The Katipunan is Born
• Andres Bonifaciowas also a member of La Liga
Filipina, although he soon lost hope in gaining
reforms though peaceful means. This feeling
was especially heightened when Jose Rizal was
exiled to Dapitan. Bonifacio became convinced
that the only way the Philippines could gain
independence was through a revolution.
• Bonifacio then founded the “Katastaasang
Kagalanggalangang Katipuanan ng mga Anak ng
Bayan” (KKK) on July 7, 1892 in a house on
Azcarraga street (now Claro M. Recto), in Tondo
The Katipunan had colorful beginnings. As a
symbol of the member’s loyalty, they performed
the solemn rite of sanduguan (blood
compact), wherein each one signed his name
with his own blood..
• The members agreed to recruit more people
using the “triangle system” of enlistment.
Each original member would recruit tow new
members who were not related to each other.
Each new member would do the same
thing, and so on down the line. Members
were also asked to contribute one Real (about
25 centavos) each month in order to raise
funds for the association.
▪ The political goal was to completely separate the
Philippines from Spain after declaring the country’s
▪ The moral goal was to teach the Filipinos good
manners, cleanliness, hygiene, fine morals, and how to
guard themselves against religious fanaticism..
▪ The civic goal was to encourage Filipinos to help
themselves and to defend the poor oppressed.
The “Kataastaasang Sanggunian” (supreme council) was
the highest governing body of the Katipunan. It was headed
by a supremo, or president. Each province had a
“Sangguaniang Bayan” (Provincial Council) and each town
had a “Sangguniang Balangay” (Popular Council).
Jose Rizal and the Katipunan
• Jose Rizal never became involved in the organization
and activities of the Katipunan; but the Katipuneros
still looked up to him as a leader. In fact, Rizal’s name
was used as a password among the society’s highestranking members, who were called bayani.
Andres Bonifacio had already known Rizal during his La
Liga Filipina days, although Rizal did not know
Bonifacio personally Nevertheless, Bonifacio so
respected Rizal’s intelligence and talent that in June
1896, he sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to seek
Rizal’s advice on the planned revolution.
• Rizal told Valenzuela that the timing was not
right for a revolution. The people were not yet
ready and they did not have enough weapons.
He suggested that the Katipunan obtain the
support of wealthy and influential Filipinos
first, in order to gain financial assistance. He
also recommended Antonio Luna as
commander of its armed forces, since Luna
had much knowledge and expertise in military
• Valenzuela returned to Manila on June 26 and
relayed Rizal’s advice to Bonifacio, who admitted
that it would indeed be fatal for the Filipinos to
fight without enough weapons. However, there
was no stopping the Revolution. Bonifacio
ordered his men to prepare for battle. He
directed them to store enough food and other
supplies. Battle plans were made with the help of
Emilio Jacinto. It was suggested that the
revolutionary headquarters be located near the
seas or mountains to provide for an easy
retreat, if necessary.
The Katipunan is Discovered
• Rumors about a secret revolutionary society
had long been in circulation, although no solid
evidence could be found to support them. The
big break as far as the Spanish authorities was
concerned, came on August 19, 1896 when a
KKK member, Teodoro Patiño told his sister
Honoria about the existence of the Katipunan.
Patiño was a worker in the printing press of
Diario de Manila. Honoria was then living with
nuns in a Mandaluyong orphanage.
• The information upset Honoria so much that she told
the orphanage’s Mother Superior, Sor Teresa de
Jesus, what her brother had revealed. Sor Teresa
suggested they seek the advice of Father Mariano
Gil, the parish priest of Tondo.
After hearing Patiño’s revelations, Father Mariano Gilaccompanied by several Guardias Civiles immediately
searched the premises of Diario de Manila and found
evidence of the Katipunan’s existence. The governor
general was quickly informed. The printing press was
padlocked and hundreds of suspected KKK members
Cry of Pugadlawin
• News about the discovery of the Katipunan spread to Manila and
nearby suburbs, and Andres Bonifacio immediately called for a
general meeting. Various wings of the Katipunan gathered at the
house of Juan Ramos in Pugadlawin on August 23, 1896. Ramos was
the son of Melchora Aquino, also known as “Tandang Sora” and was
later acknowledged as the Mother of the Katipunan."
Bonifacio asked his men whether they were willing to fight to the
bitter end. Everyone shouted their approval, except for Teodoro
Plata, who though that it was too soon for a revolution. Heartened
by his men’s response, Bonifacio then asked them to tear their
cedulas (residence certificates) to pieces, as a sign of their defiance
and determination to rise against the Spaniards. The men
immediately tore up their cedulas, shouting, Mabuhay ang Pilipinas
(long live the Philippines) or the Cry of Pugadlawin.
