Reusability and Reusable Design         Ben Clark - IT 8000
Reusability and Reusable DesignWhat is reusability? • The ability to use the same resource multiple times in   multiple wa...
Reusability and Reusable DesignRequirements for Reusability                       Can it be identified?                   ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignCan a resource be identified? • A resource can only be reused if people know it’s there. • ...
Reusability and Reusable Design5 Types of Metadata • Basic descriptive metadata (bibliographic metadata): title, author,  ...
Reusability and Reusable Design Metadata: ASCO University Item Bank     A 71-year-old patient has received treatment over ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignMetadata: HBO on Demand       All Movies                     All Movies HD         Action  ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignGenerating Metadata • Automated metadata generation – software that supports the   developm...
Reusability and Reusable DesignMay a resource be used? • Digital resources are increasingly subject to intellectual proper...
Reusability and Reusable DesignGranting Permissions • The Creative Commons has developed licenses that convey a small set ...
Reusability and Reusable Design                                       Creative Commons                                  ht...
Reusability and Reusable Design                                       Creative Commons                                  ht...
Reusability and Reusable Design
Reusability and Reusable DesignManaging Rights • Potential users must be able to see the restrictions and licenses, and   ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignWill a resource work? • Standards also exist to enhance the interoperability and cross-plat...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design • The goal of reusable design is to develop content that can be used in as ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Content • Content is at the heart of any learning resource. • Content can ...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Context • The context of a resource will determine how it will be used and...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Pedagogy • Resources should be created that do not require explicit pedago...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Structure • Resources should be structured into learning objects, or self-...
Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Presentation • Presentation is the overall look and feel of a learning res...
Reusability and Reusable DesignConclusion • Designing resources for reuse can be challenging, but if done correctly,   the...
Reusability and Reusable Design Information presented here is courtesy of      http://www.reusablelearning.org
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Reusability And Reusable Design

3,738 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,738
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
76
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Reusability And Reusable Design

