme of hue modifiers + heuristics Munsell Value black dark gray medium gray light gray white –ish black dark –ish gray –ish gray light –ish gray –ish white pale dark blackish grayish or very pale grayish light grayish very dark dark moderate light very light Munsell Chroma very deep deep strong brilliant vivid Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 22. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Coloroid Color Names Antal Nemcsics, 1993 Historical pigment names; process and structure not documented; 70’000 observers Structure hierarchy: 7 domains, 76 primary colors Several errors and inconsistencies broken warm white A = 20 cement grey Roman ochre Pompeian yellow 100 90 80 70 60 50 Indian orange V 40 orange ochre 30 Arsigont 20 brown beige 10 Anatolian brown 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 23. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 24. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Color Names for Avionics David L. Post and collaborators, 1985–1989 Start with 12-name vocabulary (basic terms + peach) Psychophysics; present 210 stimuli (uniform in UCS) on various backgrounds under various illuminants Boundaries enclose areas within which the modal color-name response corresponds with the color name Probability of obtaining the modal color-name response v’ white yellow 1. 1. 1. .98 .92 .65 .53 .73 87 .91.87 orange .55 green1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .62 .71.53 .75.88 .59.73 .74.57 .96.98 .98.96 .97 .91 .94 .33 .45.51 .93 .84 .66 .5 .46.44 A .58.54 .63.59 .52 .5 .31.49.63 .71 .71 .68 .78.81 .63 .7 .44 .47.52 .41.35.56 .47.33.39.61 red .57.56 .44 .61.61.52 B .33 .45.56 .56 .53.53 .47.47 .43.32.46.56 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E D .64.53.35 .68 .76 .74.75 .58 peach .45 .53 .7 .8 .82.65.36.45 .85.87.82.74 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81.87 .69.42 .36 .91.89.86 .47.48.28 .33.57.69.83 .53.64 .5 .92.88 .87 .38.37.48.44 gray .62.75 .57 .7 .82.86 .53.35.56.56 .47 .56.68 .88 pink .74.82 .53 .54.67 .72.74 .77.59 .48 .35 .9 .84 .48 .51.63 .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 .92.89.53 .82.92 .9 .75.69 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89.81 purple blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .96.91 .6 .84 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B .97.92.63 C = CIE Standard Illuminant C .97.94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .97 u’ .15 .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 David L. Post, 1988 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 25. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Influence of Culture on Color Naming Heinrich Zollinger, ca. 1975 What is the link between the neurobiology of color vision and color naming (embodyment)? Subjects native speakers in: chemistry students in German, French, English, Hebrew, Japanese art students in German, Hebrew Japanese children analphabets in Kekchi, Misquito Tasks: 1 list minimally necessary color names 2 list supplementary color names 3 total must be 12 4 name 117 Munsell chips Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 26. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Frequency of Occurrence Chemistry students Häufigkeit ETH-Zürich grün 60% blau violett gelb 40% rotorange rot 20% rosa braun purpur 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP 80% TKD- 60% 40% 20% 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 27. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Robotic Agent Naming Colors Johan Lammens, 1994 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 28. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 29. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Number of Color Categories Berlin & Kay: 11 basic terms white, black, red green yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, purple, grey ISCC–NBS: 267 categories Nemcsics: 76 primary colors Boynton & Olson: 15 nonbasic terms are frequently used tan, peach, olive, lavender, violet, lime, salmon, indigo, cyan, cream, magenta, turquoise, chartreuse, rust, maroon 11 + 15 = 26 2 uninformed subjects were presented twice the 424 OSA patches and asked how many colors they saw one subject estimated 30, the other 80 11 is too low a number to categorize colors Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 30. Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Limitations of These Solutions Only ISCC–NBS has a bona fide thesaurus 266 color categories with annotated synonyms Even with 7,500 color names, the dictionary is very limited a snapshot in time (1955) mostly government and industry related only in English It is not clear how many categories there are These limitations make it less useful Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 31. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 32. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Research Constraints We are interested in the names of color patches Not in free lists of color names Not in color object names Not in the evolution of color names carta zucchero 102, 140, 204; #668ccc; very rare. azzurro, indaco azzurro scuro, ciano. ant. maroone chiaro, ocra. celeste orange and/or 54, 176, 239; #36b0ef; rare. green yellow white pink and red blue brown and/or ciano, azzurro black purple and/or yellow green cyan, carta zucchero. gray ant. arancio, arancione. I II III IV V VI VII Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 33. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Goal 1 Large dictionary extensive, through crowd-sourcing evolves through time not limited to one language 2 Number of synonym categories 12 decided though crowd-sourcing not 266 like in ISCC–NBS thesaurus . . . or 26, or 30, or 80. . . 