Mitosis [compatibility mode]


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Mitosis [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. CELL CYCLE
  2. 2. The Cell Cycle• Cells must divide to maintain maximum efficiency.• Mitosis is the process in which somatic (body) cells divide to form a new cell.• Mitosis consists of four phases.• Interphase is the period in between each mitotic cell division.
  3. 3. Reproduction• Asexual Reproduction: A single cell or group of cells each duplicates its genetic material and then splits into two new genetically identical cells. – The offspring are genetically identical• Sexual Reproduction: Genetic material from each of two parents combines, producing offspring that differ genetically from either parent. – Involves the union of sex cells (egg and sperm)
  4. 4. Parent cellDNA replicates Cell division = One cell makes two cells Two daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and to parent cell = clones
  5. 5. The same DNA can appear in two formsChromatin = uncondensed DNA Chromosome = condensed DNA
  6. 6. 1 Chromosome1 chromatid per chromosome1 DNA double helix DNA replication1 Chromosome2 chromatids per chromosome2 DNA double helices
  7. 7. Cell division in eukaryotic cells: Cytokinesis = division of the cytoplasm
  8. 8. Interphase• Interphase is made of 3 stages.• The Gap 1 and 2 or G1 and G2 phase is when cells grow and make RNA, proteins, and other macromolecules.• The S or Synthesis phase is when the cell is making DNA.
  9. 9. DNA Replication• During the S phase of the cell cycle, DNA replicates.• A short section of the DNA uncoils.• New nucleotides bond to the open sections of the DNA.• The “new” and “old” sections of DNA separate and now there are 2 DNA strands.
  10. 10. Interphase• ATP is synthesized.• Damaged parts are repaired.• Wastes are excreted.• Proteins are made.• Organelles are formed.• Chromosomes are copied.• Specialized tasks are performed .
  11. 11. Interphase nucleus DNA = Chromatin
  12. 12. InterphaseChromatinin nucleus
  13. 13. Mitosis• Mitosis consists of four phases• Prophase• Metaphase• Anaphase• Telophase
  14. 14. Prophase• Longest phase.• Chromatin coils.• Nucleus disappears.• Centrioles migrate.• Spindle forms.
  15. 15. Prophase Nuclear membrane disappears Nucleolus disappears Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Spindle fibers appear
  16. 16. ChromatinChromosomes
  17. 17. Metaphase• Chromatids attach to spindle fibers.• Chromatids migrate to equator of spindle.
  18. 18. Metaphase Chromosomes line up in center of cell
  19. 19. Centromere = holds chromatids together Chromatids (DNA double helix)Two chromatids per chromosome
  20. 20. Anaphase• Centromere splits.• Chromatids are separated.• Chromatids are now called chromosomes.
  21. 21. Anaphase =Sister chromatids separatefrom each other
  22. 22. Telophase• Cytoplasm divides.• Nucleus reappears.• Chromosomes uncoil.
  23. 23. Telophase Cytokinesis makes 2 new cells Chromosomes decondense into chromatin Nucleolus reappears Nuclear membrane reappears
  24. 24. Early TelophaseLate Telophase
  25. 25. Cytokinesis• In the process called cytokinesis, the cytoplasm divides and two identical daughter cells are formed.
  26. 26. Plant cellAnimal cell Cytokinesis wall growsmembranes between two pinches new cells togetherbetween two new cells
  27. 27. Interphase Prophase Prophase Telophase Metaphase AnaphaseTelophase Telophase Plant Cytokinesis = division of cytoplasm
  28. 28. Interphase Prophase Metaphase Animal cytokinesis = pinching of plasmaAnaphase membrane Late Telophase Early telophase
  29. 29. Plant orAnimal cell mitosis?Plant