  1. 1. Reusability and Reusable Design Ben Clark - IT 8000
  2. 2. Reusability and Reusable DesignWhat is reusability? • The ability to use the same resource multiple times in multiple ways and in multiple contexts. • It can involve adapting or adopting a resource. • Benefits include saving time and money for developers and providing a greater variety of resources for learners.
  3. 3. Reusability and Reusable DesignRequirements for Reusability Can it be identified? ReusableDoes it work for me? May it be used? Resource Will it work?
  4. 4. Reusability and Reusable DesignCan a resource be identified? • A resource can only be reused if people know it’s there. • The search and discovery method is the most common way people identify the resources they need. • The crucial element of making search and discovery successful is metadata. Developers should provide as much metadata as possible.
  5. 5. Reusability and Reusable Design5 Types of Metadata • Basic descriptive metadata (bibliographic metadata): title, author, subject, keywords, description, etc. • Contextual metadata: learning objectives, target audience, level of difficulty • Rights metadata: copyright information, terms of use, permissions contact information • Technical metadata: platform requirements, software requirements, format, and other structural information • Usage Information: guides and other documentation
  6. 6. Reusability and Reusable Design Metadata: ASCO University Item Bank A 71-year-old patient has received treatment over the last 2 years for bone only metastatic infiltrating ductal cancer, which is ER and PR positive. HER2 is negative. Her disease has previously progressed on anastrozole, and subsequently fulvestrant. She now has new rib lesions, and her CA 27-29 has risen from 89 to 110 over the past 3 months. Mild pain is controlled by ibuprofen. The patient does not want chemotherapy, and after discussion tamoxifen is started. Two weeks later, she calls over the weekend with increased pain in her back and ribs. Upon evaluation in the clinic the following morning, her pain continues, and the CA 27-29 rises to 141. Which of the following is the most appropriate course of action? A. Change to exemestane B. Start palliative chemotherapy C. Consult radiation oncology for administration of samarium D. Optimize pain control Metadata: MOCBR / BR / MP / JProduct where item “lives” Disease area Subcategory Physician Task Code
  7. 7. Reusability and Reusable DesignMetadata: HBO on Demand All Movies All Movies HD Action Comedy Drama Horror/Suspense Kids Romance
  8. 8. Reusability and Reusable DesignGenerating Metadata • Automated metadata generation – software that supports the development of a resource should be sophisticated enough to know and record basic descriptive and contextual metadata • Standards – several organizations have developed metadata standards that allow digital libraries to record and keep track of contextual and technical metadata  Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  Dublin Core Metadata Initiative  Library of Congress  Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting  Metadata Research Center (MRC) UNC-Chapel Hill
  9. 9. Reusability and Reusable DesignMay a resource be used? • Digital resources are increasingly subject to intellectual property rights, including patents, trade and service marks, and copyright. • Copyright is used to protect the interests of developers who may receive compensation from the sale of content. Copyright can also prevent intended uses. • Resource developers should do their best to grant appropriate permissions in advance of releasing their content to users.
  10. 10. Reusability and Reusable DesignGranting Permissions • The Creative Commons has developed licenses that convey a small set of standard terms and conditions. The licenses comes with legal forms, plain English forms, and forms for inclusion in a Web page or other resource. • These licenses can be used to grant a user the right to copy, modify, and accredit a resource. They can also restrict the licensed use of a resource to noncommercial purposes. • To increase the reusability of a resource, developers should disseminate their work under a license of this type.
  11. 11. Reusability and Reusable Design Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org
  12. 12. Reusability and Reusable Design Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org
  13. 13. Reusability and Reusable Design
  14. 14. Reusability and Reusable DesignManaging Rights • Potential users must be able to see the restrictions and licenses, and they must be supplied with the necessary information to request or purchase further rights. • This type of information can be embedded in standard metadata. • Potential users be able to identify the rights holder so they know where to ask for further permissions.
  15. 15. Reusability and Reusable DesignWill a resource work? • Standards also exist to enhance the interoperability and cross-platform compatibility of resources. • These standards can be formal industry standards or simple formatting standards that are widely available and accepted. Formal Industry Standards Formatting Standards IEEE Microsoft Word SCORM Microsoft PowerPoint IMS Global Learning Consortium PDF FlashTM
  16. 16. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design • The goal of reusable design is to develop content that can be used in as many ways and in as many contexts as possible without forfeiting its value and usefulness . • Five layers should be considered when developing a resource for reuse: 1) Content 2) Context 3) Pedagogy 4) Structure 5) Presentation
  17. 17. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Content • Content is at the heart of any learning resource. • Content can be presented in different ways, and it will determine the target audience. (How far reaching is the learning resource?) • Resources should be designed within the constraints imposed by its content.
  18. 18. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Context • The context of a resource will determine how it will be used and understood by a learner. • Do not assume that the learning context will be the same for all learners. • To increase reusability of a resource:  Remove cultural dependencies  Ensure that external references are available online  Follow Web accessibility guidelines  Clarify any assumptions about terminology and notation  Make the content available in multilingual versions
  19. 19. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Pedagogy • Resources should be created that do not require explicit pedagogical approaches. In other words, do not design a resource for a single setting or instructional strategy. • A learning resource is more valuable and more reusable if it is designed for as many pedagogical settings as possible.
  20. 20. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Structure • Resources should be structured into learning objects, or self-contained sections that address single learning objectives. • The more a learning object is linked to another, the less reusable it becomes. (Koohang, 2007) • Structuring the physical and conceptual units of a resource into independent sections will increase the likelihood of it being reused.
  21. 21. Reusability and Reusable DesignReusable Design: Presentation • Presentation is the overall look and feel of a learning resource. • Presentation includes the fonts, color scheme, graphics, layout, sound or video clips, and any other elements that are used to deliver the resource. • Presentation should always be completely detached from content. Someone should be able to reuse the same content just by changing “the skin.”
  22. 22. Reusability and Reusable DesignConclusion • Designing resources for reuse can be challenging, but if done correctly, the benefits far outweigh the time and effort needed to produce them. • Following the requirements for reuse has not become habit for most instructional designers. Once the benefits become more apparent, designing for reuse should become standard practice.
  23. 23. Reusability and Reusable Design Information presented here is courtesy of http://www.reusablelearning.org

×