3 Algorithm for determining categories explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name construct separate categorizations for each explore boundary-finding algorithms Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 34. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Color Naming Experiment Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 35. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 36. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far The Color Thesaurus in English The ephemerality is built in! http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Nathan_Moroney/ color-thesaurus.html Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 37. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Color Zeitgeist Can easily derive secondary tools Tag cloud visualization of the color name queries Example Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 38. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Italian Color Thesaurus Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 39. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Qualifying the Corpus Problems: we observed about 5% disruptive participants in the experiment variability of rarely used names Solution is to collect explicit feedback on the global statistics from each participant More efficient than recruiting domain specialists Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 40. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Expanding the Corpus Problem: Insufficient data in non-English corpora Solutions: 1 brute force: adding a hundred names require tens of thousands of participants because of redundancy (long tail distribution) this is very inefficient when a name is missing, the cost for completing the corpus is high 2 targeted harvesting: get participants to find sparse regions. . . 3 . . . and submit relevant data Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 41. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Contributed Name Distribution 2000 green blue light blue lavender grass green tan khaki dark brown cornflower cream purple gray yellow green dark purple red orange pink navy blue navy moss green dark red red maroon peach burnt orange chocolate 1600 black lime green lime dark blue burgundy salmon spring green pea green crimson coral brown dark green light purple baby blue apple green magenta lilac rose kelly green eggplant violet olive gold dark pink goldenrod sky blue olive green plum rust medium blue 1200 orange yellow cyan periwinkle brick red beige blue green fluorescent green ocean blue leaf green teal mint green mustard sage bright purple light green bright green white hunter green grape fuchsia mauve indigo pale green light yellow 800 turquoise aqua sea green hot pink bright blue chartreuse blue gray cobalt emerald jade royal blue neon green light brown midnight blue ochre forest seafoam aquamarine light pink army green brick 400 0 gre r m y t l m l p s g p r b b k b k fl b c c e l e b en ed agen ellow urquo ight b aroo ilac eriwi ea gr rass g each ose eige right haki urnt elly g uores lue g ornflo hocol ggpla eaf gr mera rick ta ise lue n nkl een re blu ora ree ce ray we ate nt ee ld e en e nge n nt g r n ree n Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 42. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Expanding the Corpus Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 43. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 44. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Limitations of the First Experiments We have solved: how can we screen out bogus data? how do we get scalability? how can we make the experiments more collaborative? Remaining problem: the categorization lacks fixed boundaries synonyms are formed ad hoc by searching for the color names with the smallest CIECAM02 color difference ∗ greater than 5∆E02,C Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 45. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Planned Extensions Algorithm for determining categories explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name construct separate categorizations for each explore boundary-finding algorithms Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 46. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far The Density of Color Names g blue green grey white yellow purple brown pink red orange j Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 47. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 48. Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Statistics 120’760 synonyms served from September 2007 through August 2008 Syndicated by Core Design 77 http://www.core77.com/blog/object_culture/online_color_thesaurus_7966.asp Aubrey Jaffer http://people.csail.mit.edu/jaffer/Color/Dictionaries MagCloud reference magazine, available from http://magcloud.com/browse/Issue/2344 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 49. Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary There are applications requiring a color thesaurus Current solutions are not adequate We have a promising early solution that scales well Outlook Research is required to tile the color space and build a true thesaurus Eventually, the tool should be so robust we can run it for a language none of us speaks Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 50. Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Acknowledgments We are indebted to Prof. Lucia R. Ronchi of the Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi in Florence for many fruitful discussions and for compiling the book on Color and Language Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • 51. Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Questions and Discussion mailto:giordano.beretta@hp.com http://www.hp.com/blogs/mostly_color http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Giordano_Beretta/ Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color