Katipunan in Cavite
• Cavite soon became the center of the Revolution, and the
Katipuneros there divided themselves into the Magdalo and
Magdiwang factions. Baldomero Aguinaldo, brother of Emilio
Aguinaldo, headed the Magdalo group, which was stationed in
Kawit. General Mariano Alvarez led the Magdiwang group, which
was stationed in Noveleta.
The two groups fought in separate battles. Emilio Aguinaldo overran
Kawit on August 31, 1896, while Alvarez attacked Noveleta. In
Bacoor, Aguinaldo tried to intercept Spanish reinforcements coming
from Manila; but he was repulsed and forced to retreat to nearby
Imus. Here, on the morning of September 5, he defeated the
Spanish troops under the command of General Aguirre. A hundred
Spaniards were killed and 60 weapons were confiscated. Aguinaldo
was hailed as a hero. The adoring Caviteños referred to him as
“General Miong” and no longer “Kapitan Miong.”
• General Aguinaldo’s numerous victories in the
battlefield made him the acknowledged revolutionary
leader in Cavite. He issued a proclamation on October
31, 1896 enjoining the people to take courage and
continue fighting for Philippine independence.
Owing to the defeat of the Spaniards in Cavite, Camilo
de Polavieja replaced Ramon Blanco as governor
general on December 13, 1896. Polavieja was more
successful than his predecessor and slowly regained
one-third of the province.
The Revolution Continues
• Bonifacio’s death did not deter the Filipinos from fighting for their
freedom. The Spanish government, for its part, doubled its efforts
in trying to control Cavite, which was considered the seat of the
Revolution. When Governor General Primo de Rivera replaced
Camilo Polavieja on April 27, 1897, he immediately marched to
Naic, Cavite to persuade the Filipinos to surrender. The
rebels, however, stood their ground.
Aguinaldo realized that Cavite was no longer safe for his men. They
moved to Batangas, where they temporarily set up camp in the
town of Talisay. However, Spanish soldiers were able to pursue
them there. Thus, they retreated to Morong on June 10, 1897 and
proceeded to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan.
The Biak-na Bato Republic
• Emilio Aguinaldo established his headquarters in Biak-naBato in Bulacan province. The news immediately spread
throughout the country, and the revolutionaries were once
more in high spirits. General llanera, who was in Nueva
Ecija, declared his support for Aguinaldo. In July
1897, Aguinaldo established the Biak-na-Bato Republic and
issued a proclamation stating the following demands:
▪ Expulsion of the friars and the return of the friar lands to
▪ Representation of the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes
▪ Freedom of the press and of religion
▪ Abolition of the government’s power to banish Filipinos
▪ Equality for all before the law.
• A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was
also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. It
was signed on November 1, 1897. The Biak-naBato Constitution provided for the establishment
of a Supreme council that would serve as the
highest governing body of the Republic. It also
outlined certain basic human rights, such as
freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and
the right to education. Emilio Aguinaldo and
Mariano Trias were elected Supreme Council
president and vice president, respectively.
• Pedro Paterno, a Spaniard born in the Philippines
volunteered to act as negotiator between
Aguinaldo and Gov. Primo de Rivera in order to
end the clashes. Paterno’s effort paid off when
on, December 15, 1897, the Pact he sign the Pact
as the representative of the revolutionaries, and
de Rivera as the representative of the Spanish
government. The Leaders are: Emilio AguinaldoPresident, Mariano Trias-Vice President, Antonio
Montenegro-Secretary, Baldomero AguinaldoTreasurer, and Emilio Riego de Dios.
• On December 23, 1897, Generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo
Monet of the Spanish army arrived in Biak-na-Bato and became
hostages of the rebels. A ceasefire was declared by both camps and
an agreement between Aguinaldo and the Spanish forces was made
-that the Spanish government will grant self-rule to the Philippines
in 3 years if Aguinaldo went to exile and surrender his arms. In
exchange, Aguinaldo will receive P800,000 (Mexican Pesos) as
remuneration to the revolutionaries and an amnesty. After
receiving a partial payment of P400,000, Aguinaldo left for Hong
Kong on December 27, 1897. Some Filipino generals, however, did
not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. They refused to
surrender their arms. Nevertheless, the Te Deum was still sung on
January 23, 1898.
• The Filipino’s and the Spaniards did not trust
each other. As a result, periodic clashes
between the two groups still took place even
after Aguinaldo’s departure from the country.
The Spanish did not pay the entire